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IrrljDPolngifnl nnii Jtnteral listori] 


|9ubltsl)rtt tiiittcr tljc JBiicctinn of ti)f Sotictw 




H. F. BULL, 4, Saint John Steeet. 


The Editor of the Wiltshire Magaziiie desires that it should 
be distinctly understood that neither he nor the Committee of the 
Wiltshire Arch(Bological and Natural History Society hold themselves 
in any way answerable for any statements or opinions expressed 
in the Magazine ; for all of which the Authors of the several 
papers and communications are alone responsible. 




Account of the Twenty-Seventh Annual Meeting, at Bradford-on-Avon 1 

The Ethnology of Wiltshire, as illustrated in the Place-Names : By J. 

PiCTON, Esq., F.S.A 16 

" The Eminent Ladies of Wiltshire History " : By the Kev. Canon J. E. 

Jackson, F.S.A 26 

Notes on Wiltshire Geology and Palseontology : By Chaeles Mooee, 

F.G.S 45 

Some Notes on Gainsborough and his connection with Bradford : By 

Feedeeick Shum, F.S.A 55 

Some Account of the Parish of Monkton Farleigh : By Sir Chaeles 

HoBHousE, Bai-t 66 

The Rising in the West, A.D. 1655 : By W. W. Kavenhill, Esq 106 

No. LIX. 

Some Early Features of Stockton Church, Wilts : By the Rev. J. Baeon, 

D.D., F.S.A., Rector of Upton Scudamore, Wilts 107 

On the Church of St. Peter, Manningford Bruce, Wiltshire : By the 

Rev. J. Baeon, D.D., F.S.A., Rector of Upton Scudamore, Wilts 122 

" Sculptured Stone at Codf ord St. Peter, and Heraldic Stone at War- 
minster: By the Rev. J. Baeon, D.D., r.S.A., Rector of Upton 
Scudamore, Wilts 138 

" Early Heraldry in Boyton Church, Wilts : Recovery of a Missing 
Link " : By the Rev. J. Baeon, D.D., F.S.A., Rector of Upton Scuda- 
more, Wilts 145 

On the Occurrence of some of the Rarer Species of Birds in the Neigh- 
bourhood of Salisbury (Continued) : By the Rev. Aethue P. Moeees, 
Vicar of Britford 154 

Some Account of the Parish of Monkton Farleigh (Continued) : By 
Sir Chaeles Hobhouse, Bart 185 


No. LX. 

" Letter from the Author of ' Nenia Britannica ' to Archdeacon Coxe, 
on the Original Design of Stonehenge and the Neighbouring Barrows": 
Coinnnmicatcd by H. J. P. SwAYNE, Esq 237 

Edingdon Monastery: By the Rev. Canon J. E. Jackson, F.S.A 241 

A Stroll through Bradford-on-Avon : By Canon W. H. Jones, M.A., 

P.S.A., Yicar 306 

Extracts from the Records of the Wiltshire Quarter Sessions : Communi- 
cated by R. W. Mereiman, Clerk of the Peace 322 

Description of a Barrow recently opened on Overton Hill : By C. Ponting, 
Esq 342 

The Opening of a Barrow on Overton Hill 345 

Extracts from the Register in Christian Malford Church 347 


Monkton Farleigh Priory, Fragment of the Priory, 73. Monkton Farleigh 
Priory, Plan of a Portion of the Site, 74. 

Interior of Stockton Church, Wilts, 107. Ground-plan of St. Peter's Church, 
Manningford Bruce, Wilts, 123. Ground-plan of St. Edmund's Church, 
Fritton, Suffolk, 125. Ground-plan of Church of St. Mellon, Rouen, 127. 
Ground-plan of Kilpeck Church, Herefordshire, 129. South doorway and 
chancel arch, Manningford Bnice Church, Wilts, 130. Sculptured Stone in 
Codford St. Peter Church, Wilts, 138. Sculptured Stone, Warminster Athense- 
um, Wilts, 140, 

Edingdon Church, Wilts (south side), 241. Edingdon Church, Wilts (west end), 
295. Facsimile of an entry by the Clerk of the Peace, 1579, 340. 

No. LVIII. DECEMBER, 1881. Vol. XX. 

f - - Til 



%llteologiriil ml JMurnl listnq 


puilii^elt vitittet tfte SBirectUm 


A.D. 1853. 



Price 5s. 6rf. — Members GratiSi 


Members who have not paid their Subscriptions to the Society y?7r 
the current year, are requested to remit the same forthwith to 
the Financial Secretary, Mr. William Nott, 1 5, High Street, 
Devizes, to whom also all communications as to the supply 
of Magazines should be addressed, and of whom most of the 
back Numbers may be had. 

The Numbers of this Magazine will not be delivered, as issued, 
to Members who are in arrear of their Annual Subscriptions, 
' and who on being applied to for payment of such arrears, have 
taken no notice of the application. 

All other communications to be addressed to the Honorary Secre- 
taries : the Rev. A. C. Smith, Yatesbxuy Rectory, Calne; 
and H. E. Medlicott, Esq., Sandfield, Potterne, Devizes. 

The Rev. A. 0. Smith will be much obliged tb observers of birds 
in all parts of the county, to forward to him notices o£ rare 
occurrences, early arrivals of migrants, or any remarkable facts 
connected with birds, which may come under their notice. 



IrrljttDlogircl anti Jtateral listaq 

No. LVIII. DECEMBER, 1881. Vol. XX. 


Account op the Twenty-Seventh Annual Meeting, at Bbad- 

foed-on-avon 1 

The Ethnology of Wiltshiee, as illusteated in the Place- 

Names: By J. Picton, Esq., F.S.A 16 

** The Eminent Ladies of Wiltshire History " : By the Rev. 

Canon J. E. Jackson, F.S.A 26 

Notes on Wiltshibe Geology and Paleontology : By Charles 

Moore,F.G.S 45 

Some Notes on Gainsboeough and his connection with Bead- 

FOED: By Frederick Shum, F.S.A 55 

Some Account of the Parish of Monkton Faeleigh : By Sir 

Charles Hobhouse, Bart 66 

The Rising in the West, A.D. 1655 .- By W. W. Ravenhill, Esq. 106 


Monkton Farleigh Priory, Fragment of the Priory ,., 73 
Monkton Farleigh Prioiy, Plan of a Portion of the Site 74 

H. F. Bull, 4, Saint John Steeet. 






2IEiltsf)ire ^rcfjaeolosical ^ j^atural f^tstorg Societg, 

Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday, August 9tk, lOtk, and lltk, 



SiE Charles Hobhouse, Bart, 

^j^HE Annual Meeting* of the Society was this year held at 
^iMfl Bradford-on-Avon, an interval of twenty-four years having 
elapsed since its last visit to that town. The meeting was eminently 
successful, and the welcome and hospitality shown by the inhabitants 
of Bradford and its neighbourhood left nothing in that respect to 
be desii-ed. 

The proceedings were opened at the Town Hall, at twelve o'clock, 
by the Secretary, Rev. A. C. Smith, who regretted to say that 
the President of the Society was not able to be with them as he 
had intended, owing to circumstances which had not been foreseen 
when the time for holding the meeting was fixed. The Irish Land 
Bill — they were aware — was to be considered by the House of 
Commons on its return from the Upper House, that very afternoon ; 
and, owing to the very active part which he had taken in the 
discussion of that measure, it was impossible for Lord Edmond 
Fitzmaurice to be absent from his place : he was therefore re- 
luctantly compelled to forego the pleasure of presiding over the 
Society at Bradford. Mr. Smith read a letter from Lord Edmond 

' In preparing the following account of the Bradford Meeting the Editor 
desires to acknowledge the assistance he has derived from the columns of the 
Devizes and Wiltshire Gazette, The Troiobridge Chronicle, and the Wiltshire 
Times and Trowbridge Advertiser. 
VOL. XX. — NO. LVIII. / B 

2 The Twenty -Seventh Annual Meeting. 

explaining these circumstances, and added that though disappointed 
at the absence of the President of the Society, they had been happy 
in finding an excellent substitute as President of the Meeting in 
Sir Charles Hobhouse. No sooner was the dilemma in which the 
Society found itself explained to Sir Charles, when he at once — 
though at very short notice indeed — most kindly acceded to their 
request, and consented to occupy the chair and deliver an address : 
and consequently they were all very deeply indebted to him. 

Sib. Charles Hobhouse then took the chair, and at once called 
upon the Secretary to read the Report for the past year. 


"The Committee of the Wiltshire Archseological and Natural 
History Society, in presenting a brief report of last year's pro- 
ceedings, desires again to congratulate the Members on the continued 
prosperity of the Society, and on the general interest evinced 
throughout the county in its work. 

" The Committee at the same time regrets to add that the past 
twelvemonth has been a year of heavy loss in old and valued Members 
of the Society. Of original Members we have to deplore the deaths 
of Mr. John Noyes, of Chippenham, who was a most constant at- 
tendant at our annual gatherings, and always took a lively interest 
in the proceedings ; of Mr. John Spencer, of Buckhill, who was 
also an active supporter, and a contributor to the pages of the 
Magazine; of Mr. Stephen Moulton, the owner of the beautiful 
Kingston House, in this town; and very recently, of Mr. George 
Brown, of Abury, who has from the first shown a warm interest 
in the work of the Society, and in accordance with a promise to 
that efi'ect which he made to the Dean of Hereford in 1849, has 
had a watchful eye for the preservation of the remaining stones in 
the great circle at Abury.^ Of other old, though not original 
Members, whose loss within the past twelvemonths we regret, special 
mention should be made of Mr. Brackstone, of Bath, Mr. Joseph 
Parry, of AUington, Mr. Charles Phipps, of Chalcot, and the Rev. 

^ See Proceedings of the Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain, Salis- 
bury, 1849. 

Report. 3 

Henry Ward, all of wliom joined the Society above twenty years 
ago ; and there are other honoured names of some who have more 
recently been enrolled among our Subscribers. New Members have, 
however, been elected to supply the place of those we have lost, so 
that the number on our books is very nearly the same as last year, 
namely 387. 

" As regards the financial position of the Society, our balance in 
hand is slightly increased during the last year, from £133 14^. ^d, 
at its commencement to £176 hs. 4rf. at its close, as will be seen 
by the balance-sheet just published, and placed in the hands of the 
members in the course of the last few days. 

" Of the Magazine, two numbers have been published during the 
past year, of whose merits the Committee leaves the Society to judge. 
The last number, just now issued, completes the nineteenth volume. 

" The Museum and Library have been slightly increased by the 
contributions of various donors ; the museum more especially con- 
tinues to be enriched by further additions of Roman-British pottery, 
and metal vases and implements dug out at Westbury, and secured 
to the Society by the exertions of the obliging manager, Mr. 

" The attention of the Committee has been especially directed 
during the past year to the state of Stonehenge ; and in conjunction 
with the Secretary of the British Archseological Association a repre- 
sentation has been made to the Society of Antiquaries and the 
Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain, calling their im- 
mediate attention to the insecure condition of certain stones in the 
outer circle, and their imminent danger of falling, in the opinion of 
several of the officers of this Society, unless steps are speedily taken 
to re-adjust them. At the same time the question of re-erecting 
the great trilithon which fell in 1797, which has been so often ad- 
vocated by archaeologists, was again pressed upon the consideration 
of the parent Societies. The result has been that the Society of 
Antiquaries appointed a Committee, consisting of H. S. Milman, 
Esq. (Director of that Society), G. T. Clark, Esq., J. T. Mickle- 
thwaite, Esq., Sir John Lubbock, Bart., and the Rev. W. C. Lukis, 
who visited Stonehenge during last month, and carefully examined 

B 2 

4 The Twenty -Seventh Annual Meeting. 

the stones to which their attention had been directed ; and though 
their report has not yet been presented to the Society, and therefore 
cannot now be naade public, the fact has been communicated to the 
Wiltshire Archaeological Society that the whole question is to be 
submitted to a general meeting of the Society of Antiquaries in 
November next, with a view to such action as may then be deter- 
mined on. Your Committee earnestly hope that immediate steps 
will then be taken both to secure such stones as are now in danger 
of falling, and to raise the great trilithon which fell almost within 
the memoiy of living man, and whose original position can be 
exactly determined. Should such a course be pronounced advisable, 
it will then remain to approach the owner of Stonehenge, with the 
view of obtaining his sanction to carry out the work recommended 
in such a manner as to meet his wishes, and to obtain such help and 
the loan of such appliances from the dockyards or elsewhere as may 
be deemed most advisable. 

" In conclusion, the Committee repeats the exhortation it has 
frequently addressed to its members scattered over the length and 
breadth of the county, and earnestly invites the co-operation of all 
who take any interest in the Antiquities or the Natural History of 
the County of Wilts, as by such co-operation alone can its best 
interests be promoted.^' 

The Rev. W. C. Lukis moved the adoption of the report, and 
said he did so with great pleasure, because two statements which it 
contained were very satisfactory, viz. , that the financial position o£ 
the society remained good, and that the Members did not diminish. 
In some further remarks, Mr. Lukis alluded to the leaning stones 
at Stonehenge and the fallen trilithon mentioned in the report. 
The attention of the Committee of the Society of Antiquaries, of 
which he was a member, had been directed to two of the leaning 
stones of the outer circle, but they did not think they were 
sufficiently out of the pei'pendicular to make their position insecure. 
The trilithon had fallen, and could not fall further, and might there- 
fore be considered in a secure position, but the point to which the 
attention of the Committee was directed was the leaning stone, 
which was a remarkable feature in that monument. It was leaning 

The Inaugural Address. 5 

at a considerable angle, 60 degrees he thought, and was evidently 
moving. If some effectual measure was not adopted to make it 
secure, it would fall and damage the building very much. 

Me. T. B. Satjnders said he had great pleasure in seconding 
the adoption of the report. He gathered from it that it was in- 
tended to do something at Stonehenge : but he ventured to express 
a hope that a complete restoration to its original condition was not 
in contemplation. 

The report having been adopted, the President proposed the re- 
election of the officers of the Society, but said he was sorry to have 
to announce that amongst them they should not in future be able 
to reckon Mr. Charles Talbot as one of their General Secretaries ; 
for that gentleman had felt compelled from ill-health to resign the 
office he had so efficiently held. He need scarcely remind them of 
the great services which Mr. Talbot had rendered to the Society, 
more especially on the subject of architecture. His place would be 
very difficult to fill ; but he had great satisfaction in proposing as 
his successor Mr. Henry Medlicott, a name well known and honoured 
in the county. 

This motion having been unanimously agreed to, the President 
proceeded to deliver 


He remarked that though, owing to Lord Edmond's absence, 
which they very much regretted, he had consented to make an 
address, he hoped it would not be said of him that " fools rushed in 
where angels feared to tread/^ or rather, where angels were not able 
to tread. Yet he was bound to say he had had extreme difficulty 
in accepting the responsible position of Chairman in Lord Edmond^s 
place. In the first place it was necessary for the Chairman to give 
an inaugural address. Well, to his innocent and unsophisticated, 
and perhaps ignorant mind, an inaugural address seemed a very 
solemn thing, and he must say, when, on the previous morning he 
sat down to the work he hardly knew where to begin, though he 
need hardly say he had no difficulty as to where he ought to end, for 
that came very soon indeed. However he had no doubt that having 

6 The Twenty-Seventh Annual Meeting. 

accepted a post which he admitted could have been so much more 
worthily filled, and having done so with very short notice, they 
would be kind enough to extend to him that indulgence which he 
believed was usually extended on such occasions. Another special 
reason for asking their indulgence was because, as a matter of fact, 
he was almost an absolute tyro in archseology. He had spent the 
greater part of his life in India, and had come home only a few 
years ago, but had he not come into that neighbournood and come 
across such men as Canon Jones, Mr. Powell, formerly a Curate of 
Monkton Farleigh, Canon Jackson and others, he should never 
have had the hardihood to stand before them at that time. Having 
had many agreeable communications with those gentlemen the result 
was that he took it into his head that he would endeavour to find 
out something at all events of the archaeology of his own particular 
parish and neighbourhood. The first thing, Sir Charles went on, 
after I have been poring over the parish registers or some old 
terriers of the days of Elizabeth, or the Monasticon or what not, I 
ask myself, and I am asked by others, Cui bono, what is the good 
of it all? Well, I suppose I need not argue that question before 
an assembly such as this, but still it seems to me that if the enemies 
of the study of archaeology will consider a little, they will find out 
that, unconsciously, they themselves live a great part of their ex- 
istence in the midst of that very study which they affect to despise. 
Our life is obviously passed in three difierent worlds, as it were — 
the past, the present, and the future, and every hour that we spend 
in so much of the past as is not personal, especially in the more 
distant past, in history, biography, and the like, is, in fact, an hour 
spent in the study of archaeology. How necessary also this study 
is to the daily wants of life we do not perhaps sufficiently consider. 
I will not suppose that any of us desire to build a house, because, as 
the saying is, " Fools build houses that wise men may live in them," 
but at least we all desire to have houses to live in. Of course if we 
live in a town we take the house that is most commodious, the least 
expensive, the best situated for our purposes, and have done with it. 
But if we live in the suburbs of a town or in the country, and 
have any choice of our own, we don^t choose the modem style of 

The Inaugural Address. 7 

house to dwell in. Let anyone go to Norwood, or Anerley, or 
Wimbledon, or Richmond, and inspect the modern style of house 
there and see what he will find. A square door in the centre, two 
square windows on either side of the door, and three square windows 
above, and, by way of ornamentation, a sort of curvature of different 
colored bricks, giving the outside of the house very much the ap- 
pearance of a man's face, the nose quite flat and spectacles on the 
eyes. If you have any choice you don't elect a house of this kind ; 
you rather go to the study of archaeology for your model, and whilst 
you will have all the appliances of modern warmth and comfort in- 
side, you will go, say, to the days of the Tudors, or the earlier 
Hanoverians, for your outside' building and architecture. So it is 
not to modern times, but to the times of comparative antiquity, that 
you resort for your domestic architecture, and it is the same in 
the matter of Church architecture, and it is, or ought to be, 
the same in the matter of public buildings. Put any average parish 
Church side by side with any average meeting-house of fifty years 
ago, and you see at once why, in the better development of public 
taste, there is (I do not mean to speak profanely) at least one worship 
in common between the meeting-house of to-day and the Church of 
England — the worship, namely, of archaeology. Or compare some 
of our public buildings with similar buildings, the produce, it may 
be, of very remote antiquity, and see if we have not even yet very 
much to learn from the Ancients. Some years ago, when I was 
travelling in the South o£ India and in Ceylon, I was very much 
struck with the enormous stone tanks used for the storage of large 
bodies of water. In one place in particular I found that the sides 
of these tanks were made up o£ huge blocks of stone, laid one on 
the top o£ the other, without cement and without clamps. No 
repairs, I was informed, were ever needed. Yet these tanks had 
received into their bosoms for centuries floods of water such as we 
do not dream of in England, and had retained the rain for the 
necessities of large populations, dependent upon them for health 
and cleanliness and food — their very life in short. We constantly 
hear — I read only the other day, of the disastrous failure of modern 
reservoirs, and of the vast destruction of life and property which 

8 TAe Twenty-Seventh Annual Meeting, 

accompanies such failure. Why is it that we do not in such con- 
structions profit more thoroughly by the lessons of antiquity ? And 
who that has visited the Pont du Gard would not take that as his 
ideal of what a conduit should be ? Again, in India I visited the 
Mausoleum of the Taj Mahal at Agra, the Kutb Column and the 
Mosque at Delhi, some of the rock-cut temples of Western India, 
and the site of the great Akbar's Camp at Futtehpore-Sikri. The 
impressions made by these marvellous buildings are as fresh now as 
if I saw them before me. You approach the Taj through a garden 
with groves of trees on either side, and marble fountains running 
down its centre, and suddenly there break upon you the marble 
terraces, the white marble dome inlaid with precious stones, and set 
as it were in its turrets of red sandstone. It is by the way a debated 
point whether the design and the details of this mausoleum are of 
European or of native manufacture. There are in the Christian 
graveyard at Agra the tombstones of many Italians who lived and 
died at Akbar's court, but my impression is that the whole is the 
work of native talent, a talent which has still numbers of living 
representatives. Then see what could be more emblematic of royalty 
than Akbar's Camp at Futtehpore-Sikri ? Windsor Castle indeed is 
a noble building, royally and proudly conspicuous, but it stands alone, 
whereas at Akbar's Camp there were the whole paraphernalia of a 
king's residence ; the palace in which he himself dwelt, the hall in 
which he gave public audience, the place of private business, the 
Mosque in which he prayed, the minor palaces of his greater 
ministers, his gardens, his baths and his promenades. All these, 
thanks to a wonderful climate, are almost in as good preservation 
now as when Akbar dwelt in them, and although I do not say that 
we need in our day to imitate them, yet at least they give us 
lessons, not only in the science of architecture, but in that of good 
government also. Consider again the subject of some of the rock- 
cut temples of Western India — take that of Karli in the neighbour- 
hood of Bombay. The rocks there run north and south, and the 
temple, or crypt as you may call it, cut out of the solid rock, runs 
east and west, the entrance being at the west and the shrine at the 
east end. The interior is of great length and height, and is made 

The Inaugural Address. 9 

up of a nave and two aisles. The sole light is by an aperture con- 
cealed from the spectator without, and high up at the west end. It 
is not of any great size, but it is so constructed as, on the day I 
visited it at least, to light up the whole interior without the aid of 
any artificial means. This temple is supposed to have been in ex- 
istence many years before the Christian era, and though we do not 
in these peaceful times in quiet England need a crypt for our temple, 
nor one inaccessible and outwardly invisible light for such crypt, 
yet these are examples, if and when they are needed, and the ex- 
istence of crypts in our own churches shows that such needs there 
have been. I have ventured to dwell on these far distant structures 
because, after all, the consideration of them does, I think, appertain 
properly to my subject, and because, if you will allow me to say so, 
I find it easier to myself to dwell on matters which have formed 
the subjects of personal travel and inspection, rather than on such 
as are subjects of mere speculation to me. But I turn to things 
that are probably more familiar to us all, and I will dwell for a 
moment upon that very familiar thing, our roadways. They are 
serious matters to some of us, and especially to those of us who dwell 
in this immediate neighbourhood. We are blessed with a traflac in 
freestone which is profitable to a few outsiders, which gives an ex- 
cellent finish say to law courts some hundred miles away from us, 
but which, so far from being of any benefit to us, is the cause at 
once of a very heavy taxation, of very bad roads, and of much 
rough and expensive journeying. In the parish of Monkton 
Farleigh, in the very direction in which this traffic is principally 
carried on, there are still to be seen the traces of a Roman 
road. This was laid down some sixteen hundred years ago, and 
this, in spite of wind and weather, plough and neglect, is still in 
some parts almost perfect. The materials are slabs of stone and 
concrete. Is there no lesson to be learnt from the use of such 
materials which have, under adverse circumstances, endured so long, 
when the modern system of Macadam has proved such a complete 
failure ? I pass on to a more speculative topic, and I will speak 
briefly of the archaeology, call it the history, of any one of our rural 
parishes ; and I think I can show how^ from its earliest traceable 

10 The Twenty-Seventh Annual Meeting. 

period, it is in miniature a history of the progress of the whole 
country. I have been ferretting out', with the aid of far more 
skilful workmen than I am myself, the history of my own parish, 
and I give it because it is the only such history I am acquainted 
with, and because I have no doubt it is in its way typical of other 
such histories. I find that we had neither a local habitation nor a 
name until the time of Domesday, A.D. 1086. Then we were the 
property of a King's Thane, a Saxon nobleman, and we had a popu- 
lation made up of so many servi, bordarii, and villani, perhaps 
seventy souls in all, reckoning five to each family. I suppose that 
at this time the whole community was practically in a state of 
personal servitude to the lord, but still there were elements of 
freedom in the status of the villani and the bordarii, who held their 
lands and tenements subject only to certain customary services. 
Our Saxon nobleman, however, soon fell a victim to what we may 
now call the land-hunger of certain of the Conqueror's barons and 
our lands passed to the trusted family of the Bohuns, and they, for 
the repose of their only too rapacious souls, transferred them to the 
Priory of St. Pancras at Lewes, who founded upon them the 
Clugniac Priory, which was long established amongst us. Then 
some two hundred years later, or in the year 1294, we hear once 
more of our progress, and under the evidently gentle and industrious 
rule of the Priory we have materially thriven. The Servi, or actual 
Slave element, have entirely disappeared, their places are now oc- 
cupied by families of libere tenentes, the villains are still flourishing, 
the population is about the same, but the number of acres under 
cultivation has greatly increased, especially in the matter of pasture 
lands. In 1535, or some two hundred and forty years later still, 
we hear of ourselves again, and there is happily the same tale of 
progress in freedom and prosperity. We have a chief house and 
curtilage, a garden and a pigeonry ; we have an addition of no less 
than twenty-one coterelli or cottagers to our population, and our 
Priory is possessed, in a home farm, of herds of cattle and flocks of 
sheep, of horses, mules, pigs, wheat, barley, oats, hay, and other 
dead stock in the shape of agricultural implements. But our very 
progress rang the knell of our master's ruin. By the returns of 

Tlie Inaugural Address. 11 

their prosperity they signed their own death-warrant, and the family 
of the Somersets, the universal land-hungerers of this part of the 
country, ate us up, as the Zulus say. We were, before the Somersets 
devoured us, a community of customary tenants holding under one 
landlord, the Priory. We afterwards passed to the See of Salisbury, 
and were lorded over by a succession of tenants of that see, until 
about ten years ago, when our lands were converted into the freehold 
tenure on which they are now held. The customary tenants lingered 
on until quite recent times, and there is still just a trace of them ; 
but, speaking generally, the lands are all freehold and the cottagers 
tenants at will. This is shortly the histoiy of eight hundred years 
of the existence of one particular parish, and surely there may be 
traced in it the history of all England. The comparative indepen- 
dence of the Saxon Thane, paying only his geld and his personal 
service — the rapacity, mixed with a certain religious superstition, of 
the followers of the Conqueror, taking without scruple on the one 
hand from the Saxon proprietor and giving without stint on the 
other hand to the Church for the benefit of their souls. The mild 
and industrious rule of the monks, turning the waste lands to profit, 
rearing flocks and herds, creating new industries, and gradually 
emancipating the agricultural tenant from a state of servitude to one 
of freedom and of even more substantiality than he enjoys at present. 
The spoliation of the industrious community of the monks, which 
in our case at least, had not even the allegation of corruption to 
justify it, and the absorption of their lands and goods for purposes 
of family and personal greed and aggrandisement. And finally the 
creation of the class of great landholders, absolutely free of their 
properties so long only as they are faithful subjects of the State. 
Surely here by the study of the archaeology of one parish you find 
a type of the history of the country. Ladies and gentlemen, I 
have finished, and I trust that you will not have found the remarks 
I have made either inappropriate or too long. I have felt, I can 
assure you, throughout, very much in the position in which the 
celebrated Dr. Dodd once found himself. One day, at one of the 
universities, when he was innocently taking his walks abroad, he 
found himself pursued by a troop of undergraduates, who, to phrase 

12 The Twenty -Seventh Annual Meeting. 

it mildly, had been dining. He sought refuge up a tree, and from 
thence he was compelled, before he was released, to deliver a sermon. 
That, ladies and gentlemen, has been exactly my ease. I was an 
innocent man, coming to day to enjoy, as we all shall shortly, the 
fruits of others' learning, when I was captured by our Secretary here 
and others, was driven up this tree, and was compelled, as a condition 
of release, to deliver this address. The subject, if I may modestly 
so say has been some of the uses of antiquity, and, whatever you 
may think o£ my address, I am sure you will say with me, as has 
been said of adversity, that sweet are those uses. 

The Rev. Canon Jackson did not think Sir Charles was such a 
tyro in archaeology as he professed to be. On the contrary, he had 
given them a very good specimen of his ability, and he hoped he 
would in future years pursue it and give them some more of the 
results on another occasion. He hoped, should he ever go back to 
India, that he would take particular notice of the monuments which 
they were told existed, but which they never found anyone able to 
give them any information about. Some said those monuments 
were connected with that at Stonehenge. As to Stonehenge, if 
anybody proposed to meddle with any of the stones, except just to 
lift them up — ^if anybody attempted to restore it, as some people 
had restored parish Churches, he would be the first to take a 
hammer and knock him on the head. There was a great difference 
between restoring and merely hoisting up a stone and setting it 
where they knew it really ought to stand. He had great pleasure 
in moving a vote of thanks to Sir Charles Hobhouse for his able 

The Rev. Canon Jones then proceeded to give a descriptive 
account of the principal objects of interest to be seen in the town 
of Bradford, and subsequently conducted a large party through the 
town, pointing out all that was most worthy of notice, beginning 
with the Parish Church ; then the Saxon Church ; Church House ; 
the Shambles; the Old Market Place; the site of St. Olave's 
Chapel ; Kingston House ; Chapel on the Town Bridge ; Chapel 
and Almshouses of St. Katharine ; Tithe Barn ; St. Mary Chapel, 
Tory ; and ending with Christ Church ; all of which we pass over 


The Dinner. 

now without farther comment, as we hope to print Canon Jones' 
short description of each of them at a future page of this Ma9az^ne. 

took place at the Swan Hotel, the President of the Meeting in the 
chair; when the usual loyal and complimentary toasts were given 
The Rev. Cannon Jones, in returning thanks for the Bishop and 
Clergy, observed that it was twenty-four years ago smce he first 
took part in the work of the Society, on the occasion of its first visit 
to Bradford, and he hoped he had contributed to its advancement 
ever since; he trusted, moreover, that those who came after the 
arch^ologists of the present day would . continue to carry on the 
study and promote the work of the Society. 

The Rev. A. C. Smith, in returning thanks for the General 
Secretaries, expressed his sincere regret that his colleague-Mr. 
Charles Talbot, had felt compelled from ill-health to resign office. 
All those who had taken part in our Annual Meetings of late years 
would recollect how much Mr. Talbot had contributed by his 
architectural and arch^ological knowledge to the edification of the 
Members, more especially by his judicious remarks on the various 
Churches they visited. Mr. Talbot had also been a contributor to 
the pao-es of the Magazine, and had taken an active part m the 
workino. of the Society. It was a source of satisfaction, however, 
to be assured (and Mr. Talbot had written to him to that effect) 
that he would still continue to take a warm interest m the work of 
the Society, and would gladly do all in his power to aid it. The 
Society was happy, too, in securing as Mr. Talbot's successor a 
gentleman so highly esteemed throughout the county as Mr. 
Medlicott, one who had long been an active member of the Com- 
mittee, and for many years had evinced a keen interest in the 
antiquities of Wiltshire. 

The Local Secretary, Dr. Highmore, and his colleagues, Rev. ±. 
Whitehead and Rev. W. N. C. Wheeler, were duly thanked for 
their indefatigable exertions in making preparations for the Meeting; 
and the toast of The Ladies was not forgotten by the President, a 
toast to which Sir John Hannam replied in graceful terms. 

14 The Twenty-Seventh Annual Meeting. 


was held at the Town Hall, the President of the Meeting in the 
chair: when Mr. Charles Mooee, F.G.S., gave a very able ad- 
dress, entitled " Notes on Wiltshire Palaeontology " ; and then 
Canon Jackson, F.S.A,, in his happiest vein, read an excellent 
paper on " The Eminent Ladies of Wiltshire History.'" As both 
these papers will appear in the Magazine, no farther mention need 
be here made of them, but to add that at their conclusion a vote of 
thanks was moved from the chair, and heartily responded to by the 


The archaeologists, under the guidance of Canon Jones, left 
Bradford at ten o'clock in a long line of carriages, and first drove 
to Westwood Church and Manor House ; then to Stowford Manor 
House, and then to Beckington Church, at all of which places Canon 
Jones pointed out the most noticeable features, and gave short 
epitomes of their respective histories, as will be seen in his notes 
farther on. At this point of the programme the Society was 
hospitably entertained by the Local Committee at a luncheon spread 
in the School-room. At its conclusion the Chairman (Sir C. 
Hobhouse) proposed the health of the Rev. S. L. Sainsbury, the 
Rector of Beckington, and congratulated him on the very happy 
restoration of his Church, lately completed. The Rev. A. C. Smith, 
on behalf of the Society, offered his best thanks to the Local Com- 
mittee of Bradford for the hospitable entertainment given them 
that day. The Society had been very kindly received in many parts 
of the county, but in no place had they met with a warmer re- 
ception or a truer welcome than at Bradford. Dr. Highmore 
having suitably responded, the company left the School-room, and 
turned their attention to the many interesting old houses of which 
Beckington seems full, more especially to the charming old buildings 
known as Beckington Castle, and the Grange. Thence to Seymour's 
Court, Road Church, and North Bradley Church ; all of which are 
merely enumerated here, as they will be severally described in Canon 
Jones' noteS; mentioned above. 

TMrd Day, Thursday, August, WtA. 15 


took place at the Town Hall, at 8 o'clock, at which Sir Chakles 
HoBHOUSE again presided. The first paper was hy the Peesident, 
entitled "Some account of Monkton Farleigh/' At its conclusion 
a vote o£ thanks to the author was moved by the Secretary, and 
carried by acclamation. Then Mr. Frederick Shum, F.S.A., read 
a paper, " On Some notes of Gainsborough and his connection with 
Bradford," for which the President tendered him the thanks of the 
audience. Both of these interesting papers will appear in the 
Magazine in due course. 

As this was the last occasion of the assembling of the Society at 
Bradford during its present Meeting, the Rev. A. C. Smith begged 
to express, on the part of the Society, towards the close of a most 
happy and successful Meeting, cordial thanks, first to the town and 
neighbourhood of Bradford for the hearty welcome given to it : then 
to the Local Secretaries for the labour they had undergone in its 
behalf, and the arrangements they had so happily made : and last, 
though not least, to Sir Charles Hobhouse, who so kindly and so 
admirably discharged the duties of President of the Meeting at 
almost a moment^s notice. Sir Charles, in reply, proposed a vote 
of thanks to Canon Jones for the large amount of information he 
had conveyed to them, and for the pains he had taken in pointing 
out all that was best worth notice. 


The excursionists assembled at the Town Hall, at ten o'clock, and 
again under the able guidance of Canon Jones, first visited Holt 
Church; then Monkton Manor House; then Broughton Gifibrd 
Church. From hence they drove to Great Chalfield Manor House, 
which, of all the many excellent specimens inspected during the 
three days' meeting, was incomparably the finest domestic building 
they had seen : and here they wandered up and down, inside and 
outside the house, never tired of admiring this splendid specimen of 
fifteenth century work. Then, by invitation of Mr. and Mrs. 
Fuller, the archaeologists — by this time numbering about one hun- 
dred and twenty-five — were most hospitably entertained at luncheon 

16 The Twenty -Seventh Annual Meeting. 

in a large marquee. At its conclusion the President expressed the 
hearty thanks of the Society to Mr. and Mrs. Fuller for the mag- 
nificent way in which they had entertained them ; while Mr. Fuller, 
in reply, cordially welcomed the Society to Chalfield, and assured the 
company that he had heen delighted so to receive them. Thence a 
drive to the old house at Wrasall ; then to the Manor House and 
Chapel of St. Audoen : then to Chapel Plaister ; and then to 
Monkton Farleigh, where tea and coffee were hospitably provided by 
the President, closed the excursion, and with it one of the most 
successful meetings which the Society has ever held. 

ill % "^fea^D^am^^. 

By J. PicTON, Esq., F.S.A. 
(Read before the British Archjeological Association, al Denizes, August, 1880.) 

^T the Congress of the British Archajological Association at 
Yarmouth and Norwich last year I read a paper on " Place 
Names in Norfolk," which has since been published in the Journal. 

The subject is full of interest both to the antiquary and the 
philologist. Each county has its own peculiarities as to the origin 
and application of its local nomenclature, and I propose in the few 
following pages to enquire, as far as the brief space will permit, 
what light can be thrown by the study of the place-names in 
Wiltshire on the condition of the district, and the races by whom it 
has been successively occupied. 

These inquiries have always been attractive, but down to a very 
recent period they have been pursued in a very empirical fashion. 

Bii J. Picion, Esq., F.S.A. 17 

calculated rather to throw ridicule on the study, than to lead to any 
satisfactory conclusions. Chronology, race, and language have been 
set at nought, and the most astounding guesses have been indulged 
in to bring together from any source, names and words between 
which there appeared any likeness, however superficial. Thus the 
common Anglo-Saxon name of Brimham has been derived from 
Hebrew Beth-Bimmon ; and the Saxon Barrow or Buri/ from Hebrew 
Barruo, pit of lamentation. It is only of very recent years that the 
subject has been taken up with any regard to the principles of 
systematic or scientific inquiry. 

Camden published his " Remaines concerning Britaine*' in 1614. 
Verstegan's "Restitution of Decayed Intelligence" was issued in 
1628. Both of these contain information of a very judicious 
character on English names. During the interval of more than 
two centuries, almost to the present day, little or nothing was added 
to our information, but more recently attention has been called to 
the subject by the publication of such works as " Taylor's Names 
and Places" (1864) ; Edmunds's "Traces of History in the Names 
of Places" (1869) ; Fergusson's "Teutonic Name System" (1864); 
Joyce's "Origin and History of Irish Names of Places" (1869) j 
besides the works of Mr. Lower and Miss Young on Christian and 
Surnames indirectly bearing on the same subject. These works are 
of a general kind, and do not attempt to illustrate any particular 
district. There are also difficulties, to which I will presently allude, 
connected with the inquiry, which are hardly, if at all, noticed by 
the writers in question. 

The names of places scattered over the surface of our country may 
be compared to the geological stratification of the same surface, one 
layer overlying another until we arrive at the primitive formation ; 
and the prevalence of one or other of these gives its character to the 
name system in the one case as to the physical aspect in the other. 
Thus in Leicestershire, Derbyshire, and Lincolnshire, a large pro- 
portion of the place-names are derived from a Danish source; in 
Durham and Cumberland a Scandinavian element is found, but most 
probably of Norwegian origin. In Cornwall the main element is 
formed by the Celtic of the old Cornish stock. In Wales and 


18 The Ethnology of Wiltshire, as illustrated in the Place- Names. 

the counties bordering thereon the basis of the place-names may- 
be expected to be Cymric, whilst in many, probably the most o£ 
the others, the Celtic and Norse elements almost entirely disappear, 
and are replaced by nearly pure Anglo-Saxon. Amongst these 
latter Wiltshire stands conspicuous. 

Of course a large proportion of the place-names in every county 
are of comparatively modern origin, and present no difficulty. With 
these I do not propose to deal. My present subject is the names 
which are found in Domesday Book or a century or two later. 

If we take even a cursory glance at a map of the county, we find 
most of the names composed of a prefix and suffix, such as Salis-bury, 
Winter-bourne, Brad -ford, &c. Now these suffixes, which constitute 
the substance of the names, qualified by the prefix, are in the great 
majority of cases perfectly intelligible in modern English. Ton, 
Ford, Burn or Bourne, Cot, Ham (home). Bridge, Brook, Sfc., are 
part and parcel of our daily speech. Many others which are now 
somewhat obsolete are easily explicable from the old forms of our 
Language. Such are Holt, Hurst, Shaw, Bon, Bury, Worth, &c. 
The qualifying portion of the name is the prefix. Many of these 
prefixes are pure Saxon and easy to understand, such as Nor-ton, 
Easton, Sutton, or south town, taken from their relative position. 
Some from the surroundings, such as Hazle-hury, Alder-hury, Wood- 
borough, Hill-marton, Mil-toti, and others from various circumstances 
to which I shall presently refer. When every allowance is made 
for these, there remain a large number which cannot be thus resolved, 
and the question is, where are we to look for the solution ? Some 
of the writers on the subject — and there are not many who have 
entered upon it at all — make very short work of it. If there is 
any difficulty they have only to invent a personal name, and the 
thino- is done. Thus Chat-ham and Chat-moss are supposed to be 
derived from a person bearing the name of Chat. Fretisham from 
one Fren or Frene. In other cases circumstances of the most un- 
likely character are assumed if the name happens to fit. Thus 
Keele, in Stafibrdshire — nearly in the centre of England — has been 
held to be so called from Keel a north-country word for a barge or 
ship, with which the place could not have the slightest connexion. 

By J. Picton, Esq., F.S.A. 19 

'Partney is said to be from pera-Um-ey , pear town by the water. It 
is scarcely worth while to waste time in examining absurdities of 
this kind. Where we cannot discover a clear and definite meaning 
within our reach, the best mode of solving the enigma is to confess 
our ignorance and seek for means of better information. 

There cannot be much doubt that a large number of the prefixes 
in English place-names are of Celtic origin, most probably of the 
Cymric variety ; but the language from which they are derived has 
greatly changed in the course of ages, and is only very imperfectly 
represented by the modern Welsh. It is very unlikely and would 
be contrary to all history to suppose that when the Saxons conquered 
England by degrees and effected the settlement of the country they 
exterminated all the inhabitants. Such a circumstance has hardly 
happened in the history of the world. There was no break of con-» 
tinuity. The conquerors in taking possession would naturally adopt 
the native appellations, modifying them to suit their own purposes. 
This is precisely what the Romans had done before them. Venta 
Belgarum and Sorbidunum are simply Cymric names with Latin 
suffixes. Nay, we may go further back than this. What took 
place both at the Roman and Saxon conquests would equally occur 
at the previous Celtic invasion. We are not to suppose that those 
we call the ancient Britons were the aboriginal inhabitants of this 
island. The Belgae and Atrebates, who occupied the present Wiltshire 
and Hampshire, were immigrants of no long standing. Both Caesar 
and Tacitus bear testimony to this. Caesar says, '' Britanniae pars 
interior ab iis incolitur quos natos in insula memori^ proditum est. 
Maritima pars ab iis, qui prsedae ac belli inferendi causa, ex Belgis 
transierant." (De Bell. (Jrall., Lib. y.) ^ 

Tacitus states " Britanniam qui mortales initio coluerunt indigenae 
an advecti, parum compertum; in universum tamen estimanti, Gallos 
vicinum solum oocupasse, credibile est." (Vit Agricol.) ^ 

* The interior of Britaia is inhabited by native races as it is handed down by 
tradition ; the maritime parts by those who have pagsed over from Belgium for 
the sake of plunder or war. 

2 Whether the people who first inhabited Britain were indigenous or immigrants, 
it is hard to ascertain, but it is generally believed that the Gauls occupied the 
nearest coasts. 

c 2 

20 The Ethnology of Wiltshire, as illustrated in the Place-Names. 

M. Littrej the great French philologist, speaking of the Celtic 
invasion of Western Europe, says " parmi ces noms celtiques, il en 
est sans doute, qui n' appartiennent pas k la langue des Celtes. 
Leur etablissement dans la Gaule, si aucien h, un point de vue, est 
moderne ^ un autre ; ils y trouverent des populations d'un developp- 
ment inferieur, et Ton peut croire qu' ils n'en expulserent ni tous 
les hommesj ni tous les noms/^ ' 

Modern investigation has pretty clearly established the fact that 
long preceding the Celtic immigration, the west of Europe was in- 
habited by a race of inferior development, probably of Euskaritln 
or Esquimo affinity. The name of Britain, which is certainly not 
Celtic, has been traced to this source, and many names of places in 
Spain and the south of France bear testimony to the existence of a 
race which has, long ages ago, entirely passed away as a separate 
people. Let us now endeavour to apply these principles to the an- 
tiquities and nomenclature of Wiltshire. No county in the kingdom 
is richer, if so abundant, in prehistoric remains. They are dis- 
tributed over the surface, of all classes and periods, from the earliest 
rude attempts at habitations at Pen Pits, near Stourton, on the 
borders of Somerset, through the various descriptions of barrows, 
tumuli, ditches, and earthworks up to the noble relics of Avebury 
and Silbury and the magnificent structure of Stonehenge. The 
earliest pits and earthworks bear all the marks of an extremely rude 
and primitive people ; that these people were conquered and driven 
westwards by the advancing Celtse has every confirmation short of 
written records. Even at the present day the pits, the remains of 
primitive habitations which are found in abundance in Wales, bear 
traditionally the name of " Cyttiau Gwyddelod," the huts of the 
wild men or savages. 

The description of the Fenni given to us by Tacitus exactly 
describes a people of this class, and the name Fenni may without 
much violence be applied to the occupants of the Pen Pits. He 

* " Amongst these Celtic names, without doubt there are some which do not 
belong to the Celtic language. Their establishment in Gaul, so ancient from one 
point of view, is modern from another. They found there a population of an 
inferior development, and it may be believed that they neither exterminated all 
the people nor all the names." 

By J. Picton, Esq., F.S.A. 21 

says " Fennis raira feritas, faeda paupertas ; non arma, non equi, 
non penates ; victui herba^ vestitui pelles, cubile humus ; sola in 
sagittis spes, quas inopiii ferri, ossibus asperant." 

" Nothing can equal the ferocity of the Fenni, nor is there any 
thing so disgusting as their filth and poverty. Without arms, 
without horses, and without a fixed place of abode, they lead a 
vagrant life; their food the common herbage, the skins of beasts 
their only clothing; and the bare earth their resting-place. For 
their chief support they depend on their arrows ; to which for want 
of iron, they prefix a pointed bone.'" 

This is an exact description of all savages of the stone age, whose 
relics are continually found under tumuli of the earliest construc- 

Now what I maintain is this : that taking all analogy and history 
for our guide, it is scarcely possible that there should not be some 
remains o£ the language of this primitive people embedded in the 
nomenclature of the country. This is a question which has attracted 
some notice, and future investigation may throw some light upon 

The names of the prominent features of a country, the hills, 
valleys and rivers are usually the most ancient. We find most of 
them in Wiltshire may be referred to a Cymric origin. There are 
no high hills demanding to be specially noticed in the nomenclature. 
Ingpen, near the junction of the three counties of Wiltshire, Hamp- 
shire and Berkshire, 1011 feet high, is the most prominent. Its 
name in Cymric — •" the head of the narrow valley " — is suSieiently 
explanatory. Hack Pen Hill may also be traced to a Celtic source. 
Comhe, Cym, Cwm (a hollow), is the suffix to many place-names, 
Hall-combe, Hippens-combe, Stitch-combe, &c. Some of the rivers 
bear Cymric names: the Churn (swift), the two Avons (flowing 
water), the Frome (fuming), the Wiley, probably from Gioi/ (water). 
Some are Anglo-Saxon, such as the Bourne, Og-bourne Aid-bourne, 
Flagham Brook, Swill Brook. There are others of which the origin 
is at present insoluble, as Key, Cole, Kennet, or Chenete, Nadder, 
Stour. There are some names unmistakeably Celtic, such as Pen, 
Penridge, Penglewood, Calne (anciently Cauna), Cym. Caion (reeds); 

22 The Ethnology of Wiltshire, as illustrated in the Place- Names. 

Eidsh (Domesday Hiwi), Cyra. Hwch (swine) ; Chiltern (Domesday 
Cheltre), Cym. Cel-tre (a place of refuge). 

To the Celts, whether Cymry or Belgse, succeeded the Romans> 
who have left their marks unmistakably on the surface of the land. 
That they conquered and colonized the district is certain, but they 
have not left behind them the magnificent works constructed in 
other quarters. There are no grand castra such as Pevensey, in 
Sussex, Eichborough, in Kent, and Burgh Castle, in Suffolk. The 
camps of Vespasian and Constantius Chlorus are merely earthen 
entrenchments. The Romans appear to have utilised the earthworks 
they found in the country, of which they were many, the land having 
been very populous before their arrival. The names they gave their 
stations were Cymric with Latin terminations Corinium (now Ciren- 
cester), probably from its circular form cor) Sorbiocluutim,Sa.r\im,ox 
Salisbury (Saresbury), Cyra. siriaw-din, the pleasant hill ; Durnovaria 
(Dorchester), Cym. I)wr-?iovion, the flowing water. 

There were sis Roman roads crossing the county. 1st, a road 
from Bath (Aquse Solis), along the western side to Cirencester 
(Corinium), forming part of the great Fossway extending across 
the island from the English Channel to the German Ocean ; 2nd, a 
jpoad from Salisbury westward, to Wells (ad Aquas) ; 3rd, a road 
called Julian Street, running due east from Bath, passing the base 
of Silbury Hill, and continuing by Silchester (Calleva Atrebatum) 
by what is called the Devil's Causeway, to the passage over the 
Thames at Staines ; 4th, two roads running eastward from Salisbury, 
one N.E. to Silchester, the other S.W. to Winchester (Venta 
Belgarum), Cym. Caer-gwent ; 5th, a road S.W. from Salisbury to 
Dorchester; 6th, Ermin Street, running from Cirencester, S.E. to 
Spinse (Speen) and Silchester. 

The Roman roads (strata) were called by the Saxons streets from 
the fact of their being paved, and thus they can usually be traced 
by the names of the towns on their lines. In Wiltshire, several of 
the roads besides those mentioned have preserved the name oi street, 
&s Long Street, Short Street, Broad Street, High Street, &c. There 
&re several Strat-ford, Strat-tott, and several Siantons, but except the 
gtations already mentioned the Roman camps seem to have been 

By J. Pieton, Esq., F.S.A. 23 

mere earthworks. Old Sarum, which was no doubt occupied and 
strengthened by the Romans^ was originally a British stronghold, 
as its formation indicates. 

To the Romans in their influence on the nomenclature succeeded 
the Saxons. They arrived in Wiltshire about fifty years after the 
first landing in Kent, and founded the kingdom of the West Saxons 
by the victory of Cerdic, A.D. 508. Under his successors, Cynric 
and Ceawlin, this kingdom was greatly extended. Wiltshire is 
honoured by having been the scene of the struggles of the great 
Alfred and of his fiaal victory over the Danish invaders at Edington. 
The Danes never obtained a settlement in Wiltshire. There is an 
almost utter absence of Danish names. The termination^^y, so very 
numerous in Lincolnshire, Derbyshire, Leicestershire, and wherever 
the Danes obtaiiied a permanent footing, is here altogether 

There are no tofts, thorpes, nesses, thwaites, hoes. The basis of the 
names is almost entirely Saxon. There is also another difference 
from the nomenclature of the eastern counties. When the Saxons 
first invaded England they came in tribes and families, headed by 
their patriarchal leaders. Each tribe was called by their leader's 
name with the termination ing, signifying family ; and where they 
settled they gave their patriarchal name to the mark or central point 
round which they clustered, frequently adding the suffix ton, or 
town. Hence the prevalence of such names as Billinge, Billington, 
Wellington, Darlington, Allington, &c. Now this class of names 
is not entirely wanting in Wiltshire, but it prevails only to a limited 
extent j the reason I apprehend is this, that during the time which, 
had elapsed before they crossed the country and reached Wiltshire, 
the tribal organisation had been to a great extent lost. 

One feature which would strike the invaders is the numerous 
earthworks which are scattered in such profusion over the surface of 
the county . These were very freely made use of and occupied for 
purposes of defence. The Saxon term hurh was applied generally 
to any earthen entrenchments. Many of these had been thrown 
up previously, either by the Britons or their predecessors. Some 
had been constructed or adopted and improved by the Romans. 

24 The 'Ethnology of Wiltshire, as illustrated in the Place-Names. 

Some were no doubt formed by the Saxons themselves, but they 
were all included under the general term of Burij, of which the 
examples are very numerous as sufBxes to the place-names. The 
prefixes are sometimes proper names not always of a prehistoric 
character. Malms-bury is said to take its name either from a British 
king Malmutius, or the Scottish monk Maidulph, who founded the 
monastic community afterwards developed into the celebrated abbey. 
Anieshury is supposed, with considerable show of reason, to have been 
the head-quarters of Ambre or Ambrosius, a British king who dis- 
played considerable gallantry in resisting the Saxon invaders. In 
Domesday Book it is called Ambresberie. Wan-borough and Wans- 
dyke are no doubt connected with the traditions of the hero Woden, 
or Odin, so celebrated in the Saxon and Norse legends. His name 
is connected with many localities in various parts of the kingdom, 
such as Wednesbury, Wednesfield, Wensley, &c. 

The most frequent suffix in the place-names of Wiltshire is ton, 
indicating the thoroughly Saxon predominance in the county. Ton 
originally meant a simple enclosure, and in this sense it is still used 
dialectically in Scotland. It was then extended to a cluster of 
houses, and finally to a town in the modern sense. The Saxon towns 
usually stood at the intersection of cross-roads, or at the fork formed 
ty the junction of three. The tons in Wiltshire are very numerous, 
with all sorts of prefixes, some Saxon, some Cymric, some of which 
the meaning is not obvious, some descriptive, others patronymic. 

Ham is another Saxon suffix, common in the county, though not 
so numerous as the tons. The Saxon Ham, corresponding with 
Ger. Helm, primarily meant the homestead, the cluster of buildings 
constituting the farm and is the origin of the endearing associations 
connected with the English home. The prefixes are, of course, 
various. Chippenham (in Domesday Chejjeham) indicates that it was 
a market or trade-mart. Melksham has been explained to mean the 
milk or dairy farm, but it is more likely to have been adopted from 
a personal name. 

The number of streams which water the county, sufficiently ex- 
plain the frequency of the suffixes Bourne and Ford. There were 
several Winter-bournes ; small streams, dry in summer, but forming 

By J. Picton, Esq., F.S.A. 25 

torrents by the winter rains. Swill-Brook, the main source of the 
Thames, takes its name from the abundance of its waters. 

Don, which forms the termination of a few place-names, means an 
undulating surface, in modern Eng'lish, Dotons. The suflRx cot, in 
such names as Hilcot, Wilcot, Westcott, &c,, scarcely needs any 

There are a few names terminating in Loio, such as Winterslow, 
Chedfflow. This termination is very common in the Northern 
Mercian counties, and signifies a tumulus or Saxon barrow, usually 
thrown up on a low hill, but seeing that these lows are given in 
Domesday as lei or lei/, it does not appear that the word was ever 
so applied in Wiltshire. 

Lade, an ai*tificial watercourse, is found in Cricklade and LecUade, 
the latter on the edge of Gloucestershire. 

IForth, in Anglo-Saxon has several meanings, but is generally 
applied to a farm or land fronting a public way. The number of 
these in Wiltshire is small, Winkworth, Chel worth, Brinkworth, 
and one or tw^o others. 

Wick, as a village, is common in some counties, but is very sparse 
in Wiltshire. Barwick, Wadswick, and Berwick are almost th© 
only instances. 

There are many other Saxon terms used which are still quite 
familiar, such as Field, Mere, Hill, Head, Cliff, Ridge, Wood, Bridge, 
Brook, Edge, Well; and others, equally good English, but now 
somewhat obsolete, as Stead, still preserved in home-stead ; Holt, a 
■wood; Shaw, a grove; Stock, a wooden structure; Hurst, another 
term for a wood ; Cock, a diminutive — little. 

There a few place-names which are somewhat Danish in their 
aspect, such as Nesfon, Costoe, Keynes, but these are not in Domes- 
day, and are of comparatively modern introduction. Near Cricklade 
there is a stream called Dance or Danes Brook, and a locality near 
is called Godby Stalls. These may possibly have some traditional 
connection with the irruptions of the Danes. 

The termination ey is attached to many names. It might have 
been the Danish ey, for island, or the Saxon ea, water, but scarcely 
any of them are found in Domesday, and are not of very ancient date. 

26 The Eminent Ladies of Wiltshire History, 

The Norman conquest effected little in the introduction of new 
place-names, but it added further suflfixes, in many cases derived 
from the Norman lords of the soil, such as Wootton Basset, Compton 
Basset, Shipton Moyne, Easton Grey, Yatton Keynell, Compton 
Chamberlain, Upton Scudamore, Devi;ges is supjDOsed to have de* 
rived its name Devisse from a supposed division of the manor betweeij 
the Crown and the Bishop of Salisbury, but history does not bear 
out this statement. The first charter was granted by the Empress 
Matilda about 1136, under the name of " De Divisis,^^ at a time 
when certainly no division had or could have taken place. It is 
called in ancient records, Divisis, Divisse, De Vies. Leland calls it 
The Vies. The true solution appears to be the fact that the castle 
was built at the exact point of division between the three manors 
of Rowde, Cannings, and Pottern. Hence the appellations Castrum 
de Divisis, or ad Divisis, or simply Divis??. 

The above short notes may serve to direct attention to a subject 
connected with the history of our country which will probably im- 
part additional interest to the topographical notices of the county 
and of the places visited. 

%\i Cmiiunt ^atos of Miltsljiu pbtotg. 

By the Eev. Canon J. E. Jackson, F.S.A.* 

^SS^\tl. Thomas Fuller, the Church Historian, in one of his works 
l^ltx iB called " England^s Worthies,^' has preserved short memoirs 
of the. most remarkable individuals, or those whom he considered 
to be such, in English history generally. These are arranged under 

• This paper was prepared for, and read at, an Evening Conversarione of the Wiltshire Archso- 
logical Society, at Bradford-on-Ayon, 9th of August, 1881. 

By the Bev. Canon J. E. Jachon, F.S.A. 27 

the dJfFerent counties. In most of the counties by far the greater 
number of his " Woithies" are men : and in Wiltshire he appears 
to have been able to find only three ladies deservmg of heing 
noticed in his book. It was published in 1662. Time has made 
some additions to that very small number : and there are also a few 
names belonging to earlier periods which he might have mentioned, 

but did not. ^t^ ■,. i i j- 

There are several works that record the history of English ladies. 
We have Mrs. Green's « Lives of the most distinguished m rank, 
the Queens and Princesses." There is also " Ballard^s Memoirs of 
Learned Ladies"; also plenty of memoirs of, or by, others who 
have been conspicuous in Society. But the names sekcted for 
notice in the present paper will only be those of Wiltshire ladie. 
who either were born in the county, or belonged to it by lifelong 
residence and connexion. Also, only those whose names are to be 
found here and there in different printed works relating to Wiltshire, 
and are therefore, so far as that goes, historical. 

Of course there must have been at all times ladies who were 
ornaments to Society, clever, witty, and otherwise emment m their 
day But that is quite a different thing from being emment aftet 
their day. If you wish to be, I will not say, eminent, but even 
named at all in time to come, you must bequeath to posterity some- 
thing more than merely your name. There is a story somewhere of 
a gentleman who was going on his travels to the East, whose friends 
loaded him with all sorts of commissions. Fot one he was to get 
this- for another that. Some supplied him with money for the 
purpose; others forgot to do so. As he was steaming along the 
Mediterranean, and near the end of his voyage, he began to think 
it time to put his commissions in order, and, if possible, reduce the 
number of them. So one day he took out all the papers and laid 
them in a row on the taffrail of the ship. On those papers that 
had come to him with money enclosed he laid the money ; but the 
unprepaid commissions, having nothing to keep them down, were 
blown away by the first breeze. That is very much the case with 
ourselves and our chances of future reputation. We may fill our 
part in life very creditably, be clever, popular, perhaps famous, m 

28 The 'Eminent Ladies of Wiltshire History. 

our clay ; but if we have done nothing that shall, as it were^ fasten 
our name and provide for its enduring; in short, if we are not 
weighted, we shall be, like those light papers, mercilessly and un- 
ceremoniously puffed away into oblivion. 

Hamlet allows but a very short time even for a great man to be 
remembered ; and, even then, not without a certain expense on his 
own part. " O heavens ! dead two months and not forgotten yet ! 
Then there's hope a great man's memory may outlive his life half-a- 
year. But, by our lady, he must build churches then ; or else he 
shall suffer not thinking on." So true it is that people whose names 
are in everybody's mouth one year almost cease to be talked of in 
the next. " The present eye praises the present object." " After 
one well-graced actor leaves the stage, all eyes are bent on him that 
enters next." The ladies must please to observe that this applies 
to them as well as to men, because " All the world's a stage, and 
all the men — and women — merely players." 

But now about this eminence we are speaking of. How is it to 
be obtained by the ladies ? One of the Roman historians, commonly 
read at schools, tells us that eminence is to be acquired in two ways, 
either in Peace or in War. Two courses open to the ladies. Among 
those who have done us the honour of attending here this evening, 
there may possibly be some resolute and ambitious spirits who ad- 
jnire, and not only admire, but would like to take part in the pride, 
pomp, and circumstance of glorious war. It is more likely that 
most of them would be quite satisfied to bind their brow with the 
olive of peace rather than the laurel of battle. But there have been 
times and may be again, when ladies have had to face great personal 
danger, and how they acquitted themselves in this county you shall 
hear in the course of my story. 

Among the ways of Peace, none in former times helped more to 
bring ladies into an enduring celebrity, than works of Piety and 
Religion ; not merely by their leading such lives themselves, but 
by providing Institutions for the maintenance of Religion for (as 
they fondly hoped) all time to come. Of this we have several cases 
in Wiltshire. 

The Monastery of Wilton, for an Abbess and nuns, was founded 

By the Rev. Canon J. E. Jackson, F.S.A. 29 

through the influence of a lady, Alprida, Dowager, Queen of the 
Anglo-Saxon King Edgar. 

The Monastery for ladies at Ambresbury was founded and en- 
dowed by another Royal lady, Alburga, sister of King Egbert. 

The Monastery of Laeock, for an Abbess and nuns, was founded 
by Ela, Countess Dowager of Salisbury, who also founded another 
at Hinton Charterhouse. There were other Nunneries at Maiden 
Bradley and St. Mary's, Kington St. Michael. 

Now let me call attention to this. Wilton House and most of the 
lands there formerly the property of the Abbess, now belong to the 
Earl of Pembroke ; Ambresbury to Sir E. Antrobus ; Lacock to Mr. 
Talbot. Whatever territorial influence now attaches to those gentle- 
men, attached in former times to the lady owners. These lady-heads 
of Religious Houses were landowners of many thousand acres. At this 
very place at which we are meeting, the Manor of Bradford, with a 
good deal of land, and the appointment to six or seven neighbouring 
Churches then included in it, belonged to the Abbess of Shaftesbury. 
But consider the true character of these places. These famous 
monasteries were not merely the abodes of a few contemplative nuns^ 
as is often supposed, but they were first-class places of education, to 
which were sent, not only from the immediate neighbourhood, but 
from all parts, young ladies of the very first families, even of the 
Blood Royal. It is on record that Mary, sixth daughter of Edward 
I.J Isabella of Lancaster, and others were brought up at Ambresbury; 
Matilda, Queen of Henry I., at Wilton. The lists that remain to 
us show that most truly " Kings'" daughters were among their 
honourable women." There they and hundreds of young persons of 
good family were trained up to learn not merely female accomplish- 
ments, but various useful domestic arts, solid practical work. They 
were taught what so many young persons now-a-days, when their 
education is called finished, begin to learn for themselves, medicine, 
surgery, confectionery, cookery, the general management of house- 
holds, and the duties of the rich to the poor ; all this under the 
orderly superintendence of piety and religion. Now when it is recol- 
lected that this training was undergone, not at a boarding-school in a 
town, but at the very houses of the richest and largest land-owners, 

30 The Eminent Jjadies qf Wiltshire History. 

we must come to this conclusion : that these Lady Abbesses, 
being- Mistresses of the fsoilj and having the control over the young 
female mind, were largely responsible for giving the right tone to 
the female character, and consequently for the result and effect upon 
English society, which depends so much upon that character. We 
have, fairly preserved, if not quite complete, lists of the names of 
the influential and important ladies who ruled these establishments, 
but whether their names had come down to us or not, speaking of 
them in a general way and as an order or class, I hold that it was 
one of real eminence, and well deserving not only the notice but the 
emphatic commendation of history. 

Of one only among Ihem, a few words. The Earldom of 
Salisbury (i.e., not of the present city, but the older Salisbury, Old 
Sarum) was a title held by two or three families in succession ; the 
first being that of Devereux, in the reign of King Stephen. There 
had been two Earls, when the title fell to an only daughter, Ela. 
She married William Longespee, who in her right became Earl. 
Upon his death she reigned alone in her castle of Old Sarum ; and 
in fact ruled the county, for she filled the office of High Sheriff for 
seven or eight years. At last, being weary of feudal dignity and 
its burdens, she retired to one of the monasteries she had built, and 
became Abbess of Lacock, where she died, as it is said, at nearly 
100 years of age. Of Wilton and Ambresbury monasteries no part 
even of the building remains; but Lacock Abbey still stands a 
witness to the memory and good deeds of this eminent lady of 
Wiltshire history. 

So much of the land, so many of the parishes, having belonged 
to these ladies, we are no doubt indebted to them for some of our 
parish Churches ; those, for instance, that stand on the estates for- 
merly theirs. That spirit is by no means yet extinct. We have in 
our own day ladies still living who at their own sole cost have built 
or re-built Churches; and it is but just and fair to the ladies in 
general to say that in all good works of that kind they are almost 
always found to take the greatest interest and an active part. 

Under the head of Religious Foundations we must include Alms- 
houses, places of refuge for the worn out and feeble. In the village 

By the Rev. Canon J. E. Jachson, F.S.A 81 

of Heytesbury, just beyond Warminster, there still stands, occupied 
and flourishing, a fine old house founded and very richly endowed iu 
the reign of King Edward IV., by Margaret Lady Hungerford 
and BoTREATJX, widow of Robert, second Lord Hungerford, of Farley 
Castle, near this town. She was the wealthy heiress of the old Cornish 
family, the Lords Botreaux. Her husband and son being, during 
the Wars of the Roses, on the Lancastrian, that is the losiug side, her 
life was full of trouble. There is a great deal about her in Hoare^s 
History of South Wilts ; and among other curious documents is one 
attached to her will, iu which she very sorrowfully recapitulates all 
the " expense and loss with the causes and occasions of the same 
which she had borne in this great season of adversities which have 
befallen in this land to herself, her children and her friends; especially 
in ransoming those who had been taken prisoners, and in redeeming 
estates that had been forfeited. Also when she had been sent for 
safety by order of the King to the Abbey of Ambresbury, all her 
costly goods and furniture were destroyed by a fire.'''' In short a 
very lamentable story . She left considerable estates for the endow- 
ment of the Hospital, which it has enjoyed for above five hundred years. 

At Corsham there is another fine old Almshouse, close to the gates 
of Lord Methuen^s park, founded by another Margaret Lady Hun- 
gerford, three hundred years later than the first. She was by birth 
daughter and co-heiress of William Halliday, a wealthy Alderman 
of London, and Corsham estate was part of her share. Her husband 
was a Sir Edward Hungerford, also of Farley Castle. 

To another lady this county is indebted for a much larger and more 
general gift, the almshouse at Froxfield, near Marlborough, for fifty 
widows ; twenty of them being widows of clergymen, and thirty, of 
laymen. The foundress was Sarah, Duchess of Somerset, widow 
of John, 4th Duke, who died 1675. His family at that time were 
owners of Tottenham and Savernake. The Duchesses own name 
had been Alston. She died in 1692, and was buried in Westminster 
Abbey. She also founded another charity called the " Broad Town 
Charity " ; under which a certain number of Wiltshire boys are ap- 
prenticed to trades. There is a very fine full-length portrait of her 
in the dining-hall of Brasenose College, Oxford. 

33 The 'Eminent Ladies of Wiltshire History. 

I had the curiosity, for the purpose of this paper, to go through 
a volume of Wiltshire charities, and it appears that beside these 
larger foundations just mentioned, there are about one hundred and 
forty charitable bequests, of various amounts, all made by ladies. 

The next case to be mentioned is one which cannot be placed 
under any particular head, because it is of a peculiar kind, and in 
this county certainly unique. It is a charity very well known in the 
neighbourhood o£ Chippenham and Calne ; a charity on a very good 
foundation, and known by the name of " Maud Heath's Causeway." ^ 
In the reign of King Edward IV. one Mrs. Matilda or Maud 
Heats, said by tradition to have begun life as a market-woman, 
being sore hindered from getting her eggs to market, left certain 
houses and lands, the rents of which were to make and maintain a 
pitched causeway across what was then a very swampy district, for 
about four miles, from Chippenham to Wick Hill, near Bremhill. 
A column on that hill was erected some years ago, by the Marquis 
of Lansdowne and Mr. Bowles, the poet, in memory of this usefully 
benevolent old dame. For surely this is a most useful and rational 
Bort of benevolence. May it not be called a defect in our highway 
system, that, whilst the roads are maintained, as they are, in excellent 
condition for the more pleasant travelling of those who keep carriages 
and horses, footpaths are very much forgotten, and the poor market- 
wives of the present day are left, in bad winter weather, to struggle 
along through the mud as they best can ? So far at least as North 
W^ilts is concerned, where sometimes the soil is very wet and sticky, 
it is what the people call " desperate bad travelling " for humble 
folk who use their own legs for the purpose. And so, as in my 
winter's walks I often sigh for Maud Heath's Causeway, I take this 
opportunity of reckoning her among the eminent ladies in Wiltshire 
history ; which indeed, in one sense, she certainly is ; for there she 
sits, a figure in stone, as large as life, with her basket on her lap, 
and in the costume of her period, 56 feet up in the air, on the top 
of the column alluded to. 

Of the ladies next to be named, as having earned eminence in 

' See Wilts Archceological Magazine, vol. i., p. 251. 

By the Rev. Canon J. E. Jachson, F.8.A. 83 

the ways of Peace, some have been conspicuous by the accident of 
high birth and position, some by their literary merit, some for the 
rather romantic incidents of their career. It is most convenient to 
name them in chronological order ; and please to bear in mind that 
we are speaking only of those who belong to our county. We begin 
at the reign of Queen Elizabeth. 

Everybody has heard those celebrated verses (written, not by Ben 
Jonson, but by William Browne, author of the Pastorals) • upon 
Mary Sidney, sister of Sir Philip Sidney, and by marriage Countess 
OP Pembroke, and mother of the Earl of Pembroke of that day :— 

"Underneath this sable herse 
Lies the subject of all verse, 
Sidney's sister, Pembroke's mother: 
Death, ere thou hast slain another 
Leam'd and wise and fair as she, 
Time will throw a dart at thee. 

Marble piles let no man raise 
To her name ; for, after days. 
Some kind woman, born as she, 
Reading this, like Niobe, 
Shall turn marble, and become 
Both her mourner and her tomb." 

This lady is spoken of by contemporaries (by the poet Spenser 
among others) as a model of excellence, resembling in form and 
spirit her brother Philip ; but as to her learning, it turns out that 
she was rather a patroness of poets and scholars than much of a 
performer herself in that line. She is said to have assisted her 
brother Philip in his Arcadia, a long wearisome kind of novel, such 
as novels then were, but nevertheless written in good wholesome 
sterling old English, and containing many beautiful ideas and 
passages. Some of the verses in it are said to have been written by 
her. If so, there is no particular reason for regretting that she did 
not write more. The epitaph just recited is very pretty, but without 
wishing to detract in the least from merit justly due, it may be 
observed that one rather mistrusts praise extravagantly bestowed ; 

» The epitaph is found in the MS. volume of poems by W. Browne in the 
Lansdowne MS., No. 777. 

34 The Eminent Ladies of WiltsJiire History. 

and that this famous epitaph when sifted does seem rather extrava- 
gantj for the plain English of it is, that so long as the world shall 
last the like of her shall never again be seen, and that there was no 
occasion to erect a stone memorial to her, because some other lady 
would, reading those lines, like Niobe, be so very accommodating 
as to turn into stone and so provide one.' The world has probably 
produced since this amiable Countesses time many as " learnM and 
fair and wise as she,^' but the memory of them has perished for 
want of a few pretty lines. 

Queen Jane Seymour was born at Wulfhall, an old manor 
house (of which a portion still remains near the Savernake Station), 
the home of her father, Sir John Seymour. There you may also 
still see a very long and curious old barn in which the people danced 
at her wedding. The hooks from which the tapestry was hung 
are still in the walls. She was sister of the Protector Somerset. 

The Protector's second wife is next to be named, the Lady Anne 
Stanhope, not a native, but an adopted lady of the county, mistress 
for the time of the Seymour house at Savernake and Wulfhall. This 
lady was the cause of great domestic trouble and partly of her 
husband's downfall. The Protector had a younger brother Thomas, 
Lord Sudeley, who married Katherine Parr, the Dowager Queen of 
Henry VIII. Here arose a difficulty. Anne Stanhope was wife of 
the elder brother, who was virtually King of England, and she 
refused to carry the train of the Queen Dowager, wife of the younger 
brother. So from the ladies' quarrel as to which should walk out 
first, the schism spread to the two husbands. Jealousies and dislike 
ensued ; and Thomas was sent to the block. In a very little time 
the Protector followed him : so, (as Dr. Fuller in his quaint way says) 
" what with this jostling for precedence, and what between the train 
of the Queen and the long gown of the Duchess, they raised so 
much dust at the Court, as at last to put out the eyes of both 
husbands. Women's brawls men's thralls." 

Wulfhall supplies us with another lady who was rather remarkable. 

^ It is fair to add (what the writer was not aware of at the time of reading this 
paper) that Gifford the critic had pronounced the second stanza to he a " paltry- 
addition." See Notes and Queries, 6th S., iv., 258. 

By the Rev. Canon J. E. Jackson, F.S.A. 36 

After the Protector's death his son, the Earl of Hertford, married 
for his first wife poor Lady Catharine Grey, sister of Lady Jane 
Grey. The marriage displeased Queen Elizabeth, who sent them to 
the Tower, where Lady Catharine very soon died. The Earl then 
married a widow, Frances Howard, of the Bindon Branch of that 
old aristocratic family. 

The history of Frances Howard, before the Earl of Hertford met 
with her, is curious. Notwithstanding- her fine pedigree, she had 
married first a vintner or wine seller's son, one Mr. Prannell. This 
gentleman had been so awe-struck at marrying so grand a lady, 
that he actually wrote a letter to Secretary Walsingham, apologising 
for his own audacity. However this first husband died very early, 
and left her all his money. She then listened to the addresses of 
Sir George Rodney, of Somersetshire ; but before anything came of 
that, she had met with the Earl of Hertford, just a widower, where- 
upon she left Sir George Rodney out in the cold. Sir George was 
really in love with her : and not being able to bear up against his 
disappointment, he went to Ambresbury, where the Earl and Countess 
of Hertford then lived, stopped at the village inn, wrote to her a 
paper of verses in his own blood, and then ran himself through with, 
his sword. 

During her married life with the Earl of Hertford, Frances 
Howard used often to indulge in discourse about her own family, 
and talk in a rather ostentatious way about her two grandfathers, 
the Duke of Norfolk and the Duke of Buckingham ; how the one 
had done this and the other that. Sometimes when she was in this 
humour, the Earl, her husband, would stop her with something of 
this kind — " Ah, Frances, Frances, but how long is it since thou 
didst marry the vintner's son ? " The Earl died, leaving her a large 
jointure of £5,000 a year. She then married again, and, mounting 
a step higher in the world, became the wife of the Duke of Richmond 
and Lenox. He also died before her, when she determined to fly at 
still higher game. King James I. was then a widower, and she 
gave out in society, in order that it might reach the King's ears, 
that she had made up her mind never to eat again at the table of a 
subject. But this bait did not catch the old King, so that she 

D 2 

S6 The Uminent Ladies of Wiltshire History. 

missed her aim ; but she nevertheless kept her word, and observed 
her vow to the last. There is a fine portrait of this singularly 
eminent Duchess of Richmond, late Hertford, late Prannell, at 
Longleat — a full-length, in black dress with a starched ruff, and a 
long staff in her hand. Her air is somewhat domineering and 
imperious, quite corresponding with her biography. 

Next, in our show, comes a very different personage, a native, I 
believe, of Fonthill, Lady Eleanor Audley, wife of Sir John Da vies, 
of Tisbury. She was simply a half-crazy enthusiast, who followed 
the dangerous business of prophesying. Her rank and connexion 
made her notorious, and her denunciations against men in power in 
the days of the Commonwealth created some confusion and brought 
her into trouble. The title of the first of her two printed books is, 
"Eleanor Audley's Prophesies. Amend, Amend, Amend. Mene, 
Tekel, Upharsin." This is in verse and an extraordinary rhapsody. 
The other book is called " Strange and Wonderful Prophecies by the 
Lady Eleanor Audley, who is yet alive and lodgeth in Whitehall : 
which she prophesied 16 years ago, for which she was confined in 
the Tower and Bedlam : with Notes on the prophecies and how far 
they are fulfilled concerning the late King's Government, armies 
and people of England. 1649." She suffered a rigorous imprison- 
ment, and died in 1652.^ 

She is followed, after a long interval of one hundred years, by 
another literary lady, but of a better stamp — the Countess of 
Hertford, known by three volumes of correspondence with the 
Countess of Pomfret. She was by birth a Thynne of Longleat, 
granddaughter of Thomas, first Viscount Weymouth, and wife of 
Algernon Seymour, Earl of Hertford, who in 1748 became (the 
seventh) Duke of Somerset. They lived at the Castle at Marl- 
borough, afterwards the Inn, now the College. She patronized 
Thomson of the Seasons, and Shenstone, and is mentioned under 
certain fictitious names in the works of Dr. Watts and Mrs. Rowe. 

' The following letter to this lady, lately discovered, presents a rather ungentle 
portrait o£ her, hy some aggrieved contemporary : — 

" 1626. May. Brooke to Lady Eleanor Davies. Reproaches her for abuse of his wife and inno. 
cent child. Declares she has abandoned all goodness and modesty, is mad, ugly, blinded with pride 
of birth, &c. Threatens to scratch a mince-pie out oj her, and wishes her, as the most horrible of 
curses, to remain just what she is,"— {Domestic Calendar, State Papers, James I.) 

By the Rev. Canon J. E. Jackson, F.S.A. 87 

It was through this Countess of Hertford's influence with Queen 
Caroline, that the Poet Savage was saved from the gallows for having 
killed a man. Southey, in his book called "The Doctor/' has an 
interesting chapter upon this amiable lady, who died in 1754. 

Another literary lady lived about the same time, Miss Jane 
Collier. She was one of the daughters of the Rev. Arthur Collier, 
Rector of Langford, near Salisbury, a clergyman of much celebrity 
in his day, whose life has been written in a separate volume. Miss 
Jane was a quick-witted observant young lady, and a good Latin 
and Greek scholar ; and the use to which she turned her scholarship 
and shrewdness was to write a satirical little book called " The Art 
of ingeniously Tormenting''; containing " (I) Rules for the Husband, 
&c. ; (2) Rules for the wife, &c.; and (3) General Rules, for 
plaguing all your acquaintance." 

In 1777 died a lady of much celebrity in her day, the Duchess op 
QuEENSBEEBY. She was, by birth. Lady Catharine Hyde, second 
daughter of Henry, Earl of Clarendon, and was born at their family 
place, Purton, near Swindon. Her husband, the Duke of Queens- 
berry, was at that time owner of, and lived at, Ambresbury. Her 
beauty and wit are mentioned by some of the poets of the day, 
especially Gay and Prior, the latter of whom wrote a rather famous 
ballad about her, beginning " Fair Kitty, beautiful and young." 
She corresponded with Horace Walpole and Dean Swift, and judging 
from some of her letters, she appears to have been rather an original. 
Gay passed much of his time at Ambresbury, before the Duchess of 
Queensberry was acquainted with Swift; but the Duchess wishing 
to know him desired Gay to write from her house an invitation to 
Swift, which Gay did. To this she added a postscript :— " I would 
fain have you come to Ambresbury. I can't say you'll be welcome, 
for I don't know, and perhaps shall not like you ; but if I do not, 
you shall know my thoughts as soon as I do myself." Swift did 
not make his appearance, so Gay writes a more pressing invitation, 
in which he says :— " I think her so often in the right that you will 
have great difficulty in persuading me that she is in the wrong. 
The lady of the house is not given to show civility to those she does 
not like. She speaks her mind and loves truth. But I say no 

88 The Eminent Ladies of Wiltshire History. 

more, till I know whether her Grace will fill up the rest of the 
paper." Her Grace did fill it up, and in this way : — " Write I must, 
particularly now I have an opportunity to indulge my predominant 
spirit of contradiction. I do in the first place contradict most things 
Mr. Gay says of me to deter you from coming here ; which if you 
do, I hereby assure you that unless I like my way better, you shall 
have yours, and in all disputes you shall convince me, if you can. 
Pray come, that I may find out something wrong, for I, and I 
believe most women, have an inconceivable pleasure in finding out 
any fault, except their own." It does not appear that Dean Swift 
ever ventured to encounter this lively antagonist. There is an 
engraved portrait of the Duchess of Queensberry in Sir Richard 
Hoare^s Modern Wilts," which seems to have been taken when she 
fully deserved the description with which Prior^s ballad begins, 
"Pair Kitty, beautiful and young." She died in 17S7. 

In the following year, 1788, died another lady, a native of 
•of Devonshire, but by her marriage connected with this town 
of Bradford. This was the famous Miss Chudleigh, whose career 
was a very extraordinary one, and the talk of the whole country. 
I do not exactly reckon her among the Worthies of Wilts, but she 
was certainly eminent in one sense. She had a place at Court as 
Maid of Honour to the then Princess of Wales, and when very 
young she married privately a Mr. Hervey, brother of the Earl of 
Bristol. From him she separated very soon, and after twenty-five 
years, still remaining at Court, and Mr. Hervey being still alive, she 
married the Duke of Kingston, from whom the fine old house in 
this town takes its name. The Duke dying, left her all his estates 
for her life; but all his money absolutely for her own. The relatives 
of the Duke of course did not like this, and contested it. They 
procured proof of her first marriage with Mr. Hervey, which had 
never been legally dissolved, and then brought against her an action 
for bigamy, intending to shew that she could not lawfully be the 
wife of the Duke, and so to defeat the will. The trial took place 
before the House of Lords, and for five days was the great sight in 
London, being attended by enormous crowds in-doors and out. She 
had been very beautiful, but by this time there was not much of 

By the Rev. Canon J. E. Jackson, F.S.d. 39 

that left. She came dressed in deep mourning, attended by four 
young ladies in white, as maids of honour. The end of it was that 
she was found guilty ; but it so happened that, after all, this had 
no effect upon her fortune, for it was found that the Duke's will had 
been so carefully worded that they could not disturb it. The 
magazines of the day record many of her doings, which do not at 
all appear to have been of a vicious kind, but rather those of a very 
wealthy lady, who was at the same time very eccentric and very 
fond of publicity. 

The village of Box, about the end of the last century, was the 
home of the Bowdler family. Thomas Bowdler, the father, was 
the editor of a work now out of print, but one that ought to be re- 
printed, "The Family Shakespeare," in which the vulgar rubbish 
stuffed in by the players or even by the author himself, to please 
" the ears of the groundlings,'^ is cut out, and the work rendered 
more capable of being read out aloud in families. Mr. Bowdler 
had two daughters, Jane and Henrietta Maria, both of a literary 
turn. One of them wrote " Poems," which reached a sixteenth 
edition, the other some religious works and biography. 

About the same time lived a lady of popular reputation, Mrs. 
Delany, born at Coulston, near Earlstoke. She was of the family 
of Granville, Lord Lansdown, and married Mr. Delany, an Irish 
clergyman. She was literary and accomplished, corresponded with 
Dean Swift, and was an intimate friend of Margaret Cavendish 
Harley, Duchess of Portland (celebrated by Prior as " my noble, 
lovely little Peggy ") . Being left in very reduced circumstances, 
her case was mentioned to King George III. and Queen Charlotte, 
who not only invited her to reside near them at Windsor, but allowed 
her a pension of £300 a year. She was skilful in painting, em- 
broidery, and shell-work, but what she was most remarkable for was 
an invention called " Paper Mosaic,'' a mode of imitating the forms 
and colours of plants and flowers by means of variously-tinted papers. 
The description of the process is too long to be given now.^ There 
is a good deal about this lady in the Memoirs of the Granville 

* See Britton's Beauties of Wilts, vol. iii., p. 320. 

40 The Eminent Ladies of Wiltshire History. 

Family, published a few years ago j particularly her letters, in which 
she g-ives an interesting description of the domestic ways of Windsor 
Castle in the time of George III. She died in 1788, at a great age 
and blind. There is a portrait of her in the collection at Hampton 

I come now to our own times in naming a scientific lady of this 
neighbourhood, who did good service in — a cause which ladies do 
not often undertake — the Science of Geology. I mean the late Miss 
Etheleed Benet, of Norton Bavent, near Warminster. She studied 
Geology in its very early days, before it had been taken up and 
had reached the very important position which it occupies now. She 
formed a very large and fine collection of the fossil organic remains 
of that neighbourhood, especially of what is called the Green Sand 
formation, a complete list of which is printed in Sir R. C. Hoare's 
" History of the Hundred of Warminster." I believe her collection 
has been disposed of since her death. I used, when a student at 
Oxford, to attend the lectures of the well-known Dr. Buckland, 
who brought that science so prominently into notice, and I recollect 
very well his speaking most highly of this geological lady, and how 
her merits met with rather a curious reward. She had sent a set of 
Wiltshire fossils as a present to the Museum at St. Petersburg. 
The Emperor of Russia, wishing to acknowledge the gilt by an 
Imperial compliment, supposing from the Anglo-Saxon name of 
Ethelred that the donor must be a gentleman, caused to be sent to 
her a very grand diploma, conferring on Miss Ethelred the Honorary 
Degree of Doctor of Civil Law in the University of St. Petersburg. 

There are a few other notices of ladies belonging to this county 
in modern times, who have indulged in the luxury of writing books; 
but I must quit these peaceful associations and pass to that other 
mode of obtaining eminence which is open to ladies — the Art of 

What Heroines have we in Wiltshire history ? If under this head 
we may include a case not precisely of military valour, but of 
courageous spirit in very horrible and tragic circumstances, it will 
enable me to mention a noble old lady, who lived some centuries ago 
indeed, but was born within three miles of Bradford, at Farley 

By the Rev. Canon J. E. Jackson, F.S.A. 41 

Castle. I had occasion to mention before, that during the Wars of 
the Roses, the Hungerfords of that place being on the losing side, 
forfeited their estates. When King Edward IV. came to the throne 
he granted Farley Castle to his brother George, Duke of Clarence, 
of Malmesey butt celebrity. The Duke of Clarence had an only 
daughter, Margaret Plantagenet, created Countess of Salisbury. 
She lived to old age, and became the last representative of the White 
Rose or Yorkist party. When Henry VIII was king, he was led 
to suspect that the White Rose party was hatching a conspiracy to 
renew a contest for the Succession to the throne. A charge, which 
she declared to be totally unfounded, was got up against her, and 
she was sentenced to be beheaded for treason. Being ordered to lie 
down and lay her head upon the block, the proud old lady declared 
that she was no traitor, and would never submit to prostrate herself 
as one ; and that if the executioner wanted her head, he might fetch 
it oflF as he could. It is stated in the history that the man laid hold 
of her grey hairs and pursued her round the scaflPold, till, by dint of 
chopping and mangling, he succeeded in despatching her. 

But we come now to a real heroine in actual warfare, Blanche 
Somerset, Lady Arundell, the gallant defender of Wardour Castle 
against the Parliament army in 1 643. Wardour is in South Wilts, 
near Fonthill. The old Castle is still to be seen in its battered state, 
and being surrounded by fine cedar trees is a very picturesque object 
well worth visiting. Wardour House^ where the present Arundell 
family live, is a modern building about a mile from it. 

Blanche Somerset was a daughter of the Earl of Worcester, an 
ancestor of the Duke of Beaufort. She married Thomas, second 
Lord Arundell of Wardour. In 1643, Lord Arundell had left his 
castle in order to attend King Charles I. at Oxford. During his 
absence a body of thirteen hundred men, under command of two 
Parliamentary officers. Sir Edward Hungerford and Colonel Strode, 
came up to the castle with orders to seize it for the Parliament. 
The garrison consisted only of Blanche, Lady Arundell, and her 
children, another lady, some maid -servants, and twenty-five men. 
The enemy, thirteen hundred men and artillery, summoned her to 
surrender. It is for you, ladies, to imagine yourselves in that very 

43 The Eminent Ladies of Wiltshire History. 

disagreeable situation, and to determine what you would have done. 
You would have had various similar examples to enable you tc come 
to some conclusion. There was Blechington House, in Oxfordshire, 
commanded by Colonel Windebank, the governor, attacked by 
Cromwell. The governor's wife, a young and beautiful bride, per- 
suaded her husband to give up at once without a blow, which he 
did : for which afterwards a council of war condemned him to lose 
his head. On the other hand, there was Corfe Castle, in Dorsetshire, 
defended by Lady BA^KES for several weeks successfully. There 
was Lathom House, in Lancashire, defended by the Countess op 
Derby, who sent back by the summoner this intrepid reply, " I'll 
neither give it up nor desert it. I'll set fire to it first and burn it 
and myself in it." Then there is for further encouragement to the 
valiant, that fine old French General, who was besieged in the Castle 
of Vincennes, close to Paris, and who had lost a leg in the siege. 
One more chance was offered him, but his answer was, " Je vous 
rendrai le fort, quand vous me rendrez ma jambe." [I'll give you 
up the castle when you give me back m}' leg.] Well, our Wiltshire 
heroine's reply, when summoned to give up Wardour, was this: — 
" I have a command from my husband to keep it, and I shall obey 
his command." She stood out for five days most bravely ; but 
having so few people, the very maid-servants being obliged to help in 
loading the guns, a great part of the castle having been blown up 
by a mine, and another mine being ready to blow up the rest, it 
was hopeless to continue the struggle, but she still refused to sur- 
render, unless upon written conditions, that all lives should be 
spared, and no damage done. The original document so written is 
still preserved at Wardour. The first condition was observed, but 
not the second. Lady Arundell was 6U years of age at the time of 
this event. There is a portrait of her at the Duke of Beaufort^s 
house at Badminton. 

We have in this county a partial claim to another heroine, who 
has earned undying memory in the history of England, the lady 
who, as Miss Jane Lane, risked her life in assisting King Charles 
II. in his escape from Boscobel, after the battle of Worcester. The 
king, in disguise as her servant, rode on horseback with Miss Jane 

By the Bev. Canon J. E. Jackson, P.S.A. 


sitting behind him on a pillion^ after the style of those days, all the 
way from Staffordshire to Lyme Regis in Dorsetshire. They had 
many very narrow escapes. She afterwards married Mr. Edward 
Nicholas, one of a very old Wilts family, and lived and died at 
Manning-ford Braose, beyond Devizes, where there is in that Church 
a monument with an inscription recording this event. 

Akin to female bravery is female audacity ; and of this there are 
two or three cases on record, relating, as might be expected, to 
persons of a lower class of life than those which have been mentioned. 
But the spirit is the same ; though the circumstances less dignified. 

In military history there are several instances of women having 
contrived to pass themselves as men and serve as soldiers in the 
army. About one hundred years ago, a young Wiltshire woman, 
having dressed herself in man's clothes, was taken by a press-gang 
at Salisbury to serve in the fleet, at the beginning of the American 
War. She remained in the service till August, 1780, when she was 
taken up for a street row as one of the principals in a pugilistic 
combat, and discovered. She had assumed the name of John Davis, 
alias something else. Now all this is low enough, but had this 
woman been born under a more fortunate star, Nature had qualified 
her to be a Joan of Arc. 

About the same date, one Mary Abraham, alias Mary Sandall, 
of Baverstock, near Salisbury, actually assumed the dress and equip- 
ment of a mounted highwayman. She practised the " stand and 
deliver" business in that neighbourhood once too often, and was 
tried at the assizes in 1779. What rendered her daring the more 
remarkable was, that she took up the calling of a highway-woman 
just after the execution of the notorious Thomas Boulter, of Poulshot, 
who had been the terror of the county, and whose exploits are not 
quite forgotten yet. 

A third instance of female audacity — or rather, this time, of 
impudence — is that of Anne Simms, of Studley Green, near Bremhill. 
She was a most noted poacher, and till past the age of a hundred 
years often used to boast of having sold at gentlemen's kitchen- 
doors fish taken out of their own ponds. Almost to the last she 
would walk to and from Bo wood, about three miles ftom Studley 

44 The Eminent Ladies of Wiltshire History. 

Green. Her coffin and shroud she had kept in her apartment for 
more than twenty years. 

To these instances of audacity is to be added one of eccentricity. 

In 1776 died Julian Pobjoy. She was born at Warminster, or 
the neig-hbourhood, and used to boast that she was related to the 
Beckfords of Fonthill. She was a woman of " strong mind," and, 
in the days of Beau Nash mingled in the fashionable and dissipated 
society of Bath. In later life she returned to Warminster, and 
lived — with a little dog — in a hollow tree ! How that was managed, 
and how a lady who had moved in Bath drawing-rooms contrived 
to lodge in such a place, she only could tell. One would say it was 
a case of eminent insanity ; but it does not appear to have been so. 
She was always scrupulously clean and neatly dressed, and never 
went abroad without her dog under her arm. She got her livelihood 
as general errand-bearer, and used to walk many miles a day col- 
lecting herbs for the apothecaries. She was the chief medium of 
communication between Longleat and Warminster. 

Glancing back over the list of names that have been mentioned, I 
can only say that these are really all I have been able to meet with 
in books about Wiltshire; so that we have some eminent for their 
piety, some for their valour, and some — for their oddity. 

You naturally say — Surely there must have been many more? 
About that there can be no doubt ; but if you would know the 
reason why we do not hear of them, you shall have it in the words 
of the author of " Curiosities of Literature," Mr. Isaac Disraeli, 
father of the late Lord Beacon sfield : — 

" The nation has lost many a noble example of men and women 
acting a great part on great occasions ; and we may be confident 
that many a name has not been inscribed on the roll of national 
glory, only from wanting a few drops of ink. Such domestic annals 
may yet be viewed in the family records at Appleby Castle, in 
Westmoreland. Anne, Countess of Pembroke" (a Wiltshire lady 
for a short time by residence) " was a glorious woman, the descendant 
of two potent northern families, the Veteriponts and the Cliffijrds. 
She lived in a state of regal magnificence and independence, in- 
habiting five or seven castles ; yet though her magnificent spirit 

Notes on Wiltshire Geology and Palaontolgy. 45 

poured itself out in her extended charities, and though her indepen- 
dence equalled that of monarchs, yet she herself, in her domestic 
habits, lived as a hermit in her own castles. Though only acquainted 
with her native language, she had cultivated her mind in many parts 
of learning ; and as Dr. Donne, in his way, observes, she knew how 
to converse of every thing; from predestination down to slea-silk. 
Her favourite design was to have materials collected for the history 
of those two potent northern families to whom she was allied ; and 
at a considerable expense she employed learned persons to make 
collections for this purpose from the records in the Tower, the Rolls 
and other depositories of manuscripts. She had three large volumes 
fairly transcribed. Anecdotes of a great variety of characters, who 
had exerted themselves on very important occasions, compose these 
family records, and induce one to wish that the public were in pos- 
session of such annals of the domestic life of heroes and of sages 
who have only failed in obtaining an historian." 

By Chaeles Mooee, F.G.S. 

HAVE selected the above as a suitable title for my address 
to you at this meeting, not that I am a Wiltshire geologist, 
or that my experience of the district is sufficient to make me master 
of the subject ; but now that there is such a multiplicity of kindred 
societies, papers should, as far as possible, have a local bearing upon 
their respective areas. But if anyone may be permitted to break 
through this reservation it may be allowed to the geologist, as he 
has a wide field of observation ; and physical conditions but feebly 
represented in one locality may necessitate references to similar 
phenomena in which they may be more developed in others ,by which 
it is surrounded. 

46 Notes on Wiltshire Geology and Paleontology . 

I have had more than forty years' experience in my native county 
of Somerset, and still doubt if another lifetime would exhaust the 
marvellous history which, when minutely studied, is to be read 
within its borders ; for, with few exceptions, there are to be found 
the representatives of almost every geological formation. Occasional 
rambles'across its borders into Wiltshire have, however, enabled me 
to refer to a few points that may be of interest. 

Meeting your Society in the town of Bradford -on- A von, I ought 
not to forget making a reference to a former townsman, the late 
Mr. Channing Pearce. He was one who as a geologist was far in 
advance of his time, and blessed as he was, in addition to acute 
geological observation, with ample means to forward his tastes, had 
assembled before his death one of the most interesting geological 
collections out of London ; and, had he lived, would probably have 
been the historian of Wiltshire geology and palaeontology. He was 
my first geological friend, and for some time we corresponded 
without having had a meeting. When it came it was a curious one. 
The little town of Ilminster — where I lived — before the advent of 
railways, was the high road for travellers into the West of England. 
Without any notice or introduction an individual, throwing open 
the doors of the room where I was sitting, rushed in, out of breath 
and bespattered with mud, asking humedly, " Are you Charles 
Moore ? " My first conviction was that he was an escaped lunatic, 
but the explanation came that he was Channing Pearce, of Bradford, 
who, whilst the coach-horses were being changed, had found his 
way to me, but had lost his equilibrium in turning a corner on the 

The great variety found in Somersetshire geology, and many of 
its peculiar physical characters are chiefly due to the uplift of the 
Mendip range. There is no doubt that the palaeozoic rocks of 
which these hills are composed where they disappear, near Frome, 
pass beneath the secondary beds of Wiltshire, and continuing under 
London, where their presence has been proved by a boring of 1050 
feet, come again to the surface on the other side of the channel ; the 
carboniferous limestone and the coal measures being found in the 
Boulonuais, and there is, therefore, every reason to believe that the 

By Charles Moore, F.G.S. 47 

rocks forming the eastern edge of the Somersetshire coal basin in 
its passage to the north lie under the secondary rocks of this district. 
The basement limestone beds, but without any superimposed coal, 
were found in a sinking at Batheaston, and they reach the surface 
in a small uplift, under Lansdowne, and at Wick, clearly indicating 
the eastern outline of the basin ; it is therefore quite possible that 
in the foldings of these beds, the coal measures may be somewhere 
present under Wiltshire. Within my recollection several ill-advised 
and abortive attempts to find coal have been made. In two instances 
shafts were commenced in the Oxford Clay, one of the upper beds 
of the oolites, and were all the beds between it and the carboniferous 
series present in their normal thicknesses, it is probable several 
thousand feet would have to be passed through before the latter 
could have been reached. The experimental boring put down at 
Netherfield, near Battle, Sussex, proved that at that spot the 
Oxford and Kimmeridge Clays were nearly 2000 feet in thickness, 
though this was probably an exceptional thickness. At Kimmeridge 
the latter are about 600 feet thick. 

The palaeozoic rocks under Wiltshire are hidden by a wide-spread 
development of secondary formations, which, in ascending order, 
include the following' : — 

Upper Lias 
Inferior Oolite 
Fuller's Earth 
Stonesfield Slate? 
Great Oolite 
Bradford Clay 
Forest Marble 
Oxford Clay 
Coral Rag 

Kimmeridge Clay 
Portland Oolite 
Purbeck Beds 
Lower Green Sand 

Upper Green Sand 

Tertiary Beds 
Post Pliocene Drifts and 
Brick Earth. 

Some of these, especially the Bradford Clay, the Cornbrash, and 
Forest Marble, are but thin and local, and though useful as divisions, 
do not exercise the same influence on the general physical characters 
of the county as the bold escarpments of the chalk, or the level 
plains of the Oxford and Kimmeridge Clays. This may be said 

48 Notes on Wiltshire Geology and Talaontology. 

also of the Inferior Oolite and the Upper Lias, which, in this part 
of the county, are only seen at Limpley Stoke and Preshford. 

For this reason, although the latter are, when well exposed, 
crowded with organic remains, some of them of much interest, no 
reference is needed to them here, and the same may be said of the 
Fuller's Earth. 

The Great Oolite above has the first claim to our attention, more 
especially as its freestone forms one of the staple trades of Bradford 
and its neighbourhood. Its beds are composed either of minute 
calcareous egg-like non-organic concretions, or of comminuted shells, 
reunited by a calcareous paste ; included in which are various forms 
of contemporary mollusca, occasional teeth of fishes, whose carti- 
lagenous skeletons have altogether perished, with a mixture of corals, 
bryozoa, &c. Although these remains are repeatedly to be observed 
in the beds of this district, they are not to be compared in richness 
with those of the Gloucestershire Cotteswolds, which have yielded 
more than four hundred species. But the palaeontological character 
of the Great Oolite at Bradford is redeemed by one most interesting 
organism, the Apiocrinus rotundus, or Pear Encrinite. Whilst the 
Great Oolite was being deposited, or rather at a period of rest after 
deposition, there lived at Bradford a colony of these interesting 
creatures. They are chiefly confined to the upper surface of the 
beds, to which they were attached by a broad or sucker-like base j 
from this sprang a stem composed of a number of disc-like plates, on 
which the pear-shaped body was superimposed, and in the centre of 
which the mouth of the animal was placed. On its outer edge a 
Beries of flexible many -jointed arms was arranged, ever ready to 
seize and convey to its mouth any unwary creatures that came 
within their reach. This colony of gracefully-waving organisms 
would have been an interesting one, when living, for a naturalist to 
have looked down upon, especially as very few of the family now 
exist. After living as I have described, a change came and they 
were all destroyed by an irruption of mud into the sea, the deposit 
being geologically known as the Bradford Clay. It is very local, 
and scarcely to be recognized elsewhere, even at Hampton Down, 
near Bath, although a few scattered encrinital plates are found, the 

By Charles Moore, F.G.8. 49 

clay deposit is wanting, and in its stead succeed the Great Oolite 
rag-gy beds, composed almost entirely of corals and sponges, whilst 
clustering amongst them were many interesting forms of Oolitic 
Brachiopoda. These are to be met with — though not so abundantly 
— at Box, and in the quarry openings at Monkton Farleigh and 
elsewhere. They have yielded to myself a rich harvest, including 
many forms new to science. This important family has in past 
geological time yielded in the aggregate many thousand species, 
whilst in the present seas only about one hundred species are known. 
Some of them contain in their interiors a wonderfully delicate spire 
or loop, which served during the life of the animal to support its 
softer parts. All genera have their special animal forms and the 
processes differing internally in each genus — though in the same 
species they are usually alike. A curious variation from this law, 
however, occurs in the Terehratella Biickmani. In dissecting this 
shell, which occurs in the Great Oolite of this district, for its in- 
ternal structure, I found that the calcareous processes differed 
materially, apparently altering in form, during its several stages o£ 
growth, a fact not hitherto noticed in any other member of this 
family. Another of this group — the Theeidium — was a few years 
back only represented by two species, one in the Green Sand, and 
another in the chalk, whilst only one species was known in our 
recent seas — recently, however, increased to two or three. It had 
its largest life development in the secondary deposits of which I am 
speaking, and I have been fortunate enough to obtain from our 
Oolitic beds alone as many as twelve new species. 

The Forest Marble, which succeeds the Bradford Clay, was for- 
merly raised at Wormwood and Atford for roofing tiles, but has 
since been almost superseded by lighter material. For palaeonto- 
logical reasons this seems a pity, for they yielded the enamelled teeth 
of many fishes whose cartilagenous skeletons have perished, and 
with them occasionally the teeth of reptilia, including Teleosawus 
and Megalosaurus. 

The Cornbrash is usually a persistent rock-bed in succession, and has 
its characteristic fossils. It is found atCorsham and nearMalmesbury. 
The Kelloway Rock, which follows, occurs at the village of that name, 


50 Notes on Wiltshire Geology and Palaontology. 

The Oxford Clay, next in order, is continuous from the Dorsetshire 
coast all the way to Scarborough ; and extended through Wiltshire 
as a level belt, occasionally five or six miles broad, and having a thick- 
Bess of about 600 feet. It consists chiefly of thinly laminated 
marls, which are seldom opened up, except in pits for brick -making. 
Owing to this much is lost to the palseontologist, as the beds are 
crowded with organic remains, many of which are of high interest, 
and include IchtJi^/osaurus, Pliosaurus, and Sieneosaurus, many of 
large size. But the harvest times as regarded this formation were 
in the days of my friend Pearce, for then the Great Western Railway 
was in course of construction, and on either side of the line between 
Chippenham and Wootton Bassett pits may be seen — now mostly 
filled with water — from which the laminated marls were extracted be- 
low a covering of mammal drift gravels. These marls were crowded 
with Ammonites, the shells of which still possessed their perfect 
terminations, a feature rarely seen in other formations. Belemnites 
—the internal shells of an animal allied to the cuttle fish — abounded, 
and the cuttle fish also, so perfect that its cuttle bone remains, its 
original fluid ink is preserved, and on its extended arms are still 
arrayed the horny hooks and suckers used in capturing its prey. 
Another unique specimen, from Christian Malford, was a colony of 
barnacles, that still remained attached to its stalk. Crustacete of 
peculiar form and fish were also plentiful. Had I been a landowner 
on the Oxford Clay I should long since have been tempted to open 
some pits for the ancient natural history they would have revealed. 

In most of the beds containing Ammonites a curious triangular 
bivalve body is found called Trigonellites. It occurs in the Oxford 
Clay, but more plentifully in the Kimmeridge beds. They are more 
often found free, but occasionally in the outer chamber of the Am- 
monite itself. No organism, probably, has been a greater puzzle to 
paleontologists. By some authors they have been supposed to be 
bivalve shells, and named AptycMs, Munsteria, and Cirripedes — by 
others the gizzards of the Ammonite, or the operculum of that 
shell, the last view being that now generally adopted, though I have 
some reasons for believing that eventually this will not be found 

By Charles Moore, F.G.S. 51 

Between the Oxford and the Kimmeridge Clays there are inter- 
posed beds of lower and upper calcareous grits, separated by a deposit 
known as the Coral Rag, typical exanjples of which are to be found 
near Parringdon, and at Lyneham, Wootton Bassett, and Steeple 
Ash ton. The latter represents a true coral reef of the secondary 
period. Some of the corals are in beautiful preservation. At Steeple 
Ashton good collecting ground may be found in the arable fields, 
the plough sometimes touching the surface of the reef, and thereby 
bring"ing the corals to light. Calne, which is on this formation, 
was formerly a celebrated locality for Echini. It is not usual for 
the long spines of this family to be still found in a fossil state 
attached to their shells, but this used to be the case at Calne, and 
indicated that they had a very quiet entombment. Examples in 
this condition are now more rarely found. Lyneham has been to 
myself an interesting locality, as I have found there three species of 
Thecididse, the T. ornaiibm, Moore, and the T. pygmmi^m, Moore, 
being hitherto confined to that locality. There are also examples 
of the minute but exceedingly beautiful shells of Foraminifera, one 
of which, an Involid'ma, is probably a new species. Carpenteria, 
another of the family, is worth notice. Until lately it was only 
known as a recent marine organism. I have recently found it in 
the Green Sand brought up from the Meux well boring, 1000 feet 
under London, and since then at Lyneham, but its life-history has 
yet to be traced through intervening deposits to the present time. 
Like others of this family it obtained its food by means of minute 
openings in its shell, through, which its pseudopodia were projected, 
which appear to have seized everything within their reach. In 
some recent specimens minute silicious spines, which must have 
proved very indigestible morsels, have been found in their chambers. 
The Kimmeridge Clays which follow are interesting in connection 
with Wiltshire geology. They extend throughout the county to 
the hamlet of Kimmeridge, on the Dorsetshire coast, whence they 
take their name. I have before remarked on their great thickness 
in the Sussex boring. Some beds are so mineralized and bituminous 
as to be used by the villagers on the coast for fuel. They contain 
large quantities of oil, which it has been hoped might eventually be 

E % 

52 Notes on Wiltshire Geology and Paleontology. 

extracted, and more than one company has been formed for utilizing 
it for gas manufacture and for paraffine. Hitherto one difficulty is 
insuperahle, arising from the fetid odour it emits when heated. 
Ship-loads of it were sent to some London gas works, and to France, 
the stench soon made itself perceptible in the neighbourhood of the 
works, and the proprietors were compelled to cease using it and 
would have been only too glad to have paid return freights to have 
got rid of the material. Could this difficulty be overcome its 
commercial value may be seen when it is stated that whilst New- 
castle coal gives 8,000 feet of gas per ton, with an illuminating 
power equal to twelve candles, Kimmeridge Shale gives 12,000 
cubic feet of gas per ton, with an illuminating power of eighteen 
candles. At Swindon these clays are used for brick-making. They 
contain an abundance of organic remains, though of but few species 
and those usually much crushed and distorted. The shells of the 
Ammonites still retain all the nacreous colours of the rainbow. The 
liassic period has usually been called the " age of reptiles,'' but if 
the Kimmeridge Clays were as extensively worked they would vie 
with it for this designation. Some of the genera living at the 
period must have been formidable creatui'es. Not long since remains 
of a new genus, named by Professor Owen, Omosavrus armatus were 
found at Swindon. Great care was exercised in the removal of the 
septarian-like stone in which they lay and in their after development. 
It contained the pelvic portion of the animal with limb bones and 
some of its vertebrae, and so far as it goes it is a grand specimen, the 
femur alone is 3| feet in length. The lower jaw of another genus, 
Pliosaums, was for a long time stowed away undeveloped at the 
Swindon works, until stumbled upon by Mr. Cunnington. I have 
found part of a jaw near Melksham, and the genus is found also at 
Kimmeridge. A tooth of this creature has been found a foot long. 
Bothriospondylus, Cetiosaurus, Ichthyosaurus, Plesiosaurus, Teleo- 
sanrus, and Steneosaurus also occur in this formation. 

The Poitland and Purbeck beds, which overlie the Kimmeridge 
Clay, are the upper members of the Oolitic series, and present a re- 
markable contrast with the latter. The physical conditions under 
which they were deposited must have been very different, for the 

By Charles Moore, F.G.S. 53 

Kimmeridge Clay is almost entirely argillaceous, whilst the Portland 
Sands are as distinctly arenaceous. These pass into the limestones 
of the series, and all are marine. But the Purbeck beds above are 
either brackish or have been deposited by fresh water. The con- 
sequence of this has been an almost entire change in organic life, 
which could only have been brought about by a great lapse of time 
in their formation. They have but small development in Wiltshire, 
occurring as outliers at Bourton and Swindon, and again at Chicks- 
grove and Tisbury. At Portland, and on the coast at Swanage, they 
have their chief development, the Purbeck beds alone — which at 
Swindon are but about 10 feet thick — being there estimated at 300 
feet. These beds, including those of the Wealden above, with 
which they are intimately associated, have in their full development 
a thickness of 2500 feet, and Professor Ramsay suggests that they 
are the lagoon or delta of an immense river then continuous through 
a continent as large as Asia, rivalling in size the Ganges or the 
Mississippi. That it was bounded by dry land, which now seems 
to have entirely disappeared, is evidenced by the fact that its in- 
significant representative at Swindon has yielded to me the remains 
of terrestrial marsupial mammals, reptiles, insects, and vegetation, 
that were caught up and re-deposited by its waters. On the 
Dorsetshire coasts the Purbeck beds have yielded not less than ten 
genera and and twenty-five species of land animals. How interesting 
it would be if we could go back and stand upon the banks of this 
mighty river and realize all the physical changes it would indicate ! 
I need scarcely say that crowded as are the Chalk beds of this 
country with organic remains, there is still good work to be done 
with them. Warminster and its neighbourhood has always repaid 
examination. As I have not worked in these beds I must pass on 
and shall only refer to conditions immediately preceding or contem- 
poraneous with the dawn of our own era. At this time, though no 
doubt there have been some modifications in the outlines of our hills 
and valleys, their forms were generally what they now present. But 
their climatic conditions were altogether different; periods of ex- 
treme cold, with alternating intervals of higher temperature. These 
are included in the Glacial Period, within which were deposited our 

54 Notes on WiltsJdre Geology and, Paleontology. 

river gravels^ and cave earths, and the brick clays and loams, in all 
of which are found abundantly the remains of mammalia, now ex- 
tinct. Within a mile-and-a-half of Bradford I have found in the 
gravels near the railway Eleplias primigenius, Ovibos moschatus, now 
known only within the Arctic circle, Rhinoceros, &c., whilst in the 
illustrative Blackmore Museum, at Salisbuiy, Reindeer, Marmot, 
Lemming, and other Arctic genera may be seen. The works of man 
indicate his advent at this period, but we still desire a fuller know- 
ledge of early man himself. This will, without doubt, come. But 
I have detained you too long, and will conclude by saying that the 
Oolitic table-lands of this district indicate the very latest periods of 
intense cold which this county experienced. Fresh water deposits oc- 
cupied the summits of the hills around. This is only to be accounted 
for by periodic accumulations of frozen snow in the long winters. 
As these melted the water passed down through the numerous fissures 
to be found in the great Oolite, filling them, as is often the case, with 
an ochreous muddy deposit, carrying with it the bones of animals of 
a more recent period than those previously referred to, whilst large 
glaciers were also detached from the sides of the valleys to melt in 
the lower levels, carrying with them moraine materials derived from 
the higher grounds. The fissures referred to often contain the bones 
of animals of this later period. Thus at least 200 feet above our 
present rivers I have repeatedly found Arvicola or Water Rat. At 
Monkton Farleigh at one spot I found about half a cart-load of the 
dismembered bones of Frogs. At Combe Down I found the entire 
skeleton of two horses, and at Box, 60 feet below the surface, the 
limb bones and vertebrae of Bison, which, though now extinct, lived 
on to these later times. 


foit| §raiforb'. 

By Feedbbick Shttm, P.S.A. 

MT was not until the year 1829, in the city of Rome, that the 
I ?^ first archaeological institute was formed. Since then nearly 
every country in Europe has followed suit, and in England almost 
every county has a society, the main object of which is the study of 
antiquity in connection with local researches. 

These provincial associations have directly and indirectly accom- 
plished much good, not only in giving a zest to archaeological 
pursuits, and in promoting topographical inquiries, but by recording 
the relics of the past in accurate memoirs and faithful drawings, as 
well as by afibrding pecuniary assistance to preserve these relics 
from material decay, and in some instances offering friendly remon- 
strances to save them from ruthless destruction. 

Foremost among these is the Wiltshire Archaeological Society. 
This county is rich in the possession of antiquarian objects of pre- 
eminent interest, and is equally celebrated for a succession of 
distinguished antiquaries, who, since the days of Aubrey, have been 
connected with it. JNIany localities in England, formerly unnoticed, 
and apparently devoid of interest, have become famous, and, in not 
a few of them, remains of great value have been discovered, and 
secured for the interest and instruction of future generations. 

The stimulus thus given may, in some cases, have been abused ; 
the zealous archaeologist is sometimes wont to invest his own par- 
ticular neighbourhood with fictitious interest and exaggerated im- 
portance. Visitors' guides and strangers' handbooks aflTord abundant 
evidence of what I mean — to read them is often a trial of great 
patience ; what little interest there may be in the natural history, 
geology, or antiquity of the place is so magnified, and the reference 
to any historical incidents or personages connected with it so far- 
fetched, as to excite only ridicule and contempt. Fortunately, there 

56 Some Notes on Gainsborough and his connection with Bradford. 

is no visitors' guide-book to Bradford-on-Avon, and so long as Canon 
Jones remains the viear it will be unnecessary ; every stranger may 
find in him, not only a safe and accurate guide, but one always 
ready to impart information relating to objects of interest in this 
quaint and picturesque town. 

It may, however, be objected) that in occupying your time and 
attention with a paper on recollections of Gainsborough in Bradford, 
I am myself guilty of claiming for this locality an interest in the 
great modern artist to which it is not entitled. The question 
may be asked, ''What connection is there between Bradford and 
Gainsborough,a man of mark, who was neither born nor buried here ? " 
The few notes now submitted will be my answer, and if it can be 
shown that there resided in Bradford a man whose force of character 
and remarkable physiognomy attracted the notice and secured the 
friendship of Gainsborough, and that in this place he executed a 
work that has ever since been regarded as an example of the highest 
style of portraiture, and is still considered by the best judges to be 
Gainsborough's masterpiece — if, moreover, it is found that the 
singular beauty of this valley brought Gainsborough from time to 
time to Bradford, to make sketches for some of his most charming 
landscapes, I think this town may not unfairly claim some connection 
with the great master — a connection more noteworthy than the 
circumstance, even if it could be afiirmed, that he was either born 
or buried here. 

The memoirs of Gainsborough are full of interest, on account of 
his residence in Bath when that city was in the heyday of its 
prosperity, and from the fact that he was — apart from his works — 
a notable character, a musician as well as an artist, possessing many 
admirable qualities with not a few eccentricities. But it is not my 
present purpose to give a recital of his life, only to refer you to a 
few passages in his histoiy. 

It will be in your recollection that Gainsborough was a native of 
Sudbury, in SuflFolk, a town about the size of Bradford-on-Avon, 
and somewhat similar in character ; memorable for its antiquity and 
early ecclesiastical remains, rich in picturesque old buildings, and 
surrounded by scenery of more than ordinary beauty. Both places 

By Frederick Slum, F.8.A. 57 

were celebrated for the manufacture of woollen cloth, before its in- 
troduction into other parts of England; Sudbury, however, has 
ceased to be a manufacturing town, while Bradford maintains, to 
some extent, its wonted reputation. 

He was born in 1737, thirty years after Hogarth, who is entitled 
to rank as the first great English artist; for — unlike his predecessors 
and contemporaries — Hogarth ignored and despised the convention- 
alities of foreign art; thoroughly original and independent, he was 
free from all trammells, and, in theory and practice, he persistently 
resisted a servile imitation o£ the " Black Masters/^ In the 
characters of these two distinguished masters there was little in 
common, still less in their works. Englishmen were only just be- 
ginning to know something about art and to appreciate its value. 
Hogarth and Gainsborough were both pioneers in the struggle for 
the emancipation of art from the thraldom of an artificial and debased 
foreign style. Their one aim and endeavour was to depict objects 
as they really appear, and to portray Nature simply and truthfully. 

Strange to say, the lapse of one hundred and fifty years has brought 
us to the opposite extreme ; and just as Foote, in his comedy of 
"Taste," performed at Drury Lane in 1753, ridiculed the aflTected 
mannerism and artificialities of art then prevalent ; so now, at the 
present time, the play-writers of the day, Burnand and Gilbert, are 
satirising, with merciless severity, the aestheticism now in fashion, 
which treats the simplest object in Nature as almost divine and 
worthy of devout admiration ; introducing into the very dress and 
conversation of everyday life, a style and jargon that every manly 
intellect cannot but despise as repugnant alike to common sense and 
good taste. It is a source of consolation, however, that there is 
this difference between the past and the present. In the former, 
all the patrons and professors of art were under the baneful influence; 
whereas, now that the knowledge and culture of art is so widely ex- 
tended, the number of those who render themselves and their works 
grotesque, by caricaturing the simplicity of Nature, is limited to a 
few morbid and conceited artists, who, hankering after notoriety, are 
bringing true art into contempt, by apeing simplicity and distorting 
truth, under the pretence of realism. Of course they have their 

58 Some Notes on Gainsborough and his connection with Bradford. 

following — young men about town, assuming the function of art- 
critics — strong minded ladies, with ample courage to pose in very 
little or in any, even the most fantastic costume, who " soulfully 
intense," converse in words and phrases too " unutterably utter ■'■' to 
describe ; and last, although not the least important, the newly- 
created professors of the nineteenth century — the art decorators. 

Early in life Gainsborough manifested a genius for drawing, and 
of him, as of many other precocious painters, well-known anecdotes 
are current. Perhaps the most characteristic, and the only one I 
need repeat, is connected with his school-life, showing, that his love 
of Nature at an early age was stronger than his revei'ence for truth. 
When a boy he loved to sketch from Nature, and one bright morning 
his anxiety to go sketching tempted him to forge a note from his 
father, in the customary form, to his school-master, " Please give 
Tom a holiday." The request was granted, and young Gainsborough, 
rejoicing in the glorious sunshine, fled to the fields and lanes with 
his drawing-book, but, on returning, found that his father having 
required his services at home had sent for him, when the forgery 
was detected. His father angrily exclaimed, " Tom will one day 
be hanged," but no sooner had his mother exhibited the clever 
sketches of her truant son than old Gainsborough, with mollified 
tone, declared that " Tom would one day be a genius." 

In his fifteenth year he was sent to London, and we learn from 
his biographer, in the Gentleman^'s Magazine, that he received in- 
structions from Gravelot, the engraver, who procured his admission 
to the academy in St. Martin's Lane. He afterwards studied under 
Hayman, and at the end of three years ventured upon a studio for 
himself, in Hatton Garden, where he painted landscapes and portraits 
for the dealers. The deplorable state of art in the schools at that 
period exercised its pernicious influence upon him, and his earliest 
works showed little genius or skill. Fortunately for his future 
reputation the London studio was not a success. After twelve 
months' trial he returned to his native county, and for fifteen years 
carefully, conscientiously, and devotedly, studied Nature amid the 
pleasant scenery of SuSblk, under every possible variety of aspect ; 
realising a moderate income without gaining more than a provincial 

By FredericJc Shum, F.S.A. 59 

reputation. Shortly after his return from London, in 1745, at the 
early age of eighteen, he married a young lady scarcely sixteen. 

Allan Cunningham, in his pleasant stories of the English painters, 
gives a romantic account o£ their first acquaintance, which Fulcher, 
in his biography, cruelly mars by a prosaic explanation. After 
careful inquiries, I believe the more poetical version to be equally 
accurate. However, the union was a happy one. Miss Margaret 
Burr, in addition to her beauty and £200 a year, possessed many 
estimable qualities, and among them caution, forbearance, and judg- 
ment : characteristics of inestimable value in after life, for Gains- 
borough lacked them all. She was of Scottish extraction, and is 
generally believed to have been the natural daughter of an English 
prince ; this was admitted by Mrs. Gainsborough, after her husband 
had attained fame and position. 

An enthusiastic lover of Nature, a clever musician, warm-hearted 
and impulsive, full of wit and humour, with intelligence and con- 
siderable conversational powers, handsome presence, genial manners 
and unaffected simplicity, he was welcomed in all circles. He became 
a general favourite with his fellow-townsmen in Ipswich, as well as 
with the neighbouring gentry. But he was a student and a lover 
of his art ; conscious of his power and determined to excel, for he 
had much to learn and not a little of his London art to unlearn. 

Towards the close of his residence in Ipswich he made the ac- 
quaintance of an extraordinary character, Ralph Thickn esse. Governor 
of Landguard Fort, who, on the title-page of his singular production 
styled himself late Lieutenant-Governor of Landguard Fort, "un- 
fortunately," father of George Touchet, Baron Audley. During 
the winter season Thicknesse resided in Bath at St. Catherine's 
Hermitage, in a picturesque dell, facetiously named by his friend. 
Lord Thurlow, Gully Hall. Here in his garden, where Saxon and 
Roman remains have been found, he erected a monument in memory 
of Chatterton, and beneath it interred the remains of his own 
daughter ; hard by, with strange incongruity, he placed the body 
of his old travelling carriage, in which he had traversed the continent 
of Europe. There it remained many years, a curious memento 
of his vagaries and eccentricity. He was a man of great notoriety 

60 Some Notes on Gainsborough and his connection with Bradford. 

in his day ; descended from an ancient family, and with high con- 
nections, he had a wide circle of acquaintances in every part of 
England, to a great number of whom he introduced his friend and 
protege, Gainsborough. With much of the Napier eccentricity he 
lacked the Napier ability; in his slandering propensities he resembled 
Walter Savage Landor in his dotage, but compared with him in 
intellect he was an ignorant coxcomb. He was a great traveller 
but a scurrilous author; cacoethes scribendi his besetting weak- 
ness. He toadied to the rich and patronised the poor. He was 
insufferably egotistical, vain, ambitious, poor and proud, affected, 
fussy, and quarrelsome; with a commanding presence and good 
natural abilities, he was cursed with so evil a temper, that, bereft of 
friends, beloved by none, and detested by not a few, he died a 
miserable and disappointed man. 

This was the singular character under whose early auspices 
Gainsborough became celebrated. Enough has been said of Gains- 
borough's history to show, not only that he had appreciative friends, 
but that he had confidence in his own powers ; having thrown aside 
the conventional ideas and practice of his contemporaries, he painted 
in a style peculiarly his own. So far his life had not been un- 
successful, and although he had not realised high prices for his 
works, he had secured a fair income and made great proficiency in 
his drawing, color, and execution. Thicknesse, however, gave him 
good advice when he recommended him to migrate to the " Queen 
of the West,^^ and Gainsborough's acquiescence was wise and politic. 
If he had declined, and contented himself with the position of an 
artist in a quiet country town, the name of Gainsborough would 
never have ranked as one of the great modem painters. 

His landscapes would undoubtedly have secured for him the 
reputation of a true English artist, but he would never have produced 
those marvellous portraits that worthily compare with the greatest 
works of Sir Joshua Reynolds. In 1760 Gainsborough arrived in 
Bath, where he spent the next fourteen years of his life. During 
this period the celebrity of Bath reached its acme. Rank and 
fashion, wealth and royalty assembled there as in no other place, 
except the metropolis, and since those days no other fashionable resort 

By Frederick Skum, F.S.A. 61 

has ever acquired such a monoply of distinguished and aristocratic 

Through the introduction of Thicknesse, Gainsborough soon ob- 
tained commissions, and the comparatively unknown Suffolk painter 
at once became famous ; his studio was the centre of attraction ; 
there, might be seen dukes, genei*als, philosophers, and statesmen- 
He had more than he could do, and rapidly advanced his prices from 
five guineas to a hundred guineas. 

In an account of Gainsborough, recently published in the series 
of " Small Books on the Great Artists," written by Mr. Brock- 
Arnold in an appreciative spirit, with great judgment and discrimi- 
nation, it is stated that on his arrival in Bath he rented a house in 
the Circus. This, however, is incorrect ; his first residence was in 
the centre of the city, afterwards he lived in Ainslie^'s Belvedere, 
where he had a studio commanding a beautiful view of Ham^^ton 
Rocks, and subsequently he occupied a house in the Circus, not 
many doors from the Earl of Chatham ; here his rooms were crowded 
with unsold landscapes, which the fashionable visitors at Bath could 
not appreciate. Numerous are the anecdotes recorded of Gains- 
borough in Bath — of the rebuffs he administered to the vain and 
wealthy people who came to him for their portraits, and desired to 
be decked out in all their finery ; of his quarrels with the irascible 
Governor of Landguard Fort, of his friendship and association with 
the actors and musical celebrities, of his passion for music, and of 
his versatile genius in playing all sorts of musical instruments. 
Bath at that time was noted for its love of music, and its patronage 
of the stage. The first musicians of the day were constantly, there, 
and as Gainsborough loved music no less'passionately than painting, 
he invited them to his house, painted their portraits, and treated 
them with the most genial hospitality. Among them was Fischer, 
the hautboy player, who married his daughter, and whose portrait 
is in Hampton Court ; Mrs. Siddons, whose portrait is now in the 
National Gallery; Abel, Miss Linley, Quin, and Garrick, who 
again and again refused to sit until one morning Mr. Wiltshire 
beguiled him into his house at Bath, and there held guard over him 
while Gainsborough commenced a sketch for that noble picture. 

62 Some Notes on Gainsborough and his connection loith Brndford. 

whicli is generally admitted to be superior to Reynolds' far-famed 
portrait of the inimitable mimic and actor. 

Of all the portraits Gainsborough painted, whether in Bath or 
elsewhere, there is not one of greater power and excellence than 
that of Orpen, the parish clerk of Bradford ; and lest I should detain 
you too long, I must quit the gay scenes at Bath. Notwithstanding 
his popularity in the artistic circles of Bath, and the extraordinary 
number of commissions for portraits pressed on him by wealthy 
visitors, landscape painting was his delight ; his passion for Nature 
revived, and the varied scenery of hill and dale around Bath and 
Bradford became as familiar to him as the Suffolk woods. 

I just now mentioned that his house in Ainslie's Belvedere com- 
manded a view of Hampton Rocks, which are situated at the 
entrance of the beautiful valley down which the Avon winds its 
sluggish course from Bradford, flowing through the charming 
meadows lying at the base of the Hampton Cliff. This valley had. 
a rare fascination for Gainsborough. Ou the heights above he was 
often seen sketching, and one of the crags yet bears the name of 
" Gainsborough's Pallett.'^ From the opposite side of the valley he 
could see the mansion of his friend, Mr. Wiltshire, the great London 
carrier to the West of England, whose name will always be remem- 
bered in connection with Gainsborough, who spent many pleasant 
days at his beautiful country seat, and often walked from thence 
with his drawing materials to Bradford, or rode the grey pony Mr. 
Wiltshire had given him, through the interesting village of Monkton 
Farleigh to Bradford. 

Wiltshire's appreciation of his painting, and regard for the man, 
would not allow him to receive payment for the carriage of his 
pictures to and from the London exhibitions. Gainsborough 
handsomely reciprocated his friend's kindness by presenting him 
with examples of his finest works, now of inestimable value. The 
one best known, from its being the property of the nation, and 
placed in the National Gallery, is the portrait of " The Parish Clerk." 
This picture was the result of Gainsborough's pilgrimages to the 
picturesque and flourishing little town of Bradford, whither he 
wandered after leaving his sketching ground on Hampton Down, 

By Frederick Shum, F.S.A. 63 

or when he rode over from Mr, Wiltshire's seat at Shockerwick. 

Weary of the excitement of Bath Society, and impatient of the 
jealous and exacting patronage of Thicknessej he was only too glad 
of an excuse to come to Bradford ; whether it was to have a chat 
and another sitting from Orpen, or to sketch the romantic dells at 
Belcombe and Farleigh, mattered little. In Orpen, he had a capital 
study ; intelligence, reverence, and simplicity were there, and nobly 
has he depicted these qualities. It was a labour of love, he reckoned 
not on the prestige or the pecuniary reward that he derived when 
painting the portraits of statesmen, or country squires, at Bath. 
Upon this old man^s head he bestowed as much labour and care as 
on the Lord Chancellor or Royalty itself. It is exquisitely and 
carefully painted, the color perfect, the light and shade equal to 
Rembrandt, while the force and character in the features and ex- 
pression is not excelled in any of Velasquez's charming portraits. No 
one can look upon this admirable likeness without the conviction 
that the subject was a man of singular ability ; but he was more 
than this, he was a man of generous instincts, for although by no 
means rich, he bequeathed his house in perpetuity to his successors 
in office. The family of Orpen was humble but respectable, and in 
an old map, now extant, is represented a row of cottages that stood 
near the centre of the town, called after their name, showing that 
they were here in the sixteenth century ; they were also owners of 
some land in the neighbourhood of Farley Castle. 

Within a stone's throw of that interesting and unique relic of 
Saxon architecture, of which Bradford is not a little proud, may be 
seen this house in which Orpen lived, and where Gainsborough 
painted his portrait ; although small, it has some architectural 
pretension. It was built by Orpen, but has been somewhat increased 
in size by the present Vicar ; a singular feature marks the front wall 
of the cottage ; two nearly square lights of glass, about 12 inches 
by 13, are to be seen on either side of the centre window in the 
first story. What can be the meaning of them ? Canon Jones not 
infrequently puzzles his visitors with this riddle, but they invariably 
" give it up," and wait for his solution. It will be remembered 
that in the early part of the present centuiy, when England^s 

64 Some Notes on Gainsborough and his connection with Bradford. 

necessities had well-nigh exhausted the ingenuity of the Chancellor 
of the Exchequer, William Pitt, a grievous tax was laid on our 
windows. Now, as there were all sorts and sizes of window-lights, 
disputes arose as to what a window really was ; finally it was decided 
that all lights at a certain distance from each other were liable to 
be taxed as separate windows. Orpen was equal to the occasion, 
and by placing these two small loop-hole lights on either side of the 
centre window, thus reducing the distance, he was rated for one 
window instead of three ; in reality having five lights and paying 
for one. The cottage overlooks the parish churchyard, and immedi- 
ately in front of it, underneath a plain stone slab, lie the remains of 
him whose memory has been long cherished for his intelligence, 
generosity,and moral worth,and who will still be remembered for many 
generations yet to come, through the genius and skill of his friend, 
who has left to posterity so true a likeness of his manly features. 

In the National Gallery this picture is named " The Parish Clerk." 
Now, as there are parish clerks and parish clerks, I must take ex- 
ception to this slight on Orpen, which ignores his identity, and I 
would suggest a friendly remonstrance be tendered to the trustees 
from this Association, with a request that Gainsborough's portrait 
may be catalogued " Orpen, the Parish Clerk." 

For one moment I must call your attention to another picture, 
presented by Gainsborough to Mr. Wiltshire, and said to have been 
painted from a sketch made in this neighbourhood. Of this painting 
Gainsborough said, that " it pleased him more than any he had ever 
executed." It is called " The Keturn from Harvest,'^ and represents 
a picturesque-looking waggon, with its driver, returning home at 
the close of the day. Two of the figures are portraits of his 
daughters, and one of the horses is a drawing of the grey pony 
given to the artist by Mr. Wiltshire. This picture is a charming 
bit of Nature, beautiful in color, and one of Gainsborough's most 
characteristic works. At the death of Mr. W^iltshire's grandson, 
about twenty years ago, it was purchased for Her Majesty at £3500. 

The circumstances, however, that led to the purchase are not 
generally known. The Queen, when visiting Bath as Princess 
Victoria, on the occasion of her opening the Royal Victoria Park in 

By Frederick Shum, F.S.A. 65 

that city, was taken by her mother, the Duchess of Kent, to view 
the pictures at Shockerwick. Here it was Her Majesty first saw 
the picture now in lier possession. In recording this fact 1 am only 
paying a just tribute to the Queen's good taste and discrimination, 
in selecting for purchase a work of so much excellence, seen by her 
when only a girl many years before. 

Necessarily imperfect and fragmentary as these notes have proved, 
for the reasons, first, that the information sought has been difficult 
to obtain ; secondly, because I considered it undesirable to reproduce 
— however interesting — incidents concerning Gainsborough, which 
it is presumed you are familiar with, especially, those details of his 
later life — of his successful career at Schomberg House, Pall Mall, 
whither he removed from Bath in 1774, of the singular and melan- 
choly premonition of his decease, and of that last touching scene, 
when, anxious to die at peace with all, he sent for Reynolds, with 
whom he had quarrelled, and who generously came, and bending 
over him listened to his last whispers, " We are all going to Heavea 
and Vandyck is one of the party " ; nevertheless, it has also been 
my aim to gather a few local remembrances of a notable man in 
humble life, the subject of one of our finest national portraits, as 
well as to claim for the painter the position of an English artist, 
second to none of his predecessors or contemporaries, either in 
portrait or landscape painting, while in the practice of both he was 
unequalled. In support of this view let me cite two or three sen- 
tences from the writings of the greatest art-critic of ancient or 
modern times : — " Gainsborough^s power of colour is capable of 
taking rank beside that of Rubens, he is the purest colourist. Sir 
Joshua Reynolds not excepted, of the whole English school ; with 
him, in fact, the art of painting did in great part die, and exists not 
now in Europe. ... I hesitate not to say that in the management 
and quality of single and particular tints, in the purely technical 
part of painting. Turner is a child to Gainsborough. Gainsborough's 
hand is light as the sweep of a cloud — as swift as the flash of a 
sunbeam. Gainsborough's masses are as broad as the first division in 
heaven of light from darkness. Gainsborough's forms are grand, 
simple, and ideal. In a word Gainsborough is an immortal painter.'' 



By SiE Chaeles Hobhouse, Bart. 


Situation — C limate — Productions. 

^HE parish is situated on the extreme north-western bend o£ 
an isolated chain of hills. At the one end of this is the 
town of Bradford and at the other that of Chippenham. The ground 
on which the village stands is from 6 to 700 feet in height, the 
tower on the down being, at its summit, 733 feet above the level of 
the sea. 

The village is six miles from Bath, four from Bradford, seven 
from Melksham, ten from Chippenham, and two-and-a-half from 
Box ; and, standing on Farleigh Down, the landmarks are as 
follows : — east, the Church tower at Derry Hill, Lord Lausdowne's 
tower and the "White Horse above Calne, Roundway Down, Devizes, 
and Etchilhampton Hill ; south, Salisbury Plain, Stourton Tower, 
and the Mendip range by Cranmore and Mells ; west, Beckford's 
Tower, on Lansdowne, and the hills that descend to the Bristol 
Channel by Bristol, Clevedon, and Weston-Super-Mare ; north, the 
high ground towards Malmesbury. 

The River Avon and the Box Brook, or Weaver, encircle the hills, 
at one end of which our village stands, and probably in all Wiltshire 
there is no place where the combination of scenery — hill and valley, 
wood and stream, distance and home views — is more varied and 

" Perhaps the most striking feature of Monkton Farleigh," says 
Canon Jackson, " is its geological situation — standing on the down 
and looking round, the view on all sides is not only beautiful but 

Some Account of the Parish of MonJcton Parleigh. 67 

curious. From the south [east?] the whole country slopes gradually 
upwards from the level of the Avon at Melksham, forming one side 
oi" the basiuj along the bottom of which that river flows through. 
North Wilts. Here the rising ground stopsj checked by two deep 
valleys, one on the north, the other on the west. Beyond are other 
deep valleys, all i-adiating from one centre — the city of Bath. 

" When the steep sides o£ the difilerent hills, through which these 
valleys have been excavated, are examined, their construction and 
the succession of their strata are found to be the same in all. Just 
as if you were to scoop out several grooves in a sage cheese, each, 
would shew the same alternations of green and white and the same 
rind at the top. 

" From this conformity there is but one conclusion to be drawn, 
namely that time was when these valleys did not exist; when the 
hills, now detached and known by the several names of Farleigh 
Down, Bathampton Down, Lansdown, Little Solsbury, and Banner- 
down,^ presented one continuous surface. By what process, or at 
what period of the earth^s history, these enormous cavities were 
made upon its face, the earth^s own record can best explain, for 
these were changes that took place before quills and fingers were 
invented. Some vast subterranean furnace, still continuing to 
supply Bath with its hot springs, probably raised and cracked the 
whole of this district, and the waters of the sea, under which it lay,^ 
widened the cracks and formed the valleys. 

" The result, so far as Monkton Farleigh is concerned, is that it 
stands upon the extreme edge of the upper side of the basin of the 
Avon, on a ridge of high ground, from one side of which springs 
flow into the Box stream, from the other backwards towards the 
Avon at Melksham. That ridge or ledge of the basin may be traced, 
for many miles, and between the feeders of the Box stream and the 

^ The scene of the battle of Badou Hill, where Alfred defeated the Saxons. 
Camden, v. i., p. 62. 

* I have found many fine specimens of fossilized sea-shells and other fossils of 
a flinty substance and circular form, such as Britton (p. 61, Wiltshire) describes 
as found at Swindon and Grittleton, and Mr. Moore, of Bath, has, I understand, 
made a rich geological harvest out of our soil. 

68 Some Account of the Parish of Monkton Farleigh. 

Avon a person may ride from Littleton Drew by Yatton Keynell, 
Biddeston, Harthamj Rudlow, Chappel-Plaster, Kingsdown, Far- 
leigh-Beeches, Conkwell, and Winsley, to Bradford, without crossing 
a brook/'' 

The rainfall in our parish is considerable, and this and the short 
distance — not twenty miles as the crow flies — from the sea give a 
softness to the atmosphere and, occasionally, some days together of 
thick mist and piercing wind, but there is ever a fresh breeze even 
in the hottest weather, and usually the climate is bracing and not 
too cold. 

We have sand and clay in the parish, but speaking generally the 
soil is, I believe, what is known as the stone-brash, and the quarries 
of freestone are a peculiar feature in the substrata in the upper or 
west end of the parish. 

The earliest mention of these quarries that I know of occurs in 
the year 1439, when the following entry in regard to them appears 
in the account No. 26 of the parish of St. Michael, without the 
north gate, Bath : — "et de vij"* pro cariagio lapidum ad predictam 
domum et de iiij*^ in expensas apud Farley pro meremio/'' ^ But 
the quarries must have been in work long before that period. Mr. 
Newman, an experienced builder of Bathford, has examined care- 
fully the foundation and the interior stone- work of the Priory, which 
date from the early part of the thirteenth century, and pronounces 
the whole to be of Farleigh Down stone, quarried out of the now 
disused quarries. 

There are at present no less than ten different quarries at work in 
the parish, and the outcome of marketable stone is very considerable. 
This stone has not now, although in earlier days there was an upper 
stratum which had, the durability of the Box stone, but it is easy to 
work and is very valuable for use in the interior of buildings. It 
is sometimes used for exteriors also, but is apt to yield to the frost. 

^ Mr. Tooke kindly furnished the above extract from the late Mr. Pearson'a 
accounts of the parish of St. Michael, Bath, page 48, and Mr. Pearson, he says, 
explains that under the word "meremium" was comprehended stone fetched 
from Farley and other quarries for building purposes. 

By Sir Charles Hobkouse, Bart. 69 



I shall begin with the days of the Romans, and there is undoubted 
evidence that our parish was known to and frequented by them. 

We abut upon Kingsdown Common, and are only one mile from 
Bathford, two from Box, and four from Bath, as the crow flies. 

That the Romans occupied Bath is, of course, well known, but it 
may not be so well remembered that a Roman camp existed on 
Kingsdown, and that Roman villas have been discovered at Bath- 
ford and Box.^ 

Thsse facts would lead us to expect to find Roman remains in our 
parish, and accordingly at the north west angle of it and forming 
the boundary-line between it and Box parish, are traces of the 
Roman road from Bath to Marlborough. 

" Across the parish," says Canon Jackson, " a little northward of 
the manor house, runs from west to east a certain lina which many 
of our antiquarians consider to have been part of a celebrated boun- 
dary, called the Wansdyke. Its traces are not very distinct here, 
but in those places in which it has never been disturbed by the 
plough, and where it may still be seen (as on the Marlborough 
Down) in its original perfection, the Wansdyke consists of a high 
earthen bank with a deep trench running below it on the northern 

" The name appears to have been of Saxon origin ; Wodensdyke, 
the ditch of Woden, the Saxon name for Mercury, a deity whom 
there is also no doubt our Saxon forefathers held in the first honor. 
The name of Wodensdyke is found applied to this ancient line in 
numerous Saxon charters, so that, so far as the name goes, it would 
seem to be a work of that nation and therefore not older than A.D. 
450, the earliest date of the arrival in this country of any wor- 
shipper of Woden." 

The learned Canon then enters into a discussion as to the antiquity 
of the Wansdyke, and as to the purposes for which it was made, and 
concludes that, whether the work traceable in our parish be a part 

Skrine's Bathford, p. 23. Aubrey, p. 55. 

70 Some Account of the Parish oj Monkton Farleigh. 

of the Wansdyke or no, yet " as a Roman road we may safely ac- 
knowledge it and as such Sir Richard Hoare has carefully described it. 

"In 1819 he employed a party of antiquaries and surveyors to 
examine, field by field, the Roman road from Bath to Marlborough. 
It is well known that there were two Roman roads from Bath on 
the eastern side — one to Cirencester, the other to Marlborough. 
The former, to Cirencester, came along the present turnpike road to 
Batheaston, and then continued on by the Foss Lane, as it is still 
called, to Colerne. But it is not known whether the lower road, to 
Marlborough, issued from Bath distinctly by itself, or whether for 
the first two miles one and the same road did not serve for both and 
forked off at Batheaston. 

" If the Roman road to Marlborough issued from Bath distinctly 
by itself, then it must have come by Sydney Gardens to Bathford, 
where it must have crossed the Avon by a ford or bridge. The first 
object of Sir Richard's exploring party, accordingly, was to try and 
find any trace of the Marlborough road near the Avon at Bathford. 
But they found none, nor any signs of Roman road up the side of 
Bathford Hill, until they came to the top of Ashley Wood, from 
which point they got upon the scent of their game.' 

" Here, says their report, its elevated ridge becomes visible, having 
a stone quarry on each side of it,^ and forming a boundary between 
the parishes of Box and Monkton Farleigh. Above this wood the 
line continues apparent, having an ash tree growing upon it, and a 

^ Whether the Roman road and the Wansdyke are one and the same work I 
do not pretend to say, but a portion of the Wansdyke can still, Mr. Skrine says, 
be traced in the [Bathford P] meadows " as the landmark of Warleigh manor 
against Forde in a field called Ash-Hayes," and although Mr. Skrine would, I 
am sure, be the last person to pit his authority against that of an authority such 
as Sir Richard Hoare, yet as a resident on the spot and as a gentleman of re- 
search he is entitled to be heard, and he says " I believe that the old road to 
Marlborough went straight up the hill, along Court Lane, and through Captain 
Pickwick's fields, to the foot of the Common, thence winding up the Farleigh 
Down. I remember having seen the old road myself, many feet below the path- 
way and so dangerous to foot passengers that it was filled up by the late Major 
Pickwick." Bathford, pages 7 and 10. 

^ One of these is called " The Shamble Pits," and never could have formed 
any part of a stone quarry. — [C. P. H.] 

By Sir Charles Hobkouse, Bart. 71 

wall upon a gentle rise, forming the north boundary of some arable 
fields for nearly half-a-mile, in the last of which we perceived a 
barrow, not elevated high above the surface, but of a considerable 
circumference; it is situated in Charclose" [Chalklease, or Charclays, 
No. 112, M. F. Tythe Map] "to the south of the road, and distant 
from it about fifty yards. A stone stile, where heretofore a gateway 
to Monkton Farleigh House was placed, now stands at the bottom 
of this field and on the line of road, also some recent plantations " 
[No. 140, Tythe Map], "which continue on the ridge for about 
one hundred yards. The rise is nearly lost as we entered a large 
arable field beyond the plantations " [Box parish, piece No. 758, 
Tythe Map], "it having been lowered by the plough, but still not 
totally destroyed, and the line corresponding with its ascent to Spye 
Park at a distance. The road shortly afterwards crosses the present 
approach to Farley House (Link Lane), near a clump of oak and 
ash trees" [now gone, but No. 750, Tythe Map], "and enters 
another large arable field " [Mary's croft. No. 144, Tythe Map], 
" leaving Wraxall Copse about fifty yards to the right, but it is 
scarcely discernible, the ridge having been much levelled by the 
plough. At a short distance beyond this field it traverses the turn- 
pike road between Bath and South Wraxall and the swell of road 
is very evident. Having passed the turnpike road it enters the 
narrow part of a small enclosure " [Hancock's piece, No. 145, Tythe 
Map], "now planted with camomile, and is clearly to be traced at 
the north end of Wraxhall Copse, the ridge being nearly twelve 
feet high and having a wall upon it. There was a tradition amongst 
the country people that the Roman causeway was passable through 
the fields, and admitted loads of corn to have been carried upon 

So far Sir Richard Hoare. Canon Jackson goes on : — " It then 
continues along a hollow, known by the name of Bulcot Lane, and 
is now beyond the parish of Monkton Farleigh. The Roman roads 
near Bath have been found to have been constructed, first by a layer 
of large flat stones, then a foot-and-a-half of earth and rubble, and 
afterwards a course of small stones, with pavement or pitching stones 
upon the surface." 

72 Some Account of the Parish of Monkton Farleigh. 

I have followed the line of this road in accordance with the des- 
eription above given of it^ and I find that it is still traceable, 
especially in Chalkleaze and at Wrasall Copse (now called Chalk- 
lands) . The pavement or pitching-stones that may have formed the 
surface of the road are not now perceptible, but the flat-stones that 
must have formed the foundation are to be traced plentifully, and 
above them was not simply " earth and rubble " but a thick layer 
of good concrete, the mortar as fresh and the concrete in some 
places as hard as ever. 

It is not only here, however, in the extreme north of the parish, 
that traces of E>omau occupation are to be found, but at the extreme 
south of the parish have been found other traces not less unmis- 

Here, in the hamlet of Farley Wick, is a plantation called In- 
woods. This is situated on a high cliff, on the road to the hamlet 
of Conkwell, overhanging the valley of the Avon and commanding 
a view of Bath. Here are still to be seen large blocks of hewn- 
stone, the remains evidently of buildings, and here were dug up 
some Roman coins of the time of the Antonines ' — A.D. 142 — 52. 

Canon Jones is of opinion that it was not until eighty or ninety 
years after the subjugation of Britain by Claudius that the Romans 
began to visit this part of it. This conjecture, curiously enough, 
would bring them here exactly in the time of those Antonines whose 
coins were here discovered. 

I may, perhaps, mention that it was circa 1826 that the coins 
were discovered, and that my informant's father, who found them, 
described them as of brass, in an earthen jar, which was broken in 
the finding, and about " a peck's weight." 

So the Romans lived and travelled and camped in our midst. 

There is a tradition, also, supported by a certain non-natural 
formation of the ground, which would indicate the site of a British 

East of Link Lane, and commencing in an orchard called 
Stallard's Close, is a deep diagonal indentation in the ground. 

' Mr. Powell had some of these in his possession. 

'I'll": jUi ''. 'ii!' . I'/V' : i -',i-^-;/'",^ir'-- ,ri!»v^, '.'^"t 0^'" .'\>^ .,..:' ))' ■ -"'>h. ,- Jm^n 

External Elevation 

'Al ! I "Jii ail .^-BasF, /) t/i londoni 

By Sir Charles Hobkouse, Bart. 73 

This stops at a long mound, which meets it at an acute angle in a 
field called Lower Park Mead. This mound runs east and west ; at 
right angles to it is another mound running north and south; and 
inside is a hollow of distinct shape and regularity. At the north- 
east angle of the two mounds are two large upright stones, facing 
one another, and with eyelets in them as if for the insertion of posts. 
Corresponding to these stones are exactly similar ones in the ad- 
joining field called Shepherd's Leaze. 

I state facts, and I venture no comment. It may be a case o£ 
" Praetorian here. Praetorian there/^ as old Edie Ochiltree has it, but 
at least there is no one in the parish who, like the said Edie, " minds 
the bigging o't.^'' 

Although the term antiquity cannot in strict propriety be applied 
to the events of the twelfth century, yet this seems to me the most 
suitable place in which to dwell on certain architectural remains in 
our parish that appertain to that and to the thirteenth and fourteenth 

In his History of the Priory of Monkton Farleigh, published at 
Devizes, in 1857, Canon Jackson has dealt, I need hardly say in a 
most exhaustive manner, with so much of the annals of our parish 
as are made up of the history of the Priory, and for that history I 
refer my readers to the learned canon^s book. 

But I shall venture to add a few words to his description of " the 
Remains o£ the Priory.'^ He speaks of a wall which contains " two 
very good lancet windows with bold mouldings.^' 

Of this wall, Mr. Talbot says that "it is of the very earliest 
pointed work, certainly older than any part of Salisbury Cathedral." 
The outer part of it now forms the inner wall of a carpenter's shop, 
and I have traced to some extent the foundation of what must have 
been the interior of the building, of which this wall was a part. 
From the width and length of these foundations, and from the 
height of the wall, the building must have been of considerable size. 
From its position in relation to the manor house and to the ruins of 
the ecclesiastical part of the priory, I am persuaded it formed a part 
of the domestic buildings of the priory — was it the hostelry? 

West of this wall, perhaps a quarter-of-a-mile from it, and in a 

74 Some Account of the Parish of Monkton Farleigh. 

field on a level with the top of the manor house, called Conduit 
Piece (No. 125 in the Tythe Map) is the stone building called by 
Canon Jackson " the Monks' Conduit/^ " From its general ap- 
pearance, and the great steepness of the roof," Mr. Talbot's im- 
pression of this is, " that it is a fourteenth century building, with 
the roof re-constructed." ^ 

This covered, no doubt, as Canon Jackson says, " the spring which 
supplied the convent" of former days, and this still covers the spring 
which supplies the manor house. 

North and east of the manor house I have lately uncovered some 
foundations and pavements, of which I give a brief account for the 
purpose of record — Drawing F. 

There is first of all a pavement, made partly of encaustic and 
partly of freestone tiles, which runs east and west This is bounded 
on the west and south, and partly perhaps on the north by walls and 
on the east is discontinued, having been apparently there broken up. 
This pavement is 7 feet broad, and up to the point at which it now 
ends is 45 feet long. 

Towards the east end and on the north side of this pavement is 
a space as if for a doorway, and therein is a similar pavement of 
the same width and 25 feet long. Foundation walls close in this 
pavement on all sides save at a very narrow space at the south-east 

At this corner there was apparently an entrance which led into a 
chamber 25 feet long and 21-8 feet broad. In this chamber there 
were no signs of pavement within the space marked a to ^ on the 
plan, but north and south of it were foundation stones of a semi- 
circular form, attached to stone platforms; and at the south-west 
corner, about 2 feet above the foundation walls, were sills of blue 
stone returned in the angle. One of the semicircular stones had 
holes drilled into or through it, as if there had been some fixture on it. 

From out the excavations generally were dug the frames of a door 
and window ; some stained or painted glass ; many loose tiles, of 
various patterns ; interior mouldings of the twelfth to the fifteenth 

* A witness to a Kingston House document of date 1274 signs himself 
" William deputeo de Farlege " — William of the Well. 


f . . . . y 

yiiaxeaacadi'&iLSsMtho London 

<. . -•.-■-V' .'■ y 

By Sir Charles Hohliouse, Bart. 75 

centuries in date ; and slabs, one with part of an inscription on it, 
as of tombstones or screens. 

It is well known that certain excavations were made round and. 
about the manor house by Lord Webb Seymour in 1744, and certain 
others by Mr. Wade Browne in 1844, but I have ascertained, from 
persons present in 1 844, that the excavations then made were on a 
different site to those I have described, and neither do these latter 
at all correspond with those made in 1744. 

But there can, I think, be no sort of doubt that the foundations 
now uncovered appertained to some one part or other of the ecclesi- 
astical buildings of the Priory. It was, we know, by the monks of 
St. Pancras, Lewes, that our Priory was built. It is reasonable, 
therefore, to conclude, that in building they would follow the lines 
of their mother Priory. It is, I believe the fact, that the various 
orders of monks usually built on plans peculiar to the particular 
order. I have a plan of the Lewes buildings, and I find that the 
ecclesiastical buildings stood to the north, that directly east of these 
was the churchyard and that west and at a right angle to them 
stood the domestic buildings. 

I have explained in another part of my paper by what means I 
have discovered the exact sites of the churchyard and of the domestic 
buildings of the Priory and, these sites ascertained, I should have 
expected to find the ecclesiastical buildings exactly where the ex- 
cavations now open would shew them to be. My judgment is that 
the foundations I have uncovered are cloisters, leading either to the 
chapter house, of which Layton, in his letter to Cromwell, speaks, 
or to a mortuary chapel, but I hardly like to venture on any con- 
jecture, and I submit the various plans which Mr. Adye has kindly 
drawn of the excavations, and his note thereon, for the consideration 
of persons better able to judge. 

The History of oue Manor. 

Our first appearance as a manor is in Domesday,^ where I find 
the following entries : — 

Jones's Domesday for Wiltshire p. 231. 

76 Some Account of the Parish of Monkton Farleigh. 

" Terra Odonis et aliorum Tainorum Regis." 
(Land of Odo aad other of the King'^s Thanes.) 
Brictric tenet Farleg-e et frater Brictric holds Farlege and his 
ejus de eo. Tempore Regi Ed- brother holds it of him. In the 
wardi geldabat pro 5 hidis. time of King Edward it paid 
Terra est 4 carucatae. In do- geld for 5 hides. The land is 4 
minio est 1 carucata et 4 servi; earucates. In demesne is one 
et 5 villani, et 3 bordarii cum 3 caruuate and 4 serfs, and there 
carucatis. Ibi 20 acrae pasturse are 5 villans and 3 bordars and 
et 3 acrsesilvse. Valet 70 solidos. 3 earucates. There are 20 acres 

of pasture and 3 acres of wood. 
It is worth 70 shillings. 

The first recorded ancestor of Brictric was one Alywardj or 
Aylward Mere, or Meau, a Saxon nobleman of royal lineage, who 
founded the monastery of Cranbourne in Dorset. To him succeeded 
j^lfghar, or Algar, who completed the foundation and Brictric is 
mentioned as his grandson and a benefactor.' 

According to Domesday Brictric's father held upwards of five 
thousand acres of laud in Wiltshire only, whilst Brictric himself 
held upwards of six thousand eight hundred acres under the Con- 
queror besides some five thousand three hundred acres more, which 
he had held under Edward the Confessor. He is said to have had 
manors also in Cornwall, Devon, Dorset, Gloucester, and Worces- 

He was one of the king's thanes, i.e., he served the king in some 
place " of eminency either in the Court or Commonwealth," ^ and 
was a possessor of land in this capacity, and for these services. 

He was so far, however, more fortunate than his co-temporary 
thanes in that he had his " Vates sacer," 

According to this authority, he was sent by Edward the Confessor 
to the Court of Baldwin, Count of Flanders, in the matter of Earl 
Godwin. Here he had the misfortune to please the eye of Matilda^ 

* Jones's Domesday, p. 41. 
^ Jones's Domesday, p. 4. 

By Sir Charles HobAouse, Bart. 77 

Baldwin's daughter, and the following quaint ballad thua records 
the disastrous result of the lady's wooing : — 

" A lui la pucele envela messager 
Pur sa amur a lui procurer ; 
Meis Brictrich Maude refusa, 
Dunt elle mult se corufa; 
Hastivement mer passa 
E a William Bastard se maria." 

So Matilda woo'd and was refused, and thereafter, when she 
became Queen of England, smarting, no doubt, under the " spretse 
injuria formse," she is said to have appropriated Brictric's possessions, 
and to have thrown him into prison/ 

One of his possessions, still called after him, Brixton (or Bricticis- 
tou)-Deverel, passed undoubtedly to Matilda, but inasmuch as she 
died before Domesday was compiled, and inasmuch as we still find 
him, according to Domesday, described as a king's thane, in pos- 
session of the largest part at least of the Wiltshire manors which 
he had held before the Conquest, it cannot be true that Matilda 
absolutely despoiled him or that she deprived him permanently of 
either his liberty or his position. 

What were the further fortunes of Brictric and his family I do 
not know, but I imagine that he and they were eaten up, as the 
Zulus say, by that great land-hungerer — Edward of Salisbury. 
Certainly this individual, whether in his capacity of sherifi" of the 
county, or by private purchase, had in A.D. 1100 — or only fourteen 
years after the record in Domesday — eaten up Brictric's manor of 
Trowbridge and Staverton,^ and as certainly, in the year 1125, our 
manor had passed first into the hands of Humphrey Bohun the 
second, and from him into those of Humphrey Bohun the third, 
and had by them been conveyed to the Priory of St. Pancras, 
Lewes, for the purpose of founding a daughter Cluniac priory in 
our parish.^ 

* Sussex Archseologieal Coll., v. 28, p. 121. Jones's Annals of Trowbridge, 
pp. 5, 6. 

^ Jones's Annals of Trowbridge, pp. 6, 7. 

^ Monasticon. Jones's Annals of Trowbridge, p. 7. Jackson's History of tho 
Priory and Wiltshire Domesday, p. 64. 

78 Some Account of the Parish of Monkton Farleigh. 

Now the first Humphrey Bohun married ^Matilda, sole daughter 
of Edward of Salisbury, and she, on her father's death, shared his 
estates with her only brother. Thereafter the manors of Trowbridge 
and Staverton, as well as that of Farley, pass through her to the 
priory. It is only, therefore, reasonable to conjecture that they all 
passed from Brictric to Edward of Salisbury, and so to our 

There has been a difference of opinion as to whether it was the 
second or the third Humphrey Bohun who founded our Priory, but 
my judgment is that the first commenced and the second concluded 
the foundation. 

The charter is styled " Carta Humfridi de Bohun, Regis Dapi- 
feri, de fundatione Prioratus de Farleighe." This is evidently the 
third Humphry Bohun, for the second was never " Regis Dapifer,''^ 
but the charter goes on, sometimes absolutely to give and sometimes 
only to confirm, the gift of properties, and in the case of our parish 
the gift is only confirmed ; confirmed therefore, I conclude, as the 
previous gift of the father, Humphrey the second. 

There is something very characteristic of the times in this charter, 
a terseness, brevity and precision, appropriate to the military life of 
the grantor, and in marked contrast to our manorial deeds of later 
date and quieter times. 

Humphrey and his wife (Margaret, daughter of Milo of Gloucester, 
Earl of Hereford), with consent of their barons and men, give, 
concede, and confirm (donamus et concedimus et confirmamus) to 
God and the Holy Mary Magdalen and the monks at Monkton 
Farleigh, certain properties, for the salvation of their souls and of 
the souls of those belonging to them. Then follows a concise enu- 
meration, as thus in the case of our parish : — " The whole manor of 
Farley with the Park and every other thing belonging to the same 
village [villam], save one hide of land which William de Tile 
holds." (This hide, by the way, was conveyed in a subsequent 

Contrast this with the conveyance of messuages, hereditaments, 
tenements, and so on, which I shall have to refer to later on, as 
made some four hundred years afterwards^ and we shall have to 

By Sir Charles Hohhonse, Bart. 79 

conclude that the advantage, except to the scribe ! is not with the 
more modern deed. 

Our manor, thus conveyed to the monks, remained in their 
possession until the dissolution of the Priory, in 1535 — a period of 
four hundred years. 

The first spelling of the name is Farlege, then Farley, Farleigh, 
Monketon-Farley (Leland, 15-38), and (valuation of Henry VIII.) 
Farleigh- Monachorium, a name still given to it in the parish 
register of October, 5th, 1679. 

The affix of Monkton was, no doubt, given by the monks, partly 
perhaps to distinguish it from the neighbouring parish of Farley- 
Hungerford, and from that other Farley in Wiltshire, near Salisbury, 
but principally, no doubt, to mark their proprietorship — as at 
Monketon in Broughton-Giffi)rd, Chippenham, and other places. 

Our monks were large farmers, and our manor was their home 
farm. There they kept a goodly stock of cattle, sheep, pigs, mules, 
asses, horses, pigeons, carts, ploughs, wheat, barley, oats, hay, &c., 
and were served by a considerable number of cottagers, free and 
customary tenants, and so on. 

I have the means of comparing the state of our manor at four 
distinct periods, viz., in 1086, 1294, 15-35, and at the present time, 
respectively, and I think that such comparison is not without its 

In 1086 the manor is assessed at five hides, and these, at 160 
acres ' to the hide, I will take at 800 acres. 

To these are to be added, wood 3 „ 
and pasture 20 „ 

In all 823 

The valuation was seventy solidi, equivalent in weight to about 
two hundred and ten shillings of our standard. 

Attached to these lands were four servi, five villani, and three 
bordarii, or twelve families in addition to that of the lord, making 

* Canon Jackson's estimate, Aubrey. 

80 Some Account of the Parish of Monkton Farleigh. 

up, at five to each family of tenants, and ten to the lord, a popu- 
lation of perhaps seventy souls. 

The servi, or serfs, were little, if at all, better than slaves, towards 
whom the lord^s only obligation was to provide food. 

The villani were customary tenants, of the nature of copyholders, 
paying rent for their lands, but also supplying the Lord with a 
certain amount of food and labor. 

The bordarii were cottagers, whose cottages, furniture, and im- 
plements were found by the lord, and were resumable on the tenant's 
death, and who held a certain quantity of land of the lord, paying 
rent in kind, in the shape of food for his table. ^ 

Our community, therefore, in A.D. 1086 was made up of the 
lord, as sole proprietor, paying a geld or quit rent to the king ; of 
certain families absolutely slaves to the lord, and of certain other 
families practically dependent upon him but with a leaven of freedom 
in the villani, who held subject only to certain customary services. 
The second period of which I have any record is the twenty-second 
Edward I. — A.D, 1294 — when I find the following detailed descrip- 
tion of the manor, viz. : — 

Jardino et Columbas, valued at 20/- 

6 Liberi tenentes [freehold] 64/4 

3 Villani, who pay per annum, 8/- 

and whose labor, festivals 

excluded, is worth 13/- 

7724 acres of arable land at 3"* 9.13.1. 

36| „ of meadow-prati at 2/- 73/- 

384 „ of woodlands valued at 40/- 

Total 847 acres and the above items valued at £20 .11.5. 

This valuation was made when Edward I. was casting about for 
money, and when he was absorbing alien Priories, such as our own, 
on the pretext of their paying substantial allegiance to foreign 
houses in countries with which he was at war. 

* Jones's Domesday, introduction, p. ki. 

By Sir Charles Hohhouse, Bart. 81 

It was the king's commissioners who made the valuation, and on 
this account and from its approximation in many respects to the 
valuation of Domesday, it was most probably suflficiently accurate. 

It is remarkable that, after a lapse of over two hundred years, 
there should have been so little variation in the arable cultivation 
and in the population of the manor and parish. 

The arable land is somewhere about twenty-eight acres less in 
extent than it was. The number of families is three less, but as a 
community of thirteen monks would probably be within itself a 
larger family than that of the lord of a manor, the population would 
still be about equal to the seventy souls of 1086. 

On the other hand the pasture land has risen from three to thirty- 
six acres, and the woodlands from twenty to thirty-eight acres, 
whilst the status of the population has materially altered for the 

The servi have entirely disappeared, absorbed perhaps in the 
domestic servants of the priory; and the bordarii and villani have 
become, probably under the peculiarly beneficent rule of the monks, 
practically freeholders, paying rent in money or in labor for the 
lands and tenements they hold. 

Of any oppressive feudal tenure there is no sign, and on the con- 
trary there is every sign of industry and progress in the improved 
social position of the population, and in the addition, in so compara- 
tively short an interval, of a considerable acreage of land to the 
cultivated area. 

The third period is A.D. 1535, when a return of assets and out- 
goings was made by the last Prior, just before and in order to the 
dissolution, and we can imagine the feelings of the worthy com- 
munity, for worthy they had proved to be, when made to sign, as 
it were, their own death-waiTant. 

The following are the particulars : — 

Curia, with garden, pigeonry, and curtilage, 

valued at £1 

6 Libere tenentium „ 3 

21 Coterelli „ 4 

3 Villani and their labor, festivals excluded 1 

VOL. XX. — NO. Lvni. 



4 . 


8 . 





82 Some Account of the Parish of Monhton Farleigh. 

762 acres of arable land at 3^ an acre 9 .10 . 6. 

36^ „ of pasture „ at 2/ „ 3 .13 . 0. 

38 ,, of woodland valued at 2.0.0. 

Total 836i acres of land and the above is £24 .16 . 0. 

Here the interval is two hundred and forty years, and the fol- 
lowing changes are to be remarked, viz., a small decrease in the 
area of cultivated land, a small increase in the value of the income, 
and a very large increase in the population and in the nature of it, 
the twenty-one coterelli, or cottagers, being a new element. 

I imagine that in 1294 the limits of cultivable lands in the manor 
had been reached, and I conjecture that the ten acres less of arable 
land in 1535 had been swallowed up in the gardens and cottages of 
the twenty-one coterelli. The creation of this new and considerable 
body of villagers was due principally to these facts, that our manor, 
together with the (then) hamlet of Wraxhall (two hundred and 
twelve acres), was the home farm of the Priory, and that the monks 
had become large proprietors of live and dead stock.' 

^ It is appropriate to our parish history, and it may interest some to know 
something of the number, the value, and the kind of stock that was in use upon 
a farm of about 1049 acres in those days — two hundred and fifty years ago — and 
I therefore append a tabular statement of it : — 



or Quantity. 

Value of each. 

& 8. 

d. & 8. d. 




23 6 





4 5 








1 13 








2 5 








2 10 












1 10 



3 8 



41 12 













17 5 





8 17 





6 13 


By Sir Charles Hobhouse, Bart. 83 

Assuming the community at the Priory to be perhaps twenty 
souls in all, and the thirty families in the village to be made up of 
about five souls to each family, I take the population in 1535 to 
have been about two hundred and seventy souls, and the cottages 
to have been about thirty in number, or one to each family. 

We now make another leap of two hundred and fifty years and 

find ourselves in the present day. 

The parish is now made up as follows :— 

A. B. p. 

Sir Charles Parry Hobhouse, the manor house, &c. 685 3 21 

Henry Spackman, Esq., lands and quarries 602 1 26 

Henry Hancock, Esq., lands 549 1 26 

Glebe of the Rector (The Rev. T. H. Tooke) 22 8 

H. D. Skrine, Esq. (Warleigh, Somerset) 6 22 

H. Batten, Esq. 4 3 24 

Messrs, Antrobus, & Co., brewers 3 29 

Mr. James Cottle, yeoman, of Farley Wick 2 3 27 

Mrs. Whyatt Cottle, widow of Whyatt 1 15 

Life-renters under H. Hancock, Esq. 2 26 

Total acreage 1877 3 24 

Whether the lands which in 1535 were situated in (the then hamlet 
of) South Wraxall became permanently attached to that or to our 
own parish respectively, I do not know ; but it is noteworthy, that, 
whereas in 1535 there were one thousand and forty-nine acres which 
were in dominio (in demesne) of the Priory in that year, there is 


3 7 8 

38 6 

Total valuation of " Bonis et Catallis " £ 79 18 

iS s. d. 

•Chestnut 1 10 

Bay 10 

Black 13 4 

White 5 

N.B.— The mark was 6s. Sd., and was evidently the standard of valuation in large transactions. 

I imagine that the novices, at least, and some of the monks, and all the villagers, 

assisted in the manual labor, and the total number of laborers would therefore be 

about forty. 

84 Some Account of the Parish of MonJcton Farleigh. 

still very nearly that acreage computed as in demesne or tithe-free. ^ 

This \s, as briefly as possible, the history of our parish, extending 
over a period of eight hundred years, and this it seems to me is very 
much the history of many such parishes in England. 

The comparative independence of the Saxon thane, paying only 
his geld and his personal services to the sovereign ; the state of 
servitude, almost amounting to slavery, of the villagers, with yet 
some elements of freedom to be worked out in the future. 

The rapacity, mixed with a certain religious superstition, of the 
followers of the Conqueror, taking without scruple, on the one hand, 
from the Saxon proprietor, and giving without stint, on the other 
hand, to the Church, for the benefit of the souls, that, even to their 
perverted consciences, seemed so urgently to require some expiation. 

The mild and industrious rule of the monks, turning the waste 
lands to profit, rearing flocks and herds, creating new industries, 
promoting learning and charitable deeds, and gradually emancipating 
the agricultural laborer from his state of servitude and ignorance to 
a state of freedom and comparative knowledge. 

The spoliation of the industrious community of the monks, with- 
out sometimes — as in our case — even the allegation of corruption to 
justify it, and the absorption of their lands and goods for purposes 
of family and personal greed and aggrandisement.^ 

1 I am unable to account for the difference plus, but I am bound to remark 
that, this acreage does not correspond with that made for the purpose of the 
tithe-rent charge commutation on the 26th January, 1842. According to this 
computation the total acreage was as follows : — 

Demesne lands (tithe free) 1034 1 25 

Glebe (tithe free if in hand) 25 3 10 

Subject to tithes 750 1 25 

Total 1810 2 20 

2 1 think it would be useful, as evidence of the motives which led to the 
dissolution of the monasteries, if enquiry were to be made, perhaps it has been 
made, into the number of chai-itable trusts that were absorbed and discontinued 
when the monasteries were dissolved. The following is the list in our own 
case : — 

Distributed to the poor on the anniversary of 

Humphrey de la Bound £2 

Distributed to the poor, four days in the year, 
on the foundation and gift of Barthei Bygote, 
per annum 13 4 

Total 2 13 4 
Not an insignificant sum 350 years ago. ■ 

By Sir Charles Hohhouse, Bart. 85 

And, finally, the disappearance not only of the small freeholder 
but even of the customary tenant, and the creation of the class of 
great landowners, absolutely free of their properties, subject only to 
the burdens deemed requisite for the maintenance of the general 

Before quitting this subject of the comparative status of the 
manor at the various periods mentioned, I cannot pass over one most 
remarkable fact, viz., the great increase in the acreage of pasture as 
compared with arable lands. I take it that the eight hundred and 
thirty-sis acres of land that composed the home farm in 1535 in 
our parish, were all within a ring-fence of the Priory, very much as 
are now the lands which are attached to the manor house. 

Yet in 1535, notwithstanding that the monks had a goodly stock 
of beasts, sheep, and pigs, the pasture lands were in prc^ortion of 
only thirty-eight to seven hundred and sixty-two acres of arable. 

At the present time, in the manor house division of six hundred 
and eighty-six acres, the proportion is two hundred and forty-one 
acres of pasture to two hundred and eighty-seven "acres of arable land. 

I presume that the small quantity of hay and the few acres of 
pasture were kept for the use of the monks' horses, mules, &c., and 
that the rest of their live-stock was maintained upon the produce of 
the arable land. 

But as labor became dearer, and arable produce of more value, 
this must have been found to be an extravagant practice ; and when 
to this was added the obvious fact, that the capriciousness of the 
climate rendered it more suitable to the profitable culture of pasture 
rather than of arable lands, the process of conversion from arable 
into pasture must have proceeded in an ever increasing ratio. 

That this process should at this moment be proceeding more 
rapidly than ever is natural enough, a decrease in the value of cereals 
having been superadded to the other motive causes above-mentioned, 
but it seems to me to be obvious that it is mainly to the capricious- 
ness of the climate, rather than to any outside competition for prices, 
that we owe the so great conversion of arable into pasture land. 

To return to the year 1535-6. It was in this year that the 
dissolution of our Priory was brought about. The monks were 

86 Some Account of the Parish of Monkton Farleigh. 

dispersed, their ecclesiastical buildings were pulled down, their 
manor, their farmsteads, and probably their domestic buildings, 
were made over to the Earl of Hertford, afterwards the Protector 

The history of the manor thereafter merges into that of the manor 
house, and this will form the subject of my next chapter. 

In appendices A. to F. will be found some further details of the 
manor and its people in Clugniac times which perhaps may be of 

The Manor House. 

Our manor house, like most other buildings of equal antiquity, 
bears, upon the face of it, the signs of various ages and many 
changes, but I am persuaded that it stands upon the exact site and 
to some extent upon the very foundations of the domestic buildings 
of the Priory. 

The stone of which it is built was brought, I have ascertained, 
out of the now disused quarries on Farleigh Down, and corresponds 
in that respect with the stone of which the Priory was built. Fur- 
thermore the position of the house relatively to what was the position 
of the ecclesiastical buildings of the Priory, places it, as I have 
elsewhere explained, exactly where the domestic buildings of the 
Priory might be expected to be. 

And, again, the west side of the main body of the house belongs, 
according to Mr. Talbot, undoubtedly to the Elizabethan period. 

These facts would not, of course, be at all conclusive, nor would 
they take us necessarily to the Priory times, but, through the kind- 
ness of Mr. Henry Hancock, I have had access to the records of 
the manor, and amongst them is a lease of A.D. 1638, which recites 
in detail a previous lease of the year 1547-48. 

By this deed the then Bishop of Salisbury leased our manor house 
to one Henry Breton, styling it " the house, sight, circuit, premises 
and grounds of the late dissolved monastery of Monkton Farleigh." 

Now it was in 1535-36 that the bill for the dissolution of the 
lesser monasteries, i.e., of monasteries where " the congregation of 
lelygyous persones is under the number of xij/' and where the 

By Sir Charles Hobhouse, Bart. 87 

properties are not above the clere yerely value of two hundredth 
poundes/' passed the Houses of Parliament, and that the properties 
of the said monasteries were " gy ven to the King's Highnes, his 
heires and successores.'' * 

And it was not until St. Bartholomew's Day, 15S5, that Dr. 
Layton, Cromwell's Commissary, held his enquiry at our Priory. 
Therefore at that time the Priory and all its buildings were still 
standing in their integrity. But five years later Leland speaks of 
it in the past tense. Here, he says, " by the village there was a 
priorie, stand inge on a little hille, sumtyme having blak monkes, 
a pi'ior and a convent of 13," and further on he adds that '^Monke- 
ton Farley was a late gyven to the Erie of Hertford." ^ 

So the Priory and all its buildings were in existence in the lattCT 
end of the year 1535, but in 1540 the Priory itself was gone. 

It does not follow, however, that all its buildings, secular as well 
as ecclesiastical, were gone, for the custom of the king's commission- 
ers was only to destroy the ecclesiastical or so-called useless buildings, 
and to sell or give away the estates with the secular part of the 
buildings intact. 

Thus, in the case of the mother Priory of St. Pancras, John 
Portinari writes to Cromwell, 24th March, 1537, describing how he 
took with him from London no less than thirty-four artizans of 
various trades, and in a few days utterly pulled down and destroyed 
all the ecclesiastical buildings, leaving the secular buildings standing.' 

Obviously too, the objects being on the one hand ostensibly the 
suppression of useless and corrupt religious bodies, and on the other 
hand lust of property, the ecclesiastical buildings would go, as no 
longer wanted, and the secular buildings would stand to maintain 
the value of the secular property. 

Thus, amongst the records " of the manner of suppressing the 
monasteries after they were surrendered," I find in the list of 
" Houses and Buildings assigned to remain undefaced," " the abbots 

' 27, Henry VIII., cap. 28. The clear value of our Priory was £153, and the 
number of monks twelve and a prior. — Monastican and Leland. 

^ Leland' s Itinerary. Jackson, p. 14. 
^ Letters relating to the Suppression of the Monasteries. Camden Society, 184i3. 

88 Some Account of the Parish of Monkton Farleigh. 

lodging's with buttery, pantry, cellar, kiteliing-, larder and pantry 
thereto attached," also " the hostelry, the great gate entering into 
the court with the lodging over the same, the abbot's stable, bake- 
house, brew-house, and slaughter-house, the almry, barn, dairy- 
house, the great barn, the malting-house, the ox-house, the barton- 

And, on the other hand, amongst " buildings deemed to be super- 
fluous," I find "the church, with chappels, cloister, chapter-house, 
misericord, the two dormitories, the infirmary, with chappells and 
lodgings within the same, the convent-kitching, the library, the old 
hostelry, the chamberer's lodging, the^new hall, the old parlor, the 
cellarer's lodging, the poultry-house, and all other houses not re- 
served." 1 

So, whatever other buildings might or might not be reserved, all 
ecclesiastical buildings were at least condemned to destruction. 

Following "this manner of suppression" our ecclesiastical buil- 
dings would be, and were, I think, totally uprooted, whilst the 
secular buildings were retained and, judging by the description in the 
lease of 1548, they must have been numerous, and, in the case o£ 
the house, of considerable size. 

The manor was, as we have seen, bestowed in the first instance 
upon the Earl of Hertford, afterwards the Protector Somerset, but 
it would seem that he very soon found other manors, those of Rams- 
bury, Baydon, fee., more to his liking, and so, not without some 
degree of gentle violence it would seem, he gave our manor house 
and property in exchange to John Salcot, alias Capon, then Bishop 
of Salisbury .2 

I have already quoted so much of the deed of A.D. 1638, as was 
material for establishing the site of the manor house, but there are 
other parts of the deed which are worthy of preservation, because 
they shew the size of the house, and the exact properties of which 
within ten years of the dissolution the manor was made up, and are 
curious as evidence of the monkish verbiage, which had taken the 

' Burnet's Records, No. 5, Pt. I, Book III., p. Ixvii.. 
^ Fasti Ecclesise Sarisberiensis. — Jones, p. 107. 

By Sir Charles Hobhonse, Bart. 89 

place of Humphrey de Bohnn's terseness and brevity, since the first 
conveyance in A.D. 1125. 

The recital of the lease of 1 548 is to be found in a subsequent 
lease " of the last day of December, 1.638," and runs thus : Whereas 
" John sumtyme Bishop of Sarum did derayse, grant and to farm 
lett to Henry Breton of Monkton-ffarleig-h in the county of Wiltes, 
gent, all that his mannor or lordship of Monkton-ffarleigh and 
Comerwell with the appurtenances within the said county and all 
and singular messuages, lands, tenements, buildings, barns, stables, 
heaths, marishes, woods, underwoods, rents, reversions, services, 
views of fronkpledge, waistes, strayes, warrens, and other the rights, 
jurisdictions, privileges, liberties, profits, commodities, emoluments 
and hereditaments whatsoever to the manner aforesaid appertaining 
to have and to hold to the said Henry Breton his heirs, adminis- 
trators and assigns, from the Feast of Saint Michael the Archangel 
then last past [1547] unto the end and term of fourscore and nine- 
teen years [ninety-nine] then next ensueing and under the yerely 
rent of £38 16<s. 'id. payable at the Feast of the Annunciation of 
Our Blessed Lady St. Mary the "Virgin and of St. Michael.-'^ 

Therefore, the indenture goes on to say, by reason of the surrender 
of the said lease,' and also in consideration of a certain sum of money 
paid, the then bishop (Davenant) leases to Thomas Cornwallis, of 
Wandsworth, in the county of Surrey, and William Lynsey, Ibe 
above manors, &c., " from the Feast Day of our Lord God last past 
[Christmas Day, 1638] to the full end and time of one and twentie 
years yielding the yerely rent of four and forty pounds." 

And then follows this curious condition, that "if the Bishop or 
any of his successors shall be willing to live and abide in the said 
house of Monkton-Farleigh for the space of three months together 
during the said tenure hereby demysed, he and his suite shall have 
within the said house one hall or parlor, one buttery, one pantry, 
one cellar, one kitchen, one larder, one stable and ten convenient 
lodging chambers," and " may also fell, cut down, take and carry 
away yerely so many trees or wood as are or may be growing upon 
any of the said premises as the said Lord Bishop or his successors 
shall or may conveniently expend in fuel in three months in any 

90 Some Account of the Parish of Monkton Farleigh. 

one year when any of them may be abiding- in the said house." The 
house which in 1547 could provide so great accommodation, suitable 
to the bishop of the diocese, in addition to the accommodation re- 
quired by the family of the lessee, must have been a considerable 
and large house, and this particular condition is not only curious 
but it is probably unique in the annals of episcopacy, and it explains 
how it was that Bishop Jewel, in 1570, when taken ill at Lacock, 
did not there remain, but came to our manor house and there died, 
as is in his life recorded. 

The Bretons, and after them the Cornwallises, had, by the con- 
ditions of their respective leases, the presentation to the rectory, 
which vests now, as from 154S, in the Bishops of Salisbury, but, 
from the time of William Watson (1661), at least, the bishops re- 
served to themselves " the donation, advowson and patronage of the 
rectory and parsonage." 

At first, also, the bishops were acquitted by the leases, " from all 
quitt rents, pensions, portions and other charges leviable for the said 
premises," " the tenths and subsidies only excepted " ; but as time 
rolled on they relieved their tenants of " all leases, g-rants, rents, 
rent-charges, annuities, fees, tithes, troubles, and incumbrances 
whatever made or done by them," and further agreed to leave 
" sufficient timber trees standing or growing for the necessary repairs 
of the premises," and for " Fire-boot, Hedge-boot, Plough-boot, 
and Cart-boot, according to the custom of the country." ' 

On the other hand the rent was raised from £38 16?. %d., in 1548, 
to £44, in 163S, and to £50, in 1697, in which was included a sum 
of £10 "as an augmentation to the parsonage of Monkton Farleigh"; 
" the customary tenants " were to be allowed by the lessee sufficient 
timber for the reparation and maintenance of their customary tene- 
ments," the same to be growing on their premises. The bishops 
were to have the right of " cutting down and carrying away such 
timber trees as according to the custom of the country were fit to 

^ Fire-boot, wood for house-firing ; Plough- and Cart-boot, wood for repairing 
implements of husbandry ; Hedge-boot, wood for hedge and fence repairs. — 
Stephens' Commentaries, v. i., p. 254, Ed. viii. Boot or bote, synonymous with 
" estovers " from estofEer to furnish. — Jones's Domesday Introduction. 

By Sir Charles Hohhouse, Hart. 91 

be cut and felled (pollard trees excepted) " [1792] ; the lessees were 
prohibited from making any assignment of the premises, "otherwise 
than by mortgage, or marriage settlement, or will," and even then 
previous intimation was to be given to the bishops (1805) and the 
leases, though ostensibly made to run for twenty- one year^, were 
practically renewed, on considerations made, every seven years. 
The lessees of the manor house were : — 

The Bretons, 1547 to 1638 — with sub-tenants in William 

Bromfield, d. 1582, and the Cornwallises. 
The CornwaUises and William Whitwell 1638—1654. 
William Watson 1654—1695. 

Daniel Webb 1695—1731. 

John Thresher 1731—1737. 

Sir Edward Seymour, 8th Duke of Somerset 1737—1757. 
Lord Webb Seymour, lOth Duke of Somerset 1758—1792. 
Anna Maria, Dowager Duchess of Somerset 

and her heirs 1799—1 804. 

William Cass, of the Poultry, London 1805—1812. 

John Long, the Elder 1812—1833. 

John Long, the Younger "^ 

The Rev. Walter Long, Kelloes House ^ 1835 — 1842. 
Catherine Elizabeth Mary Long J 

Wade Browne and his heirs 1842 — 57. 

Mrs. Wade Browne and her lessees — Edward 
Pennefather and the Rev. E. R. Eardly 
Wilmot 1857—1863. 

H. B. Caldwell, Esq. 1864—1870. 

It is probable that the Bretons, or Brittons, were connected with 
the manor before they came to reside here, for I find a certain 
William Britton recorded as auditor to the Priory, in the return of 
the temporalia in 1535, on a yearly fee of 40*. 

Thereafter in 1570 (twelfth of Elizabeth), a Henry Britten, 
probably the lessee of 1547 — 48, pays a quit rent of 46*. 't^d. to the 
crown for the manor, and presents to the rectory; and in 1576 — 77, 
respectively, are baptized Henry and George, the sons of George 

92 Some Account of the Parish of Monhton Farleigh. 

In 1595 Henry Brittaine again presents to the rectory, but in 
1606 the Lady Catharine Cornwallis so presents, by permission of 
Henry Brittaine and by assignment of George Brittaine, gi'andsons 
of the first Henry, 

The family perhaps originally had a settlement in the parish of 
Batheaston, or else migrated thei'e. 

There was a strip of land called " Briton's land under Banner- 
down," in 1605; one Thomas Britton is recorded as customary 
tenant of thirty- three acres in Bathford Manor in the same year ; 
one George Britton, temp. Elizabeth, sued W. Cavel for surrender 
of part of the manors of Shockerwick and Batheaston, and CoUinson 
records that the manor of Shockerwick descended to the Briens 
(Brittons ?) , and that they were also lords of Batheaston. 

If " William Bromfeld, late of Lewisham, in the county of Kent, 
Esquire, who deceased — as his tablet in the chancel of our Church 
records — "the* twentie day of November, 1585J," was their sub- 
tenant, they must have left the manor house before that date, and 
perhaps it was because the Cornwallises had succeeded Bromfeld as 
sub-tenants that they presented to the living in 1606. 

The next lessee of whom I have any record is " Mr. William 
Watson, Esquire,'' and the following is the account of the family, 
as given in the parish registers : — 

William Watson, d. 1695. 

Mr. Eowland,=Mrs. Elizabeth, Francis, 

b. 1654 I d. 27 Feb., 1700. b. 1656. 

WilUam, b. 1682. 

The tenancy died out with William, the Elder, and Mrs. Elizabeth, 
his son's wife, died at Whitcomb, in Somerset. 

To him succeeded Daniel Webb, described as of Seend, in the 
county of Wilts, gentleman. He it was who is said to have planted 
the manor generally, and especially that avenue in front of the house, 
a mile-and-a-quarter in length, which is the chief beauty of the 

By Sir Charles Hohhouse, Bart. 93 

The name, at least, was of some consequence in the neighbour- 
hood. There was a Webb, a freeholder, holding (curiously enough) 
under Sir Edward Seymour, Earl of Hertford, at Great Sherston, 
in 1585. Thomas Webbe, of Clyford, Beckington, Somerset, 
bought the manor of St. Maur from that family in 1604 — 5. 
(Hoare's Wilts, p. 39.) A Webb of Ashwick, near Marshfield, 
who presented to Box rectory in 1613, and another who presented to 
Rudlow, in Box parish, in 1720. The parish register would appear 
to assign the death of our Webb to the year 1731, but the entry is 
torn and interpolated, and for 1731 I would read 1730, as the year 
in which the manor was transferred to the Threshers. 

The John Thresher who was our lessee from 1730 to 1737 was, 
perhaps, that John who is entered on the pedigree of the Long 
family in Walker's History of the manor house at South Wraxall. 

If so, the following is his pedigree : — 

Edward. ^Dyonisia, second daughter of Richard Long, of 
I Collingboume, c. 1680. 

John.=ElIen d. of Henry Long, of Melksham, 
died at Bradford, 1741, jet. 52. 

If it was by the exercise of violence that the Seymour family rid 
themselves of our manor in 1547, there was a Nemesis in the fact 
of their returning to live here, in the inferior position of tenants 
only, from 1737 to 1805. 

In the year 1716 Edward Seymour, of Maiden Bradley, Esquire, 
is recorded as marrying Mrs. Mary Webb, sole child and heiress of 
our Daniel Webb. Burke gives an incomplete pedigree, and is, I 
think, in error when he states that this Seymour succeeded to our 
manor in right o£ his wife. 

When Daniel Webb's lease was up, in 1730, the see of Salisbury 
was quite at liberty to seek, and did seek and obtain, a tenant outside 
the Webb family, and when the Seymours took the lease in 1737 
they must have done so out of love, either for the place, or for the 
profits of it. 

The family pedigree, as it appears partly in Burke and partly in 
our registers, is as follows : — 

94 Some Account of the Parish of Monkton Farleigh. 

Edward Seymour, of Maiden Bradley,=Mrs. Mary Webb, 1716. 
(eigbth Duke of Somerset, d. 1757.) I 

Webb, second son, := Anna Maria, d. and sole heiress of 

b.l718; d.l793. 
Tenth Duke. 

John Bennell, Esq., of Stanton 
Harcoui-t, Oxford, d. August 
6th, 1802. 


Edward, b. Webb, b. Edward Adolphus. Webb John, 

1771 ; d. 1772; d. Eleventh Duke, b. 1777. 

1774. 1774. b. 1775 ; d. 1793. 

Edward Adolphus. 
Twelfth and pre- 
sent Duke, b. 

The marriage of the eighth duke, the births of all the tenth, 
duke's sonsj and the burial of the Duchess Anna Maria, are all re- 
corded in our registers, and so, no doubt, the family of the tenth 
duke resided here permanently, but as his own death is not so recorded 
I suppose, that, on his succession to the title in 1792, he left us. 

The initials W.S., and tbe date, 1764, would seem to shew that 
it was he who in that year added to the house at its extreme southern 
end. If so it was probably he also who re-faced the whole front of 
the house. Tlie work is evidently of one and the same date, and is 
of the style of the Georges. It was, probably, he too who built 
the tower which, up to 1873, stood in the southern angle of the 
house-front. This went by the name of " the Duke's Tower," and 
it was here that tradition has it the Duke, who is handed down as a 
precise and hard man, collected his rents to the last farthing. 

The dowager duchess, Anna Maria, certainly resided here from at 
least 1799 to her death, in 1802. It is known that she was buried 
exactly 20 feet each way from the extreme south-east corner of the 
churchyard, and 15 feet deep in the earth. By her own directions 
no monument was put up to her memory, she having lived in 
mortal fear that the French should invade England and disturb the 
bones of the dead. But the exact spot in which she was buried was 
marked by Rector Cozens (1824) by shrubs. 

Service, it is said, was never commenced in the parish Church 

By Sir Charles Hobhouse, Bart. 95 

until she arrived, and at its conclusion all stood up in their places 
until she had left the Church. She planted the clump of trees still 
known as " The Duchess's Clump/' and the villagers paid a humble 
tribute to her sway by christening their children Anna Maria after 
her — a name which then appears for the first time on the register. 

To the duchess succeeded as lessee Mr. William Cass, of the 
Poultry, London, but beyond the lease from 1805 to 1812 I can find 
no record of this family. 

To them succeeded Mr. John Long, the elder, and the following 
is, I believe, a correct pedigree, so far as it relates to our manor :— 

EichardJLong, Esq., of Eood Ashton. 

John Long, the elder, ^ Lucy Anne Warneford. 
second son, t. 1768 ; 
d. 20th October, 1833. 

John Long, the younger,^ Mary, d. of Edward Daniel, 

b. 1793 ; d. AprU 30th, 

Barrister, d. May 22nd, 

John, Walter Charles Daniel Catharine Edward Two daughters, 
b.l822; Henry ,b. Daniel.b. Edwin.b. Eugenia.b. Moi-ton,b. Francis Stan- 
d.l840. 1823 ;d. &d.l825. 1827 ; d. & d. 1880. 1833; d. hope,b.l835. 
1857. 1830. 1835. 

There is some confusion amongst the elders of the parish as to 
the residence of the Longs. Old Thomas Sweetland (b. 1801) says 
that Mr. John Long, the elder, did not remain here uninterruptedly. 
He came from 1812 to 1818, or thereabouts. There was then an 
interim during which Mr. Daniel Jones afterwards called Mr. Jones 
Long, hailing from Farley Castle, in Somerset, lived here. He died 
in 1824, and was buried at Whaddon. Then Mr. John Long, the 
elder, returned, and he and his descendants resided here until 1S42 ? 

It was one of the Longs who planted what is now known as the 
*' Kingsdown Plantation " (described by Sir Richard Hoare in 1819 
as newly-planted), and the Yew or Primrose Walk, to the south of 
and parallel with the Monks' Walk. In their time the lawn sloped 
away from the east front of the house, to the hedge which divides 

96 Some Account of the Farish of Monkton Farleigh. 

the Italian Garden from the Conigree. The carriage-drive from 
Kingsdown iu those days entered just below Ford's Farm from the 
Bath and Melksham road. It then passed by the stone stile above 
the Kingsdown Plantation, along the present drive, through the 
gates by the gardener's cottage, turned thence to the left, and passed 
round to the front of the house by the Rockery, the Italian Garden 
and the Wilderness. The fountain stood under the group of trees 
south of the house and north of the orchard. 

The Long family, like that of the Seymours, were connected with 
our manor centuries before they came to live here. South Wraxall, 
where the family originally set up, was, we have seen, originally a 
hamlet of our parish, and up to the dissolution of the Priory was a 
part of its home farm. 

The first Sir Henry Long, 1st May, 1490, bequeathed certain 
money legacies to our prior and each priest and novice of the Priory. 
The second Sir Henry, 1520, presented Ludovick Brecknock, Prior 
of Farleigh, to the living of Biddeston St. Peter's, " per concess' 
Prioris de Farleigh" (an awkward-looking transaction), and this 
same Sir Henry is recorded as senior steward of the Priory in 1535, 
at a fee of 405. a year. 

To the Longs succeeded the late Mr. Wade Browne. The family 
was originally of Chapel Allerton, Co. York, and Mr. Wade Browne 
was grandson of John Browne by the heiress of Wade of Moor Town, 
and son o£ Wade Browne by Bhoda, daughter and sole heiress of 
Jacob Smith, of Horsington, Co. Worcester. 

The tablet to him in the aisle, for once in a way trathful, des- 
cribes his life as one " of active benevolence and conscientious dis- 
charge of Christian duty." 

He improved the parish roads, making especially the straight 
road by Farley Wick Green to the villa. He utilized for the 
villagers the bountiful supply of spring water, which, issuing out 
of Ash Well, above the King's Arms inn, is conducted by pipes to 
the village pump, and thence from one end of the street to the 
other. He built (1848) the observatory on Farleigh Down. He 
established a school and left, under conditions which have since un- 
fortunaely lapsed, an endowment for it. He presented in 1841 to 

By Sir Charles Hobhouse, Bart. 97 

the Church the barrel-organ, which now (1881), however, stands 
neglected and useless in the gallery. 

He also beautified and planted the house and grounds. He level- 
led the slope in front into the present lawn. He placed the fountain 
on its present site, and he laid out the French, now called the Italian 

It was in laying out this garden that, as the villagers say, " a 
terrible sight " of human bones was carted away and buried in the 
churchyard. It was no doubt, as the situation of two stone coffins, 
lately unearthed, shows, somewhere in this direction that the Priory 
churchyard was situated, but from the great quantity of bones un- 
covered, and from the way in which they were found heaped to- 
gether, it was conjectured at the time that they were the remains, 
not of ordinary churchyard burial, but of human bodies heaped 
together, as after some great fight or pestilence. 

Mr. Wade Browne married first, Ann, daughter of the Rt. Hon. 
Edward Pennefather,Lord Chief Justice of Ireland. She died in 1837, 
and Mr. Browne married secondly, Selina Matilda Caroline, daughter 
of Sir John Eardley Wilmot, of Berkswell Hall, Co. Warwick. 

On Mr. Wade Browne's death, in 1851, his widow continued to 
live on in the house. She is now Mrs. Abbott, of Wrentham 
Rectory, Wangford, Suffolk, and has been good enough to give me 
many particulars of the place, of which I now make use. 

The slips (or cupboards as they now are), in the older part of 
house are supposed to have been servants' bed-rooms. They are 
vile holes, and Mrs. Wade Browne worthily supplied their places by 
building the upper bed-rooms over the east front. 

The pigeon house, by the side of the Monks' Walk, used to pro- 
duce in former days a rent ia kind of so many pigeons to the manor 
house. This was, no doubt, a remnant of the old Columbaria of 
the Priory. 

The sun-dial in the Italian Garden was erected in memory of a 
younger brother of Mr. Wade Browne, who was killed in the Caffre 
War. The inscription runs thus : — 

"lo vado et vengo ogni giorno 
Ma tu andrai senza ritomo." 


98 Some Account of the Parish of Monkton Farleigh. 

After Mr. Wade Browne left, first Mr. Hume and afterwards Mr. 
Smith occupied the house, and it then fell in hand to Bishop 
Hamilton, who let it to Mr. H. B. Caldwell. Thereafter the Ec- 
clesiastical Commissioners made a freehold of the whole manor, and 
on Mr. CaldwelFs death, in 1873, that part which was attached to 
the manor house and the house itself passed to the present proprietor. 
Sir Charles Parry Hobhouse. 

He has made many alterations in the old house, one, alas ! the 
removal of the Duke's tower, made under a misconception, and an 
irreparable loss. 

What are now a passage, the master's room, and the lower 
school-room, were before the kitchens and the housekeeper's room. 
The present kitchen was part of a stable and coal cellar. The offices 
adjoining are new. The back staircase was opened out after so 
many years of seclusion that its very existence was unknown. The 
present library was the dining room. The present dining room was 
created out of the old library and a part of the chief staircase, and 
so the dressing room overhead. The front corridor was raised, and 
the staircase and upper landing are new. The billiard room was 
made up partly of an entrance hall and partly of what was formerly 
the master's room — part of the cellars being lowered. 

The parish is now pretty equally divided between Sir Charles 
Hobhouse and Henry Hancock and Henry Spackman, Esquires. 

The names of Hancock and Spackman are not new to the parish. 

There is a Hancock first mentioned in 1777, and there is still in 
the parish a piece of land called " Hancock's Piece." A curious 
token of the family was also found by me in a garden, where was 
once a cottage, immediately opposite the lodge gates. It is a copper 
coin of date A.D. 1610. On one side is a hand out-spread, and the 
words "in Westbury 1610" — on the other is a cock exultant, and 
the name " Thomas Handcock." It is very well cut. 

The name of Spackman is associated with the parish at a still 
earlier period, John Spakeman, senior and junior, being mentioned 
as churchwardens in 1372. 

Of the family of Hobhouse it does not beseem me to make any 
record beyond what may be said to be already public property. 

By Sir Charles Hohhouse, Bart. 99 

They came originally from either Devon or Somersetj and there 
are at Drewsteighaton, near Exeter, two hamlets or farms which still 
bear their name. They were settled at Minehead, in Somerset, and 
a lease of A.D. 1706, given by the Luttrells, of Dunster Castle, is 
still called Hobhouse's Lease. It is for land with wharfage, and 
was perhaps taken up with the view to engaging in the Irish fishery 
business, which was then a stirring trade. 

From Minehead the family migrated to Bristol, and there set up 
as merchants on a more extensive and general scale, purchasing and 
for some time residing at Westbury Cottage, Westbury-on-Trym, 
and afterwards at Redlands. 

Thereafter the family divided, and one branch settled at Hadspen 
House, Castle Carey, Somerset, where it has been ever since, and is 
Btill worthily represented by a succession of Henrys of the name. 
The other branch shot out in the person of Sir Benjamin, created 
first baronet in 1812. His first marriage was with a daughter of 
Mr. Cam, a clothier of Bradford-on-Avon, in Wiltshire, and through 
her he succeeded to Chantry House, Barton Farm, and other farms 
and lands near that town, whilst in 1777 he purchased the manor 
and certain lands in Broughton Gifford. 

He never, however, acquired a local habitation of his own, but 
lived at Hartham Park and Cottles, in this neighbourhood, and at 
Whitton Park, near Hounslow (since pulled down), renting at the 
same time a house in London. 

He was a friend of the then Lord Sidmouth, was Under Secretary 
of State at the India House, and obtained his baronetcy for services 
rendered in the settlement of the debts of the Nawab of Arcot. 
He was president of the first friendly society that was established 
in Wiltshire, and life-president of the Bath and West o£ England 
Agricultural Society, in whose rooms at Bath an admirable bust of 
him, by Chantry, may still be seen. 

His eldest son was Sir John Cam Hobhouse, Baron Broughton 
de Gyfford. It was he who was imprisoned in the Fleet for words 
spoken against the Constitution, which perhaps in these days might 
be watchwords of Toryism. 

Thereafter he was for the rest of his life a member of one or other 

H 2 

loo Some Account of the Parish of Monkton Farldgh. 

House of Parliament^ and for many years a Cabinet Minister under 
the Whig party. 

But, if remembered at all by posterity, it will probably be rather 
in connection with literature than with politics, as the friend and 
fellow-traveller of the poet Byron, and the spirited annotator of 
that poet^s best work. 

To him in the baronetcy succeeded (1869) Sir Charles Parry 
Hobhouse, the present proprietor of our manor house and lands. 
He was for twenty -six years in the Civil Service, first of the East 
India Company, and then of the Crown in India, and after holding 
various offices of some importance there — the last as a judge of Her 
Majesty^s High Court of Judicature at Calcutta, he devotes such 
leisure and health as he has left to the ordinary duties of a country 
gentleman and magistrate. 

Parish Notables. 

Here terminates the history of the manor house and of the families 
connected therewith, but we have had other notable families in the 
parish, and I proceed to give some account of the most remarkable 
amongst them. 

I begin with the Cottles, and although I cannot attempt to con- 
nect our parish with the early founders of the family yet I shall 
put together, for the benefit of any future writer, something like an 
historical account of them. 

The first mention that I find is of one Beranger Cotel, who, ac- 
cording to the Exon Domesday {c. 1086), held one hide of land at 
Fontel, now Fonthill Gifford, in Dunworth Hundred. 

Then appears a certain Sir Richard Cotell, who (c. 1100) is 
settled by the then Abbot of Glastonbury on a manor at Camerton, 
in Somerset. 

This manor, on Sir Richard's death [c. 1120), reverted to Glaston- 
bury, and a series of Cottels remained in tenancy, viz., Richard [c. 
1166); after him, Sir William; and after him, Sir Elias, orElleys. 
He, A.D. 1^89, seventeenth Edward I., is entered in the list of 
" Chevaliers et Homme du Mark," in Co. Somerset, and in 1336 he 
presented to the living of Camerton. 

By Sir Charles Ilobhouse, Bart. 101 

Then the scene changes to Wiltshire, and a memher of the same 
family, I would presume, because still under the segis of the Abbot 
of Glastonbury, one Jordan Cotele [c. 1251 — 61) is found to be 
Rector of Kington St. Michael, covenanting with the abbot and 
convent of Glastonbury, that certain lands in that parish are feud 
of the abbey and that therefore neither he nor his heirs will ever 
part with an acre of them. 

Thereafter, c. 1275, a Sir Roger de Cotele, Knight, is named in 
an inquisition held at Melksham. 

The transition to Atworth is easy, and one Richard Cotell is found 
to be Lord of Cotels-Atworth. His daughter, Isande (1267 — 80) 
married Philip, son of Henry Tropenell of Chalfield. He is probably 
that Cotell mentioned by Aubrey as having had an estate at Biddes- 
ton St. Peter, for this estate passed to the Tropenells, and through 
them, it may be mentioned, to our Priory. These Cotels continued 
to present to Atworth Chapel, until A,D, 1309, when the presentation 
passed to the Selymans. 

There are notices too of a Richard Cotel, his wife Isabel and 
children, 1307 ; of a William Cotel, owner of fifty acres of land iu 
Chel worth, 1327 ; of a family of Cotel dying out at Frampton Cot- 
terel (or Cotel), about the same period; of a Stephen Cotele, Rector 
of Castle Combe, 1397 j and lastly of a Mark Cottell who {c. 1500) 
built a house at North Tawton, Devon ; of a Cottle, of Samford 
Peverell, who registered the same arms as Sir Elias in 1580;>nd^of 
a Cottle, of Cricklade, registering arms, 1623. 

From the above facts it is clear that the Cottle family was one of 
very ancient descent and weight in the counties of Wilts and 
Somerset, but that they passed away from our neighbourhood at 
Atworth, as persons of eminence, many centuries back (perhaps 
in 1309) is clear from Aubrey^s statement, that " Atworth called 
Cotels Atward or Coteles Atworth antiently belonged to Coteles 
who had great possessions in these parts but now there are only 
some few people left of this name in the county." 

This statement was made circa 1660, but Atworth is only two 
miles from us, and the William Cottle who was born in our parish 
in 1659 is described as " Gentleman," and so was a descendant, 

102 Some Account of the Parish of Monkton Farleigh. 

Jeremiah, in 1785, and the family tree shews that this title has, in 
fact, never left the family, and still abides in it. 

The passage from gentleman to yeoman carries with it no degra- 
dation, and the representative of the family, James Jeremiah Cottle, 
still in the parish, is a fitting type of the straightforward independent 
yeoman of the period, cultivating and living upon his own freehold 
at Farley- Wick. Curiously enough his wife was a Selman, perhaps 
a descendant o£ those very Selymans who succeeded the Cotels at 

The manor house at Cottles- Atworth is still called after the family. 

Next in order of date is the family o£ the Grants. They were 
yeomen, and from the Christian names and the proximity of the 
place I think they must have come from Bradford. There in 1585, 
1596, and 1600 were certain Daniel, Walter and Francis Grants, 
who were considerable copyholders and freeholders. 

The following is the family tree, as appearing in our own registers. 
There were apparently three families, and several offshoots :— 

Family I. 
Jolin.=Joan, who d. a widow, 1639. 
George, b. 1577. 






Henry, d. 1665. 




d. 1622. 






Ann Baker, 

Joan,=Mr. William 
Richmond, of Prior 
Stanton, 1651. 


b. 1619 
d. 1644. 

Joan, d. 
widow, 1669. 


of Bradford, 

b. 1641. 

^ I 


Family II. 

George, = Amy, d. 1609. 

Walter, b. 1586. William, b. 1609. 

I I 

Joan, b. 1628. Francis, d. 1669. 

By Sir Charles Holhouse, Bart. 103 

Family III. 
John, yeoman, d. 1662. 

George, b. 1653. John, b. 1662. 
' i Hannah, d. 1701. 

George, b. 1686. Ellinor, d. 1688. 

Ellinor,=George Try, 1611. 

Mary, of Bradford Liegh, d. 1680. 

Mr. Edward, of Trowbridge, clothier,=Mrs. John Randell, of Beckingtx)n, 1698. 

Mai-tha, of Bath,=Richard Thomas, yeoman, 1699. 

Mrs. Deborah, of Trowbridge,=Mr. Abel, of Bristol, 1709. 

Frances,= James Poyner, both of Hinton Charterhouse, 1744. 

Mrs. Sara Grant, the heroine of the family, is not recorded in 
the registers, but a tablet to her memory is still to be found in the 
chancel of our parish Church. It runs thus :— 

" Here lieth buried the body of Sara Grant deceased xxvii. die Novembris 
Anno Domini 1602. 

rive pounds she gave unto the poore 
Wmiam King gave so much more 
Imploy the increase keep stocke in store." 

This tablet was, of cource, not put up until after the death of 
William King, and the Latinity, terseness, and general ring of it, 
point to some clerkly person as the author of it — probably the rector . 
There was a William King in the parish who, in 1611, is recorded 
as of sufficient substance to have lent £20 to King James by way 
of Privy Seal. He died in 1650, and I take this to be the date o£ 
the tablet, and Parson AUambrigge, perhaps, to have been the author 

of it. 

A gentleman learned in the law once affirmed in my hearing that 
the inscription contained the most complete legal bequest in the 
fewest lines that were possible, directing, of course, the £10 of 
capital to be funded and the interest accruing thereon to be paid to 
the poor. 

The benefaction, however, has entirely disappeared, but it is re- 
membered that some sixty years ago, in the days of Clerk Tutton, 

104 Some Account of the Parish of Monhton Parleigh. 

bread was distributed from the chancel to the poor at Easter, " the 
people being always thankful to the good lady who gave it." 

The family of the Kings stood probably upon about the same 
footing as that of the Grants and the following is the parish record 
of them x-^ 

William, d. 1650,=Ann, d. 1667. 

I \ \ ~i i ^1 . 

Sarah, Arnold, Mr. Eobert, George, Mr. John, Francis, 

b. 1621. b. 1624 ; b. 1626. b. 1627. b. 1627. b. 1629 ; 

d. 1697. I I d. 1670. 

1 I i Mary, Harmond, 

George, b. 1651. Joan, b. 1656. Elizabeth, b. 1652 ; b. 1662. 

d. 1669. d. 1684. 

The name, at least, was still perpetuated in the parish up to 1880 
in the person of Mr. John King, of " The Villa." 

The Butler family may next be mentioned. The name was, per- 
haps, at one time a badge of servitude at the Priory. Tempore 
Edward I. (1272 — 1307), one -John le Botyler is witness to a deed 
securing certain privileges to the said Prior and convent of Farley. 
Then (1372) a William le Boteler appears as churchwarden, taking 
oath to the yearly value of the rectory. Later on, first Henry V. 
(1413), William Botyler (the article dropped) figures as a clerk in 
holy orders, confirming to one Eichard Slade certain rents in land 
in Farleyghes-Wyke (called in Ed. II., 1321, the Bailliage of the 
Bedeley Court of Farleigh), and thereafter we have a succession of 
John Butlers, churchwardens in the parish, till the family dies out 
in the person of Thomas Butler, yeoman (1713). 

The name is still in the parish in the person of Mr. Hancock's 

Roger Huggitt was also, Mr. Powell considers, one of our notables. 

A writer in the Gentleman's Magazine, August, 4th, 1800, signing 

himself A. S. (absit omen !) mentions that he copied the following 

inscription from a square stone in the aisle of the parish Church of 

Farley in Wiltshire ; — 

Kogerus Huggitt. 

Qui eximo statu ad summos houores emergens. 

Natus Pastor-Miles obiit. Mt. 

By Sir Charles Hobhouse, Bart. 105 

Hie situsest Huggitt qui numquam prselia fugit. 
Hunc agris natum, perduxit in atria fatum. 
Linquens pastores magnos acquirit honores. 
Impavidus miles solitus contemnere viles 
Multa manu sorti dedit acer copia decrat 
Quern miseris dando Salvatoremque precando 
Ut careat avo vivebat purus in sevo 
Dives, Honoratus, magna cum stirpe beatus 
Humilis in pectus tandem est per sidera vectus. 

" The above leonine verses/' says the writer, " are written in old 
English characters, and were made out with some difficulty, owing 
to the ravages of time. It is remarkable that it was not possible 
by any trace that is left to form the slightest conjecture as to the. 
antiquity of the monument/' 

Mr. Powell ascertained that the monument did not belong to the 
other Wiltshire Farley, and old Mrs. Moore, of the " Dry Arch 
Cottage," since dead, informed him (and old Thomas Sweetland 
confirms this) that she remembered the monument, and thought 
that it had either been destroyed or else placed in a vault under the 
Church with other monuments at the re-building of the Church. 
Mr. Powell adds, on the authority of the Edinburgh Review, April, 
1861, p. 400, that about the year 1750 there was a Roger Huggit, 
Chaplain or Conduct of the College at Eton, an antiquarian whose 
collections, in nine vols., were in 1769 bequeathed to the British 

The Blinman family must not be forgotten. Joseph, the first of 
the name, is mentioned in the tablet in the chancel as " Gentleman 
of this parish." He died in 1811, aged eighty-four. Joseph, the 
younger, also ''of this parish, gentleman," died 24th June, 1843, 
aged seventy-two. He it was who, as recorded on the tablet over 
the Church doorway, left two sums of £300 and £350 respectively 
for the benefit of the poor. These sums are now invested in consols, 
in the name of the Charity Commissioners, and the dividends are 
paid every year to the parish churchwardens at the Capital and 
Counties Bank, Bradford-on-Avon. They remain at interest in de- 
posit until St. Thomas's Day, and then the dividend on £300 is 
expended on coal for distribution amongst the deserving poor of the 

106 The Rising in t%e West, A.D. 1655. 

parish generally, and that on £250 is distributed in cash amongst 
forty of the deserving poor. 

It is remarkable that all that is remembered of this family is that 
they lived at what is now Mr. Sydney Hancock's farm, at Farley- 
Wick, and that the younger kept a pack of beagles. 

It has to be admitted that, although we have been connected with 
the Bohuns, the De V Isles, the Dunstanvilles, the Seymours, the 
Longs, and others, yet, unless it be the mysterious Roger Huggitt, 
we have not produced persons of any other than of village note ; on 
the other hand we present a remarkable instance of a purely village 
community, unchanging and little affected by the times, the names 
and families still abiding amongst us being those that have so abided 
from the earliest recorded times. 

[To be continued.'] 

e ^i.$inj tit % Wml %^^ 1655. 

To the Editor of the Wiltshire Archaological Magazine. 

Dear Sir, 

To-day, for the first time, my attention has been directed to a paper by 
Sir George Duckett, in the 55th Number of the Wilts ArchcBological Magazine, 
on the Rising in the West, A.D. 1655. Whilst thanking him for his, I fear, 
too complimentary observations, I would beg to observe that he is in error in 
assumino- that I omitted to notice the informations (excipe Eichard Rowe) which 
he gives in detail. 

If reference be made to Wiltshire ArchcBological Magazine, vol. xiii., pp. 
173, 178, and 186, it will be found that substantially they are utilised. 

As I mentioned in Wiltshire Archceotogical Magazine, vol. xv. p. 236, Mr. 
Birch's edition of the Thurloe Papers was constantly with me ; and there all the 
papers mentioned by Sir George Duckett will be found. Eowe's and Batchelor's 
information, vol. 3, p. 630 ; Carter's p. 634 ; Holy's, p. 655, and the rest, p. 648 
of the same volume. 

I am, 

Your'a faithfully, 


The Temple, London, E.G., 
August 15th, 1881. 

H. F, BULL, Printer and Publisher, 4, Saint John Street, DeyizeB. 



l¥itti a Key to the British and Roman Antiquities 
occurring there. 


Sector of Yatesbury, and Hon. Secretary of the Wiltshire Archceological 
and Natural History Society. 

npHIS work, the materials of which have been accumulating for twenty-five 
-*- years, is the result of innumerable rides ahd rambles over the Downs of 
North Wilts ; and deals with one of the most important archaeological Districts 
in Europe. It will be published and issued to subscribers by the Marlborough 
College Natural History Society, and it wiU consist of two parts : — 

First.— The Great Map— IS inches by 48 inches, on the scale of 6 linear 
inches, or 36 square inches, to the mile ; it comprises 100 square miles round 
Abury, and includes the great plateau of the Downs of North Wilts, extending 
from Oliver's Camp, on Roundway Hill, on the west, to Mildenhall on the east ; 
and from Broad Hinton on the north, to the Pewsey Vale on the south. The 
district thus mapped measures 13 miles from west to east, and 8 miles from north 
to south. Every square mile, marked off with faint Hues, lettered with a capital 
letter and numbered, will show the Barrows, Camps, Roads, Dykes, Enclosures, 
Cromlechs, Circles, and other British and Roman Ston6- and Earth-works of that 
district ; every such relic, being lettered with a small latter in its own square, is 
readily found and easily refei-red to. The Map will be piinted in six colours, 
viz., the Antiquities in red, the Roads in brown, the Lanes and Down Tracks in 
green, the Sarsen Stones in yellow, and the Sti-eams and Ponds in blue. 

Second. — The Key to the Great Map,— which is by far the most impoitant 
part of the work and will form a general " Guide to the British and Roman An- 
tiquities of North Wilts," — will be a volume of large quarto size, and wiU contain 
the whole of the large Map in fifteen sections, measuring 18 inches by 12, and 
four supplementary sections, each measuring 6 inches by 12. The Letterpress 
will contain some account of each of the Antiquities, with references to and 
extracts from the best authorities, as well as figures of various Urns and other 
objects found in the Barrows, views of the Cromlechs, plans of the Camps, &c. 
An Index Map, on the scale of 1 inch to the mile, coloured, numbered, lettered, 
and divided like the Great Map, will accompany the volume ; and the whole will 
be a general account of the Antiquities of North Wilts, inasmuch as the district 
thus delineated embraces nearly all the remains of earliest times which exist in 
the northern portion of the County. 

Subscribers' names and addresses (a list of which will be published with the 
Index) will be received by the Rev. T. A. Peeston, The Green, Marlborough. 
The cost of the Large Map and Key complete will be, to Subscribers, One Guinea. 
Any copies which remain (after all the Subscribers have been served) will be 
offered to the public at an advanced price, viz., for the sheets of the Great Map 
only, 10«. ; for the Key only, 20*. ; or, for the whole, 28». 

-\p- -. "■ ,'i\-^,^y;r^TPTi\;ii!^^ 




BaU E. E. Peach, Bridge Street. 

Bradford-on-Avdn, G. J. Faerington, Old Market Place. 

Bristol James Fawn & Son., 18, Queen's Road. 

„ C. T. Jefferies & Sons, Redcliffe Street. 

Calne A. Heath & Son, Market Place. 

Chippenham E. P. Hodlston, High Street. 

Cirencester Keyworth & Everard, Stamp Office. 

Devizes H. F. Bull, St. John Street. 

Marlborough E. & R. A. Lucy, Post Office. 

Melksham A. Cochrane, Bank Street. 

Oxford Jas. Parker & Co., Broad St. 

Salisbury Brown & Co., Canal, 

Warminster B. W. Coates, Market Place. 


No. LIX. 

JUNE, 1882. 

Vol. XX. 



Irrjielogiral ml J^atural listarij 


pu%Ittfi)elT xititttv i^t Bivntian 


A.D. 1853. 

Pbintbd akd Sold fob the Society by H. F. Btai, SAtirx Johk Stbeet. 

Price ds. Qd. — Members Gratis. 


THE ANNUAL MEETING for 1882 will be held at Malmesbury, 
on Auyust 'incl, 2>rd, and ¥h. Lord Edmund Fitzmaurice, 
M.P., President, 

Members who have not paid their Subscriptions to the Society for 
the current year, are requested to remit the same forthwith to 
the Financial Secretary, Mr. William Nott, 1 5, High Street, 
Devizes, to whom also all communications as to the supply 
of Magazines should be addressed, and of whom most of the 
back Numbers may be had. 

The Numbers of this Magazine will not be delivered, as issued, 
to Membei's who are in arrear of their Annual Subscriptions, 
and who on being applied to for payment of such arrears, have 
taken no notice of the application. 

All other communications to be addressed to the Honorary Secre- 
taries : the Rev. A. C. Smith, Yatesbury Rectory, Calne; 
and H. E. Medlicott, Esq., Sandfield, Potterne, Devizes. 

The Rev. A. C. Smith will be much obliged to observers of l)irds 
in all parts of the county, to forward to him notices of rare 
occurrences, early arrivals of migrants, or any remai'kable facts 
connected with birds, which may come under their notice. 

To he published hy the WiUshire Archcsolor/ical and Natural History 
Society, hy Suhscriplion. 



Farther particulars will shortly be sent hy circular to Members of 
the Society. 

The Author will be glad if any who could assist him with a list of plants 
in their several localities would kindly communicate with him. As the Fioia 
will probably be published at the end of this year, early information is par- 
ticularly desired. Address — Rev. T. A. PisiiSTOx, The Green, Marlborough. 



Irrjirfoliigiral ml Ifltiiral listartj 


No. LIX. JUNE, 1883. Vol. XX. 



Some Early Featttees of Stockton Chuech, Wilts : By the Eev. 

J. Baron, D.D., P.S.A., Rector of Upton Scudamore, Wilts 107 

On the Church of St. Peter, Manningford Britce, Wiltshire : 

By tlie Eev. J. Baron, D.D., F.S.A., Rector of Upton Scudamore, Wilts 122 
" Sculptured Stone at Codford St. Peter, and Heraldic Stone 

AT Warminster " : By the Rev. J. Baron, D.D., F.S.A., Rector of 

Upton Scudamore, Wilts 138 

" Early Heraldry in Boyton Church, Wilts : Recovery of a 

Missing Link " : By the Rev. J. Baron, D.D., F.S.A., Rector of 

Upton Scudamore, Wilts 145 

On the Occurrence of some of the Rarer Species of Birds 

IN THE Neighbourhood of Salisbury (Continued) : By the Rev. 

Arthur P. Morres, Vicar of Britford 154 

Some Account of the Parish of Monkton Faeleigh (Continued): 

By Sir Charles Hobhouse, Bart 185 


Interior of Stockton Church, Wilts . , 107 

Ground-plan of St. Peter's Church, Manningford Bruce, 

Wilts 123 

Ground-plan of St. Edmund's Church, Fritton, SufEolk 125 

Ground-plan of Church of St. Mellon, Rouen 127 

Ground-plan of Kilpeck Church, Herefordshire 129 

South doorway and chancel arch, Manningford Bruce 

Church, Wilts 130 

Sculptured Stone in Codford St. Peter Church, Wilts ... 138 

Sculptured Stone, Warminster Athensenm, Wilts 140 

H. F. Bull, 4, Saint John Street. 



"multoeum manibus geande levatue onus." — Ovid. 

^omc €aii| |atttits of StoAton Cljut^fflats. 

By the Rev. J. Baeon, D.D., F.S.A., 
Rector of Upton Scudamore, Wilts. 

?jTHE very name of restoration is a sound of alarm to the 
antiquary, as being often another word for meddlesome 
change, fanciful improvement, or even reckless and ruthless destruc- 
tion. Nevertheless, even destructions and demolitions are sometimes 
imperatively demanded by altered circumstances and true progress, 
and some restorations are necessary, and, if carried out in a con- 
servative spirit, praiseworthy, while to many we owe the revelation 
or illustration of interesting features which would otherwise have 
remained hidden or unobserved. Among necessary conservative 
and instructive restorations I trust may be reckoned that of the 
parish Church of the little secluded village of Stockton, Wilts, 
completed in 1880. 

The first feature to be noted is what has been called, for want of 
a better name, a " horizontal vesica piseis,^^ over the middle and 
tallest of the three lancet lights of the east window. 

This is, alas, only a shadow of the past : for the window was 
restored in 1840, but we have a trustworthy record that the new 
window was intended to be a careful reproduction of the old one. 
The very peculiarity of this feature nearly caused its destruction at 
the beginning of the recent restoration of the Church. " Who ever 
heard of such a thing as ' a horizontal vesica piscis '?" " It could 
not be original." I pointed out, in the Benedictional of St. Ethel- 
wold, a " vesica piscis " leaning to the right,^ although usually re- 
presented vertical in the same tenth century MS.,^ and pleaded that 

' ArchjBologia, vol. xxiv., pp. 53, 62. 
' Ibid, pp. 57, 80, 85, 86, 87. 
VOL. XX. — NO. LIX. I 

108 Some Early Features of Stockton Church, Wilts. 

if the oval pointed figure called by Albert Diirer " vesica piscis," 
has any relation to the early Christian symbol t%^u?j a fish, it was 
only natural that this rude outline of a fish^ as some assert it to be^ 
should occasionally be shown in a horizontal — the usual swimming 
— position. All this might have been in vain if I had not been 
enabled by the suggestion of a kind and valued friend^ the Rev. 
G. F. Saxby^ to refer to a passage in Archseologia Cantiana, where a 
" horizontal vesica piscis/' in combination with round arches, is figured 
and described as unique.^ This settled the question as to a horizontal 
"vesica piscis " being a genuine feature of Early English architecture, 
but I should be much interested by hearing of other examples. 

On the south side of the little chancel are two lancets. The 
westernmost of them is brought down lower than the other, but the 
sill is, nevertheless, 5ft. 6in. above the floor of the chancel. The 
height of this window is 6ft. 3in., and the width Ift. 7in. It is 
fitted at the lower end with a casement not very recent. The upper 
part of this window has a groove on each side in the stone-work, as 
if a shutter or compartment of the window sliding upwards like a 
sash, had preceded the easement, or co-existed with it, for the pur- 
pose of distributing doles to lepers or other applicants from without. 
It is clear that this arrangement must have been made for some 
special purpose, but what that may have been is a matter of specu- 

The next feature I have to notice, the eastern wall of the nave, 
appears to me of great interest as illustrating, when compared with 
similar examples in England and with Greek and Latin Churches, 
the whole history of chancels, choirs, and chancel screens, and shew- 
ing the influence of Greek ritual and tradition in the far west at a 
very early date. 

In this remarkable east end of the nave there is a doorway with 
folding gates, where we should have expected a chancel arch, and on 
each side there is a hagioscope, having the base 3ft. 7in. above the 
floor. These hagioscopes have pointed arches, converge accurately 

^ Vol. vii., p. 82, 83 ; London, printed for Kent Arch. See, by Taylor & Co., 

Bi/ the Rev. J. Baron, D.B., F.S.A. 109 

towards the altar, and measure at the base 2ft. 5in,, from base to 
apex, 2ft. 11 in. 

At the beginning of the recent restoration, many said, " How 
strange and inconvenient ! " "A good chancel arch ought to be 

Fortunately I was able to remember and look up a paper by Mr. 
John Henry Parker, in the Archaeological Journal for December, 
1844, " On some Perforations in the Walls o£ Churches.^' In illus- 
tration of the said paper two similar examples are engraved, one at 
Ashley Church, Hampshire, as rude as that at Stockton, but with 
round arches, the other in the old Church of Otterbourne, Hamp- 
shire, with pointed arches and distinct thirteenth-century ornament. 
These two examples were sufficient to prove that such an arrange- 
ment as the east wall of the nave of Stockton Church prevailed, 
more or less, in the south-west of England from about the time of 
the Conquest, or much earlier, till the thirteenth century. It is 
worthy of note that Ashley and Otterbourne are both in the diocese 
of Winchester. The manor of Stockton was given to the monks of 
St. Swithun at Winchester, i.e., to the Cathedral there, before the 
Conquest, and is so recorded in Domesday Survey. The patronage 
of the Rectory of Stockton remained with the Bishop of Winchester 
till our own time, and has only recently been transferred to the 
Bishop of Oxford. 

The little Saxon Church at Bradford-on-Avon, Wilts, has not a 
chancel arch, in the usual sense of the term, but a doorway instead. 
Possibly such a doorway, with or without a perforation on each side, 
may have been common elsewhere, though now obliterated by chancel 
arch and restoration, as at Yatesbury, Wilts. 

The Rector of that Church, in the Wilis Archaological Magazine 
for November, 1879, says: "When the Church was restored in 
1854, it was found necessary to pull down and re-build the chancel 
arch, which was effected by shoring up the whole of the east end of 
the nave roof by means of props from below. Though the chancel 
arch was so small and narrow as to be inconvenient for service, and 
showed such signs of settlement as to necessitate its removal, it was 
not without considerable regret that it was taken down ^ as it was 

I 2 

110 Some Tlarly Features of StoeJcton Church, Wilts. 

unmistakably of a peculiar horse- shoe form, contracted at the base, 
and bulging out in the centre ; and that regret was not diminished 
when, on removing the adjoining walls on either side, there were 
found, though concealed by the plaster, on the north side a rude 
hagioscope or squint, and on the south side what appeared to be the 
remains o£ an ambry, though some supposed this too to be a hagio- 

This statement of Rev. A. C. Smith enables us to see that the 
Yatesbury arrangement resembled that at Stockton. It also sug- 
gests the sad inference that what was done at Yatesbury has been 
done elsewhere by less sympathising hands, and with no antiquary 
near to remonstrate or record. 

When a high and wide chancel arch was introduced in early times 
a screen became almost a necessity, according to the notions then 
prevailing. In the Church of Upton Scudamore, Wilts, which was 
restored in 1859 under the care of Mr. Street, there is reason to 
believe that a great part of a massive wall at the east end of the 
nave was knocked out in the fifteenth century to make way for a 
chancel arch and screen. 

In order to shew how the massive east wall of the nave in some 
early churches in England, pierced by a doorway into the chancel, 
with or without a perforation on each side, illustrates the whole 
question of chancels, choirs, and chancel screens, let us take two 
simple intelligible and typical Churches, one of the Greek and the 
other of the Latin communion. Let the Greek example be St. 
Theodore, at Athens, of which a ground-plan and exterior are given 
by Dr. Neale in his Holy Eastern Church, vol. i., p. 171.* 

We see in this plan that, however complicated a large Church or 
Cathedral may be in the East or in the West, the essential divisions 
are few and intelligible, viz., four : — i. the bema or sanctuary ; ii. 
the choros or choir, for clergy and singers ; iii. the naos or nave, for 
faithful worshippers ; iv. the narthex, for catechumens and penitents. 
On the bema stands the aryia rpdire^a, or Hoi?/ Table, with the 
prothesis, or place of preparing the bread and wine, on the north, 

* Also Ibid, p. 271. The plan is also givea in Translations of Primitive 
Liturgies by Neale, introd., p. xiv. ; London, Hayes, 1859. 

By tie Bev. J. Baron, B.J)., F.S.A. Ill 

and the diacouicon, or vestry, on the south. But the chief detail 
on which we have to dwell, for our present purpose, is the iconostasis 
or screen with three openings, at the top of the steps of the bema. 
This screen is commonly called iconostasis, because upon it are placed 
the icons or sacred pictures, but the earlier and more proper name 
is KttY/ceXa. Ducange, in his Greek Glossary, gives Ka^/ceXo? pi. 
KdjKeKot, and KdjKeXov, pi. KdyKeXa. For convenience I adhere 
to the neuter plural KdyKeXa, which is the form most commonly 
used by Greeks in the present day to designate an open fence of 
iron or wood, in Church or elsewhere. 

It is curious that Du Cange, with his stupendous learning in 
Eastern as well as Western lore, after giving an admirable historical 
account of this screen under the word K.dyKe\o<;, or KdyKeXov, in 
his Greek Glossary, gives a faltering and puzzled account under 
iLKovoardaiop, apparently because, drawing his knowledge chiefly 
from books and documents, he was not aware that iiKovocrraaL'i is 
merely a later name, which has come into use to mean the same 
thing as KdyxeXa, which also dates back to a time when probably 
there were no icons or pictures on the screen, which was in early 
times a mere lattice or network of wood, as Eusebius calls it in 
describing the splendid Church built by Bishop Paulinus at Tyre, 
A.D. 315.1 

We were told, many years ago, in Mr. Parker's Glossary and else- 
where, that our English word chancel is derived from the Latiu 
word "cancelli," a lattice, but this is only part of the truth. 

The word was used in good classic Latin to mean lattice, or 
generally a fence, in the days of Cicero, who uses these words, " Me 
facile vestra existimatione revoeabitis si extra hos cancellos egredi 
conabor quos mihi ipse circumdedi.'^ - But the rudiments of the word 
were in Greek four hundred years before Cicero- KtyKXiS€<i is used 
in the Knights and Wasps of Aristophanes to mean the lattice gates 

' 'E(^' airacr'i re to tSiv &y\a>v ayiov SvcriacTTripiov ev fiearai Sels, avOis /cat 
TaSe a>s av e'lrj rois ttoWois liSara, rois a.Tr6 ^vXov TrepU(f)paTTe diKTvots els 
aKpov ivTi)(yov XfTTTOvpyias i^rj(TKqp.ivois, u>i 3^avp,d(riov tois opwcri Trapix^iv rrjv 
Seav. Euseb., X. 4, vol. i., p. 474, ed. Reading, Cambridge, 1720. Cf. Bingham, 
Antiq. Cbr., Bk. viii., Cb. vi., Sect. 6. 

" Pro. P. Quinctio. 

112 Some Early Features of Stockton Church, Wilts. 

in a court of justice, and the scholiast explains it by ILdyiceKov} 
Without pausing- to determine whether the word belongs more truly 
to the Greek or the Latin language in the classic period, we may 
note that it is used so frequently by early ecclesiastic writers in 
Greek, before the introduction of pictures, to mean the screen on 
the western edge of the bema that it is unnecessary to specify any 
of the quotations. A goodly number are given in Du Gangers 
Greek Glossary, and in Suicer's Thesaurus of Greek Fathers. 

Upon comparing the very early Latin Church of San Clemente, 
at Rome, we see exactly how the original Greek idea of a Church was 
developed and adapted to Italian circumstances and requirements. 

Plans and views are given by Gaily Knight^ and Dr. Rock.^ 
But these plans require correction by the further researches of Father 
MuUooly and others* 

In the Greek Church the %op69 for clergy and singers was placed 
immediately west of the steps of the bema, without any sepai'ation 
from the nave. In the much larger Italian Churches it was found 
convenient to fence off a space for clergy and singers in the nave by 
a low screen, described as no higher than for a person to lean upon.^ 

This space, so fenced off, was not called " cancelli " or " cancellus," 
but " chorus cantorum." 

But the high screen on the edge of the bema having disappeared 
as not convenient for the Latin rite, what provision was made for 
the seclusion and dignity of the sacred mystery? The answer is, 
the canopy with costly curtains placed on the bema or sanctuary 

1 Cf . Liddell & Scott, Lex., KdyKeXor, Kiy/cXtV. N.B.— The latter form is 
frequently used as a synonj'm for the screen. Cf. Bingham, ut supra. 

2 Ecclesiastical Architecture of Italy from the time of Constantine to the 
fifteenth century, hy Henry Gaily Knight, Esq., F.E.S. F.S.A., vol. i., plates 
1 and 2 ; Bohn, London, 1842. 

^ Ch. of our Fathers, by Daniel Eock, D.D., vol. i., p. 193 ; Dolman, London, 

* See comparative ground-plan in Basilica of S. Clement, Mullooly ; Eome, 
Barbera, 1873. 

^ In primitiva Ecclesia peribolus, id est, paries, qui circuit chorum, non eleva- 
batur, nisi usque ad appodiationem, quod adhuc in quihusdam Ecclesiis observatur, 
quod ideo fiebat, ut populus videns clerum psallentem, inde bonum sumeret ex- 
emplum. Durandus, Eationale, Lib. i., cap. iii., n. 35, Lugd. 1672. 

By the Rev. J. Baron, D.D., F.S.A. 113 

over the altar, and called in Greek 'KiSwqiov, in Tjatin umbraculum, 
and in Italian, baldaechino, became the substitute for tbe Greek 
K.dyKe\a, with its doors and curtains. 

This canopy was used before A.D. 500 in Eastern Churches, being 
found depicted in the mosaics in the dome of St. George of Thessa- 
lonica.^ The primary meaning of the Greek word JLiScoqtov is the 
cup-like seed-vessel of the Egyptian water-lily.* The name and 
thing were, therefore, probably in secular use in Egypt long before 
the Christian era. It is curious that our word canopy is derived 
from KwvcoTrelov, the canopied bed, with curtains, used in Egypt to 
keep off Ka>z/a)7re9, mosquitos.^ A common synonym at this day 
in the East for KiSatqiov, in the ecclesiastical sense, is TLov^ovkXiov, 
a canopy, apparently akin to the Latin cubiculum. Dr. Rock sup- 
poses the Anglosaxon Churches to have followed the type of San 
Clemente. This, surely, could only be true o£ some of the largest 
and grandest Churches. A good example of this type, adapted to 
the services of the Church of England, is St. Barnabas, at Oxford, 
built in the middle of the present century, for a dense population, 
where it is very successful. The baldacchino looks very well, but 
is destitute of the curtains which gave it its Italian name and were 
originally its chief raison d' etre as in some measure a substitute 
for the Greek screen. But although the San Clemente type, with 
its baldacchino, chorus cantorum, and other details was unsuitable 
in any fulness for small villages and missionary stations in England, 
it may be observed in confirmation of Dr. Rock's view that its in- 
fluence may be traced in many of our small Churches which have 
an apse. Such Churches are known to have existed in the West 
seven hundred years before the Norman Conquest of England. The 
Church of St. Gervais, at Rouen, where William the Conqueror 
went to die, is a bright new restoration, in Transition Norman style, 
but through a trap-door in the floor is reached a crypt, where there 

* Cf . Texier, Byzantine Architecture, plate 33 \ London, Day & Son, 1864. 

^ Cf. Student's Ecclesiastical History, by Philip Smith, p. 426, note 4, and 
engraving, p. 427. 

^ Cf. Herodotus, ii., 95. Trommius, Concord, iu Sept., art. Kamairiiov et 
Kwi/uffioi/. Also Liddell and Scott, Lex. Kitatpiov ; KxavnTritov. 

Il4 Some Early Features of Stocldon C/iurcJt, Wilts. 

is a very small Church, admitted to be as old as the third century. 
It is said to he the oldest Church in France, and a tradition o£ the 
Greek rite. It has a semi-circular apse, and the remains of a hook 
are shown at each side of the apse, about 10ft. high, which is said 
to have been used for a curtain which could be drawn or undrawn 
or lowered as required. The winch and pulley for such a curtain, 
in the Presbytery of Salisbury Cathedral, remain to this day. 

By comparing these two Churches of St. Theodore, at Athens, 
and San Clemente, at Rome, with the ordinary type of the simplest 
and smallest village Churches of England, in early times, we shall 
see how this latter type was developed by blending the architecture 
of Greek and Latin Churches, and how natural it was that some of 
our Anglosaxon clergy, who were conversant with the East, and 
were accomplished Greek scholars as well as Church builders, should 
make the east wall of the nave, before the introduction of high and 
wide chancel arches, subserve the purpose of the Greek Ka^/ceXa, so 
far as was consistent with the Latin rite. 

In St. Theodore the choir is screened off from the bema or sanctu- 
ary and blended with the naos or nave. 

In San Clemente the choir is fenced off from the nave and blended 
with the sanctuary. 

In course of time it was found convenient in the West to improve 
further upon the plan of San Clemente by a further blending of the 
two types, and, instead of screening off a part of the nave for a 
chorus cantorum, to make room for the choir on the other side of 
the Ka7/ceXa, by forming what we call a chancel. For this ar- 
rangement it was necessary to make the screen more open than in 
Greek Churches. In present English, choir and chancel are used 
as almost synonymous. The usual distinction in the last generation 
was to use choir when speaking of a Cathedral with regular choristers 
and trained singers, and chancel when speaking of a smaller Church 
where the singing was of a different character, often in a west 
gallery ; but it will be clear, upon reflection, that a chancel, except 
those that are very small, contains two divisions, viz., the sanctuary 
— on which stands the holy table, usually fenced off by altar rails, 
and west of these the space properly called a choir, for clergy and 

By the JRev. J. Baron, D.B., F.S.A. 115 

official singers. Some chancels are so ver}' small, as at Stockton, 
that they can hardly be said to have any choir space at all. Cer- 
tainly no singers, however well trained, could sing to good effect 
through a massive wall, with a mere doorway and two small per- 
forations. In such small villages it seems highly probable that our 
forefathers were recurring to the Greek type, like St. Theodore, as 
more suitable for a sparse population in those times than the San 
Clemente and Basilican type, which, doubtless, for grand Churches, 
has had great influence throughout the world, and in some degree 
for small ones. 

It seems probable that in these small chancels the intention was 
to provide room merely for the altar, credence, vestry, the officiating 
priests with his assistants, and perhaps for the communion of the 
faithful. The singers, if any, would be placed outside the screen, 
north and south, so as to give antiphonal effect, as in the Greek 
Church ; not, as indicated by Dr. Neale, under the centre of the 

The blending of the Latin rite with Greek Churches was abun- 
dantly exemplified in Italy itself long before the Norman Conquest 
of England. Very notably in St. Mark's, Venice, which was built 
from designs of the best architects of Constantinople, A.D. 976, 
and took about one hundred years for its completion. The present 
screen, which divides the sanctuary of St. Mark^s from the body of 
the Church, was constructed in 1394 by two brothers, who were 
natives of Venice. An excellent view is given by Gaily Knight. 
It is very instructive as showing how the JLdjKeXa of the Greek 
Church was modified to suit the Latin rite. It consists of twelve 
pillars, each surmounted by the statue of an apostle, with curtains 
that can be drawn or undrawn between the pillars. On the north 
side is a pulpit, pleasingly combined with the screen, and on the 
south side an ambon or reading desk. It is curious that " Kanzel " 
in German means a pulpit, and a rood-loft was called in French 
"jube," from the "jube domne benedicere,^'' or solemn asking for 
blessing at the reading of the holy gospel therefrom. 

In the Pontifical celebration of the liturgy by the Archbishop of 
Corfu, at the consecration of the Orthodox Greek Church of St. 

116 Some Earl^ Features of Stockton Church, Wilts. 

Sophia, Bayswater, London, 5th February, 1882, the evangelist, or 
gospeller, after receiving- benediction, as in the Latin Church, ascen- 
ded the lofty pulpit and read therefrom most beautifully and dis- 
tinctly in Greek the holy Gospel for the Sunday, the Parable of the 
Prodigal Son. 

On the east wall of the nave of Stockton Church one poor corbel 
remains on the north side of the doorway, in the place of an impost. 
It is clear that there was another corbel on the south side of the 
doorway, but it was cut away in a former generation, for the fixing 
of a pulpit. A third corbel is remembered on the north side of the 
north hagioscope, but it was inadvertently removed during the 
recent restoration. Of course there was a fourth corbel on the 
south side of the south hagioscope. 

The term rood screen is misleading, because it seems to imply 
that a chancel screen is necessarily connected with a rood. 

The Greek screen is usually surmounted by a cross, on which are 
painted or incised, but not sculptured in relief, the figures. Our Lord 
on the cross, the Blessed Virgin standing on one side and St. John 
the Evangelist on the other. In the West these figures were 
sculptured, and came to be called the rood. A distinct rood beam 
was sometimes added, to carry these figures. Rood lofts were some- 
times connected with chancel screens, but were not introduced till 
about the fourteenth century. 

We have some mediaeval chancel screens so light and open that 
they only veil the altar and east window, without obscuring them, 
as the rood screen at Mere, Wilts. Many beautiful screens of the 
same character have been constructed of late years for the Cathedrals 
of Ely, Hereford, Salisbury, and for many smaller Churches. 

The gates of the Salisbury screen are made to open westward into 
the nave, as do those at Stockton, which are shown in the drawing 

No one in the Church of England is likely to re-produce the 
Stockton arrangement, except, perhaps, for missionary purposes. 
We are greatly indebted to the Rector, Squire, and Churchwardens 
of the parish; I must add, also to the architects, Mr. Benjamin 
Ferrey, F.S.A., and Mr. Edmund Benjamin Ferrey, for preserving. 

By the Rev. J. Baron, B.D., F.S.A. ]17 

in spite of much obloquy, so precious an hi^orical monument, or 
" lamp of memory," to use a Ruskin phrase. I am also told that 
the Marquis of Bath, F.S.A., visited the Church and expressed a 
strong opinion in favour of preserving the very peculiar features of 
the east end of the nave. 

In the case of a small Church or chancel the arrangement is not 
so inconvenient as might be supposed for the services of the Church of 
England. In the communion service at Stockton the clergyman's 
voice is well heard throughout the building. Nor is it necessarily un- 
sightly. Before the recent restoration the large space of wall over the 
doorway and hagioscopes was encrusted with eighteenth and nine- 
teenth century monuments. These have been moved to more suitable 
situations, but the wall in the meantime is left blank. It is to be 
hoped that, in due course of time, by study of archaeological and 
artistic lore, some subjects will be chosen to decorate this space, so 
that this historic east wall — without detriment to its archaic features 
— may become an iconostasis as well as ILdyKeka. There can be no 
doubt that it was so decorated in olden time, in conformity with 
both Greek and Latin examples.^ 

In order to appreciate the great wisdom of the Stockton arrange- 
ment in very early times, it is desirable to ascertain approximately 
when it was devised. I am not aware of any known examples which 
are older than the Norman Conquest, if so old, but the arrangement 
was probably devised long before.^ 

The most Greek period in England before the conquest dates from 
A.D. 668, when Theodore of Tarsus became Archbishop of Canter- 
bury. He was very energetic in his duties and occupied the see 
twenty-two years. He deceased A.D. 690. His primacy naturally 
gave a great stimulus to the study of Greek, and intercourse with 
the Greek Church.^ At this time there was no actual schism be- 
tween East and "West. 

* Cf . Texier, Byzantine Architecture, and the sculptured angels at Bradford- 

^ Cf. Church of Eeculvers, Arch. Cant., vol. xii. 

^ Cf . Dr. Hook, Lives of Archbishops, vol. i., pp. 145, 164. 

118 Some Barhj Feakires of StocJdon ChurcJi, Wilts. 

In A.D. 705 Aldhelm became Bishop of Slierbora, and remained 
in that see till his decease in 709. Although the manor o£ Stockton 
belonged to the Cathedral o£ Winchester, and the Bishop of that 
see was patron of the rectory, the Church and parish were in the 
bishopric or diocese of Sherborn, as now of Salisbury, 

Bishop Aldhelm had studied much at Canterbury, under Adrian, 
a follower of Archbishop Theodore. He had travelled much in the 
East, and was an accomplished Greek as well as Hebrew scholar. 
During the four years of his episcopate, although about seventy years 
old, he was very diligent in the discharge of his duties, travelling 
about his diocese mostly on foot. He built a Church at Bradford- 
on-Avon, Wilts, and another at Frome Selwood ; the latter dedicated 
to St. John the Baptist, the same dedication as Stockton, which 
was most appropriate for these places, which were, at that time, in 
regard to Christianity, out-posts in the wilderness. It is expressly 
recorded that he came and preached at Bishopstrow, about seven 
miles from Stockton, and the Church built there, after his visit, is 
dedicated to him. He laboured much for the union of Christendom 
in his day, and was very successful in reconciling Britons and Saxons. 
He was then, in all respects, the man to introduce such a Greekish 
arrangement as that at Stockton, and through his influence, it may 
reasonably be supposed, to have spread into the parent and very 
friendly diocese of Winchester, and elsewhere. But there were other 
students of Greek among the Anglosaxon clergy who might have 
devised this arrangement, or, being so very suitable for missionary 
stations, it may have been expressly authorised from Rome, as was 
the appointment of Theodore of Tarsus to be Archbishop of Canter- 
bury. There is a prevailing learned error that little or no Greek 
was known in this country till the taking of Constantinople by the 
Turks in 1 454 ; this is at variance with facts. Greek was always 
known at Rome, and there is abundant evidence that Greek — both 
sacred and secular — was studied during the Anglosaxon period both 
in England and France, and, moreover, that it was pronounced as 
the Greeks of to-day pronounce it. 

Dr. Hicks gives extracts from a Frank MS. of this period, pre- 
served at the Public Library at Cambridge, which has the Lord's 

By the Rev. J. Baron, B.B., F.S.A. 119 

Prayer, Gloria in Excelsis, and Nicene Creed, all in Greek, but 
transliterated into the Frank character of that date. 

He also gives, from a MS. in the Bodleian Library at Oxford, 
extracts from the Septuagint of passages from Genesis and Isaiah 
in Greek, but transliterated into the Anglosaxon character. By 
reference to Wanley's catalogue we find that there is a mine of such 
documents yet unexplored. Mr. Cockayne, in his Saxon Leechdoms, 
edited for the Master of the Rolls, shows that the Anglosaxons were 
acquainted with Greek medical treatises. 

So much for the learned error. 

There is also a popular error very prevalent, which interferes with 
the due appreciation of the wisdom of the Stockton arrangement 
for missionary stations in early times. It seems to be supposed that 
a great part of the worship of early times consisted in gazing at 
the officiating priest and his assistants while performing the liturgy, 
and that all, whether faithful, catechumens, penitents, or unbelievers, 
were invited to gaze. This is contrary to the whole spirit and 
practice, both of East and West, in early ages. That spirit is set 
forth with much learning in Tract 90 of the Oxford Tracts, " On 
Reserve in Communicating Religious Knowledge." I have, in this 
paper, nothing to do with the writer's deductions, applications, or 
religious reflexions, but with the question of an intentional reserve, 
except to the initiated, and prepared, which is the key to many o£ 
the arrangements of early Church architecture, in the East and West. 
This is recognised in the Eastern liturgy by the dismissal of the 
catechumens, and the ejaculation, Ta ci'yia rot? djioi^.^ It is 
pointedly expressed by a mediaeval poet : — 

"Infra Cancellum Laicos compelle morari, 
Ne videant vinum cum sacro Pane sacrari." 

Poeta MS. aevi injimi : apud Du Cange, 
Gloss. Lat., art Cancellus. 

Those who are interested by parallels will find them in the Jewish 
religion, and in the Eleusinian and other heathen mysteries difi'usely 
treated by Bishop Warburton.* 

' ''E.vxoXoyiov, pp. 55, 69 ; Yenice, 1862. 
^Divine Legation. 

120 Some Earli/ Features of StocUon Church, Wilts. 

In the Greek Church a most elaborate ritual of the preparation, 
&c., is performed out of sight of the assembly of worshippers, many- 
prayers are said by the priest behind the screen, some of them in- 
deed eK(f)cov(o<; aloud, but many /j,vaTiK(t)<; in silence, without the 
utterance of a sound, and the Latin Church has also secreta. 

Why then are the doors ever opened, and the curtains undrawn, 
and why were the hagioscopes made ? 

The answer is, for the faithful, but not necessarily for all at one 
time. Gazing was not a matter o£ religious, still less of legal 
obligation. Those of the faithful were invited to look who were 
inclined to do so and felt the looking to be a help to their devotion. 

This is well expressed in Elfric's canons, which — speaking of the 
fraction and elevation of the host — say, " Loca hwa wille," "Look 
who will."^ The easternmost arch, on each side of the nave of 
Stockton Church, filled up with masonry to the height of 2ft. lOin. 
above the floor, seems to have been intended for a backing to the 
misereres or singers^ stalls, placed immediately westward of the 
Ka^/ceXa, north and south, for antiphonal singing, as in Greek 
Churches, at this day. Possibly each of these arches may have 
been occupied and ornamented by a recumbent effigy, in the attitude 
of prayer, respecting the altar through the adjacent hagioscope, a 
usage exemplified by an effigy still remaining in the south aisle. 

In the early services I find some resemblances to the Greek ser- 
vices, particularly in the Anglosaxon ceremonial for the Dedication 
of Churches published in the Archaeologia,^ but probably they are 
not more Greek than the services of the Latin Church elsewhere at 
that date. 

Any indications of the use of the Greek rite in the Anglosaxon 
Church I have not found. In very early times, the See of Rome, 
after the example of Pope Gregory the Great, was very tolerant of 
small variations of ritual. I note two subordinate variations of the 
Anglosaxon Church, in an eastward direction^ from the general 

1 See Elfiic's Canons, A.D. 957, c. 37, in Johnson's Ecclesiastical Laws, Canons, 
&c., Editor's corrections and quotations in note *, vol. i., p. 404 ; Oxford, J. H. 
Parker, 1850. 

^ Vol. XXV. 

By the Rev. J. Baron, B.D., F.S.A. 121 

practice of the Western Church of the present day : — i. a fuller and 
more frequent use of incense ; ii. the distribution of blessed-bread 
at the close of the liturgy. 

In the parish books of St. Stephen's, Coleman Street, exhibited by 
Edwin Freshfield, Esq., F.S.A.,at an ordinary meeting of the Society 
of Antiquaries, Burlington House, London, in 1879, one item of 
some accounts, A.D. 1382, was, " Salt and cutting the Holy Loaf." 
This was certainly not bread for the sacrament — which was always 
in this country, before the Reformation, of wafer form, and needed 
no cutting — but Blessed Bread, a tradition of the avrihcoqov, still 
distributed in the Greek Church, and identical with the Pain Beni 
distributed at the end of mass in the Churches of France.' 

There is one other early feature. It is a beautiful but sadly- 
mutilated effigy, in the south aisle, of a lady, supposed to be a 
benefactress. It reminds me in its costume and elegance of the 
effigy of Eleanor, Queen of King Edward I., in Westminster Abbey, 
but possibly it may be much later. The peculiarity is that the lady 
is represented recumbent on the left side, and in the attitude of 
prayer, apparently respecting the altar in the same south aisle. 
Tradition says that it formerly occupied a position about the middle 
of the south wall of the same aisle, under a recess which was des- 
troyed to make way for a glaring monument, and that being found 
out of place in the restoration of 1840, a new recess was made for 
it where it now lies. 

I trust I have now fairly illustrated these points, which appear to 
me as facts : — 

1. That the chancel and nave arrangement of our Churches has 
arisen from an amalgamation of Eastern and Western types. 

2. That our English word chancel is derived from ^dyKeka, the 
original name of the Greek screen, through Latin. 

3. That some of our smallest chancels were not intended to ac- 
commodate a choir, much less an organ. 

^ Cf . Laws of K. Etheh-ed, as quoted below, p. 132, in a paper on the Church 
of St. Peter, Manningford. 

122 On the Church of St. Peter, Manningford Bruce, Wiltshire. 

4. That chancel screens are in accordance with both Eastern and 
"Western usage, and are not necessarily connected with roods, rood 
beams, or rood lofts. 

6. That the influence of Greek ritual, theology, language, and 
Church arrangement was considerable in this country in the Anglo- 
saxon period. 

6. That the Stockton arrangement, though not likely to find 
favour in this country, since the introduction of chancel arches and 
light open screens, is, nevertheless, worthy of consideration for 
missionary stations, for the seclusion and security of chancels. 

7. The importance of having any restoration or demolition watched, 
if possible, by some experienced antiquary. 

[N.B. — Part of the foregoing paper was read by the author before an ordinary- 
meeting of the Society of Antiquaries, London, 15th January, 1880, and an 
abstract is printed in the Proceedings, N.S., vol. viii., No. iii., p. 230. About 
the same time, in restoring and re- fixing an interesting Perpendicular rood screen 
in Poltimore Church, near Exeter, it was discovered that the central part of the 
east wall of the nave had been cut away, apparently in the fifteenth century, from 
floor to roof, leaving an opening about 7ft. wide, and a hagioscope was found on 
each side, filled up with masonry, and plastered over.] 

mx\\ Illustrations ixm Qi\tx €iirlg C^tinlfe^s. 

By the Eev. J. Baeon, D.D., F.S.A., 

Rector of Upton Scudamore, Wilts. 

P^HE parish is called Manningford St. Peter in the Taxation of 
J|| Pope Nicholas, A.D. 1291, and received its later surname 
from the family of Braose, or Brewes, who were lords of the manor 
in the fourteenth century. 























■H X 

By the Rev. J. Baron, B.J)., F.S.A. ]23 

The early features of this little Romanesque Church may be con- 
I veuiently ranged under the following' heads : — 

1. The ground-plan. 

2. The herring-bone arrangement of the flints of the external 

masonry, with very coarse joints. 

3. The great height of the wall and doors in proportion to the 

smallness of the building. 

4. The smallness of the original round-headed windows, and 

the height at which they are placed above the floor-level. 
Of these three remain fairly perfect, with indications of a 
fourth on the south side of the nave. 

5. The absence of ornament. 

6. The space at the east end devoid of windows, but lighted by 

a window on each side, apparently arranged for a painting 
of the Majesty, or some other devotional subject. 

7. Three consecration crosses at the east end. 

8. Some slight remains of a painting over the north door, ap- 

parently similar in style to some of the pictures in. the 
Utrecht Psalter. 

1. The ground-plan. The walls are about 3ft. Gin. thick, without 
buttresses or aisles. The Churcb has three well-defined portions, 
which may be conveniently designated by the Greek names, bema, 
choros, and naos ; or we may apply English names which are more 
familiar, but less definite, e.g., sanctuary, presbytery or choir, and nave. 

Popularly the Church would be described as consisting of apse, 
chancel, and nave ; or simply of chancel and nave, the apse being 
looked upon as an exceptional termination. And there is great 
danger that wben an apsidal Church is being pulled about and 
altered in the process of what is called restoration it may have its 
three-fold partition more or less obliterated, and be conformed to 
the modern notion of chancel and nave. 

The inexactness of the above English descriptions will appear if we 
consider how vague and still fluctuating are some of the terms used. 

Choir is often used as a sort of synonym for chancel, though it 
properly means a place for clergy and singers. 
VOL. XX. — NO. ux. K 

124 On the Church of St. Peter, Manningford Bruce, Wiltshire. 

Presbytery is an expressive word, but not much used except in 
our English Cathedrals to denote the space between the sanctuary, 
or altar-place, and the choir proper.^ 

Chancel, as I have shewn in a paper which I had the honour of 
reading before the Society of Antiquaries, 15th January, 1880,^ 
though popularly used to denote the part of a Church eastward of 
the nave, is a Greek word which was originally the name of the 
screen, called in later times iconostasis, which has always stood at 
the top of the three steps on the western side of the bema. There- 
fore historically, the apse might be reasonably called the chancel or 
place screened off for liturgical rites. In this paper desiring to 
speak with exactness, without being pedantically archaic, I will 
either use the Greek names, bema, chores and naos; or the English 
words apse, chancel and nave. One of the most striking peculiarities 
of this Church which may be considered under the head of ground- 
plan is that there is no east window. Of course there is an outcry 
among some Church restorers that " a good east window of suitable 
character " ought to be inserted. I am glad to think that there is 
no intention of such an alteration being here made. To my mind 
the absence of an east window is a very persuasive argument for the 
early date of this Church. 

About the year 1845 I was permitted, in company with Mr. 
Joseph Clarke, now a much-valued Fellow of the Society of Anti- 
quaries, to examine archseologically the little apsidal Church of 
Swyncumbe in Oxfordshire. The apse in that case had no east 
window apparent. We set to work to shell off carefully with thin 
old table knives the whitewash, and we made the curious discovery 
of a large archaic painting of a figure of Our Lord between two 
angels, with a liberal supply on their wings of eyes like those on a 

' The name presbytei-y, like basilica, to be mentioned below, thoiagh of Greek 
derivation, did not prevail in the East, but in the West. The usual name for 
the seats for Bishop and clergy round the inside of the apse of an Eastern Church 
is Synthronon. Dr. J. M. Neale makes the word masculine, apparently through 
inadvertence, or for the sake of uniformity with the uncompounded word. Cf. 
Bulgari, Catechesis Hiera, p. 56 ; Corfu, 1852. Eompotes, Liturg. p. 43 ; Athens, - 
1869. Also Ducange, Greek Glossary. 

2 An abstract is published in the Proceedings, vol. viii.. No. iii.. Second Series, 
pp. 233—7. Cf above, p. 111. 

By the Rev. J. Baron, D.B., F.S.A. 125 

peacock's tail.i This paintino- had been cut into and partly des- 
tro^'ed by the insertion of three little round-headed windows, after- 
wards plastered over. We therefore came to the conclusion that at 
Swyncumbe the apse and the archaic painting were much older than 
the Conquest and the so-called Norman Period. Westward of the 
apse at Swyncumbe was a chancel with thirteenth-century details. 
A reference to the little apsidal Church of Pritton, Suffolk, seems to 
shew that an east window was thought necessary in the so-called 
Norman Period. In that case there was one very small round- 
headed east window, with chevron moulding ; and restorers, in the 
present century, have added a similar window on each side of it, as 
may be seen by comparing a photograph of the present interior of 
the Church with the ground-plan, perspective view, and interior, in 
Suckling's History of Suffolk.^ It is a noteworthy fact that 
the original Church dedicated to St. Aldhelm, at Bishopstrow, Wilts, 
a place which he is recorded to have visited as a missionary bishop, 
was apsidal, and — like Manningford Bruce — had no east window ; 
but the eastern part of the apse was an unbroken space of wall with 
a window on each side. This space, doubtless occupied by a de- 
votional picture in early times, was utilized by the rector and parishi- 
oners in the last century as an advantageous position in respect of 
light and acoustic effect for the pulpit. A ground-plan of the 
original Church of S. Aldhelm, Bishopstrow, is given by Sir R. C. 
Hoare,^ showing the position of the pulpit as it existed in his day, 
and the two windows of the the apse placed N.E. and S.E., instead 
of due N. and S, as in the Church of St. Peter, Manningford Bruce, 
where the easternmost part of the apse was seized upon as a com- 
manding position, not for a pulpit, but for a monument to Mary 
Lane, wife of Edward Nicholas, lord of the manor of Manningford 

* In the Anglosaxon MS. of Caedmon, tenth century, the seraphs attendant on 
Deity are represented with eyes on their wings. See Archseologia, vol. xxiv., 
p. 340, plates lii., liv., Ixxxix. For a figure of Our Lord between two angels, 
see Utrecht Psalter, ps. xix., (xviii. Vulgate). 

^ History of Suffolk, by Rev. A. Suckling, L.L.B., vol. i., p.p. 357 — 8 ; London, 

^ History of Modern Wilts, Hundred of Warminster, p. 74. 


126 On the Church of St. Peter, Manningford Bruce, Wiltshire. 

Bruce, and sister of Jane Lane^ who assisted in the escape of King 
Charles II. after the Battle of Worcester. This monument is now 
removed and placed on the north wall of the chancel. 

The original chancel of the Church of St. Aldhelm^ Bishopslrow, 
was demolished at the beginning of this century, and a square-ended 
chancel substituted. In the course of a re-construction of the 
Church, about six years ago, the foundations of the apsidal chancel 
were discovered, but the designs for a square-ended chancel were 
adhered to. As a ground-work on which to rest the illustration of 
early Romanesque apsidal Churches, I must beg to quote some re- 
markable words of Dean Milman in his Latin Christianity : — " For 
some considerable (it cannot but be an indefinable) part of the three 
first centuries, the Church of Rome, and most if not all the Churches 
of the West, were, if we may so speak, Greek religious colonies ; 
their language was Greek, their organisation Greek, their writers 
Greek, their Scriptures Greek, and many vestiges and traditions 
show that their ritual, their liturgy, was Greek."' In the great 
work of Gaily Knight, on the early Churches of Italy, depicting 
grand dromical Churches, with a rowof pillars on each side, and an apse 
at one or both ends, the resemblance of these to Basilicas or Halls of 
Justice may seem complete. But we have now pushed our researches 
further and deeper than Gaily Knight. We have since his day 
brought more fully into view Byzantine and Eastern Church archi- 
tecture, and have dug down beneath his " primitive Church," San 
Clemente, at Rome, till we have discovered a more primitive Church, 
which is fully described by Father MuUooly in his work on the 
recent discoveries by excavation under San Clemente. ^ 

The study of the ground-plans of primitive Churches is very 
instructive for the illustration of early Romanesque Churches in 
England as shewing that there was a traditional type of Church, 
antecedent to the ambries and piscinas of the middle ages, and 
coeval with Basilicas or Halls of Justice, rather than derived from 

^ Milman's Latin Christianity, b. i., ch. i., vol. i., p. 27, quoted in Scudamore's 
Notitia Eucharistica, ch. vi., part ii., p. 207, note 5 ; Eivington, London, 1872. 

^ See ground-plan o£ Subterranean Basilica, in S. Clement P. & M., and his 
Basilica in Rome, by Joseph Mullooly, O.P.,facing page 167 ; Rome, Barbara, 1873. 


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By the Uev. J. Baron, D.D., F.S.A. 127 

them. In Bingham's Antiquities is the " Plan of an Ancient Church 
as described by Eusebius and other writers." Here we have not a 
triple apse, as in later times for grand Churches both in the east and 
west, but a single apse, with mere recesses on the north and south, 
as at Manningford Bruce, for prothesis and diaconicon, with 
KdyKeXa or Ktyk'KiBe'i subtending the bema or apse.^ 

It is clear from the comparative ground-plan given by Father 
Mullooly, and from plans and explanations kindly communicated 
to me by John Henry Parker, Esq., C.B., F.S.A., that although the 
modern Church of San Clemente has a triple apse, the really primi- 
tive Church had a single apse. 

The triplication of the apse, which began early in the east as well 
as in the west, prevailed more generally afterwards, in large Churches, 
and is indicated in historical ground-plans of Canterbury, York,'' 
and other English Churches, clearly arose from a desire to do honour 
to the prothesis and diaconicon in subordination to the holy table, 
or the high altar, as it came to be called in the West. For con- 
venience I use north to indicate the gospel side, and south the epistle 
side, not forgetting the variations as to orientation. 

In the Church of St. George, at Thessalonica, which is known to 
be as old as A.D. 500, and believed to be much oldei*, the apse is 
single with a mere recess on the north and south sides for prothesis 
and diaconicon.^ 

But to come much nearer home, to a Church even older than that of 
St. George, of Thessalonica, and smaller than that of St. Peter, 
Manningford Bruce. In the crypt under the restored Church of 
St. Gervais, in Rouen, is the Church of St. Mellon, believed by 
French antiquaries to be about A.D. 250, and allowed by Gaily 
Knight on a personal inspection to be of about that date.* I visited 

* Compare Bingham's Antiquities, Bk. viii., ch. iii., sec. 3 and 1, vol. ii., pp. 
400 and 396 ; London, Straker, 1843. 

^ See Professor Willis on Canterbury Cathedral, p. 39 ; London, Longmans, 
1845. Also Proceedings of Archteological Institute, York volume, plate giving 
five historical block plans of York Cathedral ; Oxford, J. H. Parker, 1848. 
^ Texier, Byzantine Architecture. 
'' Tour in Normandy, Gaily Knight, pp. 32, 33 ; London, Murray, 1836. 

128 On the Church of St. Peter, Manningford Bruce, Wiltshire. 

this Churcli some years ago, and mentioned it in my Paper, on 
Stockton Church, read before the Society of Antiquaries, London, 1 5th 
January, 1S80. I re-visited it on the 22nd of September, 18S1, 
and made careful measurements and observations from which I have 
had drawn out a plan which is a remarkable illustration of Man- 
ningford Bruce, and other small apsidal Churches of early date. 
Here the bema, chores, and naos are well defined. The bema or 
apse is semi-circular, the diameter being 10ft. At present the floor 
of the bema is 1ft. higher than the floor of choros and naos. At 
the height of 10ft. 2in. on each side is an iron crook, said to have 
been used for the suspension of a curtain in those early times, in the 
place of KdyKzka or itKovoa-raai^. On the north side is a seat for 
the Bishop, and on the south side a seat for his assistants. It is 
possible that these seats were continued round the apse, and cut 
away to make room for the mediaeval stone mensa with five crosses, 
which is now fixed against the east wall, and supported on modern 
legs of the epoch of Louis XIV., or later. Just outside the apse, 
in what may be called the choros or chancel, in the modern sense of 
chancel, is on each side a large square deep recess, clearly corres- 
ponding to the prothesis and diaconicon of early and simple Churches 
in the East. 

The dimensions of the square recess on the north side are, width, 
3ft, 6ia. ; height, 2ft. ] lin. ; depth, 2ft. lOin. ; and of that on the 
south side the same. The dimensions of the round arched recess on 
the north side of Manningford Bruce chaneel,for prothesis orcredence 
are, curiously, 21in. throughout, for width, height from base to 
apex, and depth. It almost seems as if there were some intentional 
reference to the multiples 3 and 7. There is no rebate or mark of 
its ever having had a door. The dimensions are the same of the 
round arched I'ecess on the south side for diaconicon, skeuophylakion, 
or locker, for the safe keeping of the sacred vessels, &c., and this 
recess has a rebate of 2in. width, and the marks of a bolt for folding 

The only further features o£ the ground-plan of St. Mellon to be 
mentioned are the architectural definition of the choros or chancel 
by a massive pier on each side ; the stone seat running round the 

Scale, dhoTJl W^vruh, to afoot. 

By the Rev. J. Baron, D.D., F.S.A. 12.9 

Church, as at Salisbury Cathedral and in many other English 
Churches; and the recesses towards the west end for the tombs of 
St. Mellon, the first Bishop of Rouen, and of St. Avitus^ his suc- 

The small ajjsidal Norman Church of Kilpeck, in Herefordshire, 
presents an interesting variety of arrangements for prothesis and 
diaconicon, as may be seen on the plan.' 

This arrangement in the Church of St. Mellon, Rouen, St. Peter, 
Manuingford Bruce, and Kilpeck, is not strictly Greek, because the 
recesses are outside the bema, but it registers an early variation of 
the Latin Church from the Greek usage which prevailed throughout 
the West till some way on in the third century.- If we could be 
assured that a screen or curtain was used westward of the recesses, 
so as to include in the sanctuary what now appears to be chores, 
these Churches would be in close conformity with Greek usage.^ 

Before leaving the consideration of the ground-plan, it should be 
noted that the piers of the chancel arch in Manningford Bruce 
Church are similar in massiveness to those in the crypt Church of 
St. Mellon, but much more lofty, the height from the nave floor to 
the top of the abacus being 9ft. 7in. The chancel at Manningford 
is defined on the west by these massive piers and on the east by 
ashlar irregular quoins, internally and externally, at the springing 
of the curve of the apse. It is diflBcult to assign a date to the 
Manningford chancel arch, which is semi-circular, the diameter 
being Isift., and formed on the west side by dressed stones like 
bricks, with gable-shaped ends, curiously fitted together. On the 
east side the joints are laid in the ordinary way. 

2. The herring-bone arrangement of the flints of the external 
masonry, with very coarse joints, is remarkable. Taken alone it 

* See plan and description, Gents' Mag., 1833, part i., p. 893. See plan and 
perspective view in Posbroke's Encyclopajdia of Antiquities. Compare plan of 
Peterchurch, Herefordshire, Gents' Mag., 1829, part ii., p. 496. 

^ See Milman's Latin Christianity, Bk. i., eh. i., quoted above, p. 126. 

' Durandus, Bishop of Mende, in France, A.D. 1286, mentions three veils. 
"Notandum est, quod triplex genus veli suspenditur in ecclesia, videlicet, quod 
sacra operit, quod sacrarium a clero dividit, et quod clerum a populo secemit. 
Durandi Ilationale, Lib. i., cap. 3, p. 17 j Lyons, 1672. 

130 On the CJmrcJi of St. Peter, Manningford Bruce, Wiltshire. 

cannot be relied upon as a proof of early date. It seems to indicate 
a tradition of occasional herring'-boning in Roman masonry, but it 
is found to ling-er on in post-Conquestal Norman. ' An inspection 
of the masonry, or a photograph of some part of it will be better 
than description. It was, as well as the chancel arch, covered with 
plaster, which has now been removed. It seems possible that this 
herring-boning- was done for constructional convenience, as explained 
in Parker's Glossary, and not for ornament. It may, perhaps, have 
been the intention of the orig-inal builders that it should be covered 
with plaster, as a preservative and finish. 

3. "We now come to the third point, viz., the heig-ht of the walls 
and doors in proportion to the smallness of the building". 

The bema or apse is, as already stated, a semi-circle, the diameter 
being 16ft. l|in. The ehoros or chancel is, including' the piers of 
the arch, 15ft. from west to east, and 16ft. S^in. wide, at the arch or 
western end. The nave is 33ft. 6in. x 18ft. 6in. 

In combination with these dimensions the height of the doors 
and walls is remarkable. The height of the south doorway, now 
the only entrance to the Church, is 10ft. 2in. from the floor to the 
constructional arch, and the width is 4ft. This opening is reduced 
by plate arch and jambs to 8ft. 7in X 3ft. 5in. The height of the 
north door, now, is lOft. 7in., and the width 4ft. lin. 

Doubtless curtains were intended to be used with these tall doors, 
as now in some places in England, and still more in foreign countries. 
At Upton Scudamore Church, Wilts, there is a curious instance of a 
high and wide north doorway, the main entrance, with chevron 
mouldings, which has been reduced, in the fourteenth century, by 
inserting a much smaller doorway, with mouldings and a niche over 
it of the period. 

The south door of Manningford Bruce Church looks tall and 
narrow in comparison with other Church doors, and is singularly 
like the door of a Church figured in a Saxon Pontifical, MS. 362, 
Public Library, Rouen, and engraved for Mr. Gage's paper on the 

* Compare Parker's Glossary, article " Herring-bone Work." 

Manningford Bruce Church. 

SoutK Doorway. 

a, Inner j^rcfv, 
b Older Arch.. 

Chancel Arch. 


Jatrars. Zi'ih. £nstoL . 

By the Rev. J. Baron, D.D., F.S.A. 131 

Saxon ceremonial for the dedication of a Church, in Archseologia, 
vol. XXV., p. 251. 

The height of the walls is also remarkable. In the bema or apse 
the height from floor to wall plate is 15ft. 5in. In the choros or 
chancel, 15ft. 9in. In the nave, ISft. 7^in. Smallness and loftiness 
are characteristics of many Eastera Churches of early date, and also 
of the little Saxon Church at Bradford-on-Avon, Wilts, which has 
external oi-nament resembling some Eastern Churches. 

It should be noted that the square east end of the little Saxon 
Church at Bradford is no proof of a later date, nor is the apsidal end 
of Manningford Bruce in itself a proof of earlier date. Both types 
co-existed from the earliest ages of Christianity. 

Texier, in his Byzantine Church Architecture, points out that the 
Christian Church formed out of the Temple of Rome and Augustus 
at Ancj^ra, the capital of Galatia, in Asia Minor, is the earliest 
known example of a square east end, and that this type was common 
at a very early date in Britain and France, both which countries 
had a special connection with Galatia, but not in Italy, where the 
Basilican and apsidal type generally prevailed. The Churches de- 
picted in the Utrecht Psalter have square east ends. 

Texier's words are : " The usual custom in Greek Churches was 
to make the apse circular on plan. Since the reign of Justinian 
this rule had been departed from but little. This apse was generally 
lighted by three windows, in honour of the Holy Trinity.' Here, 
however, the chancel has a square instead of a semi-circular termi- 
nation, and this is the most ancient example known of the square 
east end, of which it is difficult to cite a single example in Italy, 
but which became common in Normandy and England in the 
eleventh and twelfth centuries.^' ^ 

Paradoxical as the statement may seem, the small and lofty 
Churches of Manningford Bruce, Bradford, and the East, were able 
to accommodate as many worshippers as modern Churches of twice 
their size, and for this reason, that the very early Churches were 

' Codimus. Descrijjtiori of Saint Soj}hia. 
^ Texier, Byzantine Architecture, p. 91 ; London, Day & Son, 1864. 

]32 On the Clmrcl of St. Peter, Manningforcl Bruce, ff^iltshire. 

not encumbered with pues^ and no space or accommodation was re- 
quired for sitting or kneeling in the full congregations of the Lord^s 
Day, because it was the custom in England, as in the east, to stand 
during the liturgy and other prayers. 

Dean Stanley, in his History of the Eastern Church, notes it as 
remarkable that the Scotch agree with the East in standing to pray, 
and in abhorring instruments for religious worship. This coinci- 
dence is easily accounted for when we realise that the whole Western 
Church was Eastern and Greek before it was Latin. Of the custom 
of standing to pray in England I will allege a proof which I dis- 
covered for myself. In the laws of King Ethelred, A.D. 978 — 1016, 
is the following passage. I will give my own translation first, and 
then quote the Anglosaxon words : — 

"27. Or with what thought can any man ever think in his mind 
that he inclines head to priests, and desires blessing, and stands 
during their masses in Church, and at going up for bread kisses 
their hand, and soon afterwards should readily injure or revile them 
by word or deed.'^ 

" XXVII. Oththon hwilcan gethance maeg aenig man aefre 
gethencan on his mode, thaet he to sacerdan heofod ahylde, and 
bletsinge gyrne, and heora maessan on circan gestande, and aet 
hlaf gange heora hand cysse, and sona thaer-aefter hi hraedlice sith 
than scyrde oththe scynde, mid worde oththe weorce.^^ i 

This passage has been misunderstood, both by Mr. Benjamin 
Thorpe and by Dr. Reinhold Schmidt. They have both mistaken 
" hlaf gang,^'' going up for the holy loaf — antidoron, eulogia, in 
Greek, pain beni, in the Gallican Church, for " huselgang,^' going 
to Holy Communion. 

4. The fourth point is the smallness of the original roxmd-headed 
windows, and the height at which they are placed above the floor 

The two original windows in the apse are externally 4ft. x Iffc. 9in., 

' Ancient Laws and Institutes of England, ed. Thoi-pe, 8vo, vol. i., p. 334 ; 
Eecord Commissioners, 18-10. Compare die Gesetse der Angelsachsen, Dr. 
Keinhold ScLmid, p. 386, Anhang, iv., 27 ; Leipzig, 1858. Cf. N.B., p. 137. 

By the Bev. J. Baron, D.T)., VS. A. 133 

and the sill is lift. 31n. above the floor line. luteraally they are 
deeply splayed, and the base of the splay of the one is Sft. above 
the floor line, and of the other Sft. 6ln. The original window on 
the north side of the nave is externally also 4£t. x 1ft. 91n., and 
the height of the base of the splay above the floor internally is 

10ft. 7in. 

I remember having heard INIr. Street, about twenty-five years 
ago, enunciate in conversation the maxim, that Church windows 
ought to be well elevated, in order that the worshippers may 
look heavenward rather than be distracted by terrestrial objects. 
This practice has material as well as devotional advantages, e.g., m 
diff'uslon of light, moderation of temperature, and economy of sound, 
but the elevation of the original Norman windows in the Manning- 
ford Bruce Church is greatly in excess of the usual mediaeval or 
modern practice. These windows, in size, shape, and elevation, 
singularly coincide with those depicted in the illustration of a 
Church in course of consecration in the Saxon Pontifical referred 
to above, p. 130, in Archseologla, vol. xxv., p. 251. 

The windows were probably so placed partly for security, and to 
lessen the effect of draught. It is evident that window is a Danish 
word, meaning wind-eye: the Anglosaxon equivalent is "ehthirl/^ 

5. The fifth early feature is the absence of ornament. In many 
of the smallest village Churches of the so-called Norman period we 
find, not only the chevron moulding, but a profusion of ornament, 
as in Ifiley Church, Oxfordshire. The term Norman, as applied to 
round-headed windows and doors is misleading. The term Saxon is 
not much better, because it is difiicult to name any features which 
are distinctively Saxon, unless the long and short quoins and the 
baluster pillars, insisted on by Rickman and Parker, be such. I 
therefore much prefer, at least for the earlier specimens of the round 
arch style the term Romanesque, advocated long ago by Mr. Freeman. 

1 Cf. Windauga, Cleasbj^'s Icelandic Diet. Windue, Gen. xvi., 6. Danish Bible, 
Ehthirl, Gen. xvi., 6. Anglo-Saxon Tr. ed. Grain. 

134 On the Church of St. Peter, Manningford Bruce, TFiltshire. 

6. The sixth point, the space at the east end devoid of window, 
has been already treated under the head of ground-plan. 

7. The three consecration, crosses, discovered under whitewash, at 
the east end, on the concjive wall of the apse, about 7ft. 5in. above 
the floor, are very interesting'. At Salisbury Cathedral, dedicated 
A.D. 1225, and at Edington Church, dedicated A.D. 1361, there 
are remains of external consecration crosses on their east walls. 
These are formed by a cross pattee bounded by a circle and have 
formerly been inlaid with metal. ^ 

It would appear that in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries 
it was customary to make internal consecration crosses of the same 
form as those remaining on the outside of Salisbury Cathedral and 
other Churches. Mr. Street has described the finding of a painted 
cross pattee enclosed within a circle on the inside of the east wall of 
the Church of St. Mary, Stowe, near Dartford. It was red on a 
white ground, and outlined with black ^ 

The internal crosses at Manningford Bruce are formed by strokes 
of red colour about 5in long, and of a uniform breadth of fin., 
crossing each other at right angles. These primitive-looking crosses 
are inclosed, with a proportionate intervening space, by a quatrefoil 
bounded by a double circle. 

Quatrefoils, and circles, sometimes double, were used artistically 
as pictorial decorations in the tenth century, as may be seen by a 
reference to the Benedictional of St. Ethelwold in the Archseologia, ' 
and Professor Westwood's Facsimiles.* 

They are also found in early Byzantine architecture.^ 

* Also at Uffington Church, Berks, Pugin's Glossary, article " Conseci-ation 
Crosses." Also at Potterne, Wilts, and Shoreham, Sussex. 

2 Some account of the Church of St. Mary, Stowe, near Dartford, by George 
Edmund Street, F.S.A., Archteologia Cantiana, vol. iii., p. 126 ; London, J. E. 
Taylor, 1866. 

•* For double circles with cross, see Archajologla, vol. xxiv., plate xxv., p. 102. 

* Anglo-Saxon and Irish MSS., plate xv. ; London, Quaritch, 1868. For quatre- 
foils with crosses, 'and for circles, see PaliEographia sacra. Gospels of Canute, 
No. 23 ; London, Bohn, 1845. 

^ Texier, plates xxv. and Ixiii ; London, Day & Son, 186 J.. 

By the Rev. J. Baron, D.B., F.S.A. 135 

Notwithstanding these early examples I cannot venture to assume 
that the remains of decorative painting within the apse of Manning- 
ford Bruce Church are so early as the tenth century or the shell of 
the Church. It seems just possible that the primitive-looking red 
crosses may he coeval with the consecration, marking the spots 
touched with chrism by the officiating bishop, and that the de- 
corative quatrefoils, circles, &c., may have been added at a later date. 

The consecration or dedication of Churches was a most elaborate 
and prolonged process, even at a very early date, both in the Greek 
and Latin branches of the Church, as may be seen in the Euchologion 
and the Pontificals. 

The Greek and Latin services are not identical, but there are 
many points of similarity between them. Much information re- 
specting this ceremony is given in Mr. Gage's paper on "The 
Anglo-Saxon Ceremonial and Consecration of Churches illustrated 
from a Pontifical in the Public Library at Rouen,^' in the twenty- 
fifth volume of Archseologia. 

The MS. is numbered 362, and is believed to be of the tenth 


In the Greek service it is directed that one of the priests or arch- 
priests shall make crosses with the ointment on each pillar and pier 
of the Church,! and in Byzantine architecture we find a cross 
sculptured above the capital or abacus, apparently to receive this 
unction and to be a memorial of it." 

In the Rouen Pontifical is this rubric : " Dei7ide in eircuitu ecolesicB 
per parietes a dexlro et a sinistro faciens crucem cum poUice de ipso 
crismate, dicens," &c. From the context it appears that these crosses, 
made by the Bishop with his thumb dipped in chrism, were inside 
the Church. From Durandus, writing in the fifteenth century, we 
learn that the number of crosses was twelve. We may, therefore, 
suppose that three crosses were made on the eastern wall, as at 
Manningford Bruce; three on the north wall; three on the south 
wall ; and three on the west wall. 

1 Euchologion, p. 321 ; Venice, 1862. Cf. balow, N.B., p. 137. 
- Cf . Texier, three plates of St. Demetrius, Tliessalomca, following p. 128. 

136 On the Clmrch of SL Peter, Manningford Bruce, Wiltsliire. 

The twenty-fifth vokime of the Archseologia, already referred to 
contains in a letter from Sidney Smirke, Esq., F.S.A., to Sir Henry 
Ellis, secretary^ as an appendage to Mr. Gage's dissertation, au 
illustration from the Church of St. John, Syracuse, giving an 
engraving of the interior of this ancient Church, showing conse- 
cration crosses sculptured on the walls. In a note to this letter 
Mr. Smirke says : — 

" Since the above was written Mr. Gage has done me the favour to refer me 
to a Pontifical printed at Rome in 1595, and now preserved in the British 
Museum, where the ceremony of consecrating a Chui'ch is set forth at length : 
the Bishop is enjoined to mark with his thumb dipped in the chrism, twelve 
crosses on the walls of the Church, and others on the door, altar, etc., etc. The 
prints embellishing this Pontifical show the Bishop so engaged, mounted on a 
moveable stage six steps high, the rubric requiring that the said crosses shall be 
ten palms (7ft. Sin. English measure) above the floor." * 

It is curious that this is the height of the consecration crosses at 
Manningford Bruce above the floor. 

From the following words of Mr. Gage, and the text of the rubric 
on which he comments, it seems clear that the chancel veil, either 
instead of a screen, as apparently in the Church of St. Mellon, or 
with a screen, as in the Greek Church, was used ordinarily in the 
Anglosaxon Church, and not only in Lent. " During the time the 
Bishop was depositing the relics in the altar, the veil, out of reverence, 
was drawn, exienso velo inter eos et populum. The veil here spoken 
of was the curtain that anciently hung on the cancelli, or lattice of 
the choir, and was drawn during the more solemn parts of the 
service.'''' ^ 

8. Over the north door are some tantalising remains of an archaic 
painting, apparently similar in style to some in the Utrecht Psalter. 
Besides the wear and tear of time it has been ruthlessly pecked and 
indented in some former generation to receive a coat of plaster. 

• Archoeologia, vol. xsv., p. 277, 
'^ Ibid, pp. 243, 272. See also Pontifical of Egbert, p. 45, Surtees Society. 
Compare on veils, paper by Eev. J. Baron, D.D., F.S.A., on some early features 
of Stockton Church, Wilts, Proceedings of Soc. Antiq., Lond., Second Series, 
vol. viii., No. iii., p. 236. Also above, p. 114, and p. 129, note ^ 

Bi/ the Bev. J. Baron, D.D., F.S.A. 137 

There seems to have been a group of figures on the left ; a nimbed 
figure with seraphs in the upper part of the centre ; and a large 
sitting figure on the right. 

1 have thought the early features enumerated sufficient ground 
for supposing that this Church was built before the Norman Con- 
quest, but I have met with no proof that it is older than the tenth 
century, although preserving the traditionary type of very primitive 
Churches. In Wiltshire we are naturally inclined to try and connect 
early Church work with the personal effort or influence of St. 
Aldhelm, who died Bishop of Sherborne, A.D. 709, but there is no 
mention in his diS"use biographies of any visit to Manningford. It 
seems more reasonable to conjecture that the building of this Church 
was owing to the influence of the Bishops of fiamsbury, twelve 
miles distant, of whom three became Archbishops of Canterbury, viz., 
St. Odo, Siric, and Aelfric. St. Odo, the Dane, in particular, was a 
proficient in Greek and Latin/ became Bishop of Ramsbury A.D. 
926, and Archbishop of Canterbury, A.D. 942, over which see he pre- 
sided seventeen years .^ He is recorded, among other works, to have 
raised the walls of his Cathedral at Canterbury,^ which shows that 
he was an admirer of loftiness in Church building. 

Attention has been attracted to the Church of St. Peter, Man- 
ningford Bruce, by the restoration now in progress. The architect 
is J. L. Pearson, Esq., R.A., F.S.A. 

> Osbemus de Vita Odonis Arch. Cant., Wharton Anglia Sacra, vol. i., p. 79 ; 
London, 1691. 

2 Cf. Fasti Eccl., Sai-isb. W. H. Jones, M.A. F.S.A., part 1., pp. 36, 76 ; 
Salisbury, Brown, 1879. 

3 Canterbury Cathedral, Willis, p. 3 ; London, Longman, 1845. 
[N.B.— At the close of the Pontifical celebration which followed the consecra- 
tion of the Orthodox Greek Church of St. Sophia, London, 5th February, 1882, 
the antidoron was distributed, with eulogia, by the Archbishop of Corfu, standing 
in front of the throne, holding in his left hand a stafE similar to the cambutta of 
a Saxon bishop, and each recipient kissed the right hand of the archbishop. Cf . 
Laws of King Ethelred, quoted above, p. 132. In the consecration service the 
chrism crosses were made at a great height by means of a long rod. See Illus- 
trated London News, 11th February, 1882. Part of the foregoing paper was 
read by the author at an ordinary meeting of the Society of Antiquaries, London, 
8th December, 1881, and an abstract was supplied for the Proceedings.] 


anir Peniliric Mou itt Miinniii^t^r/' 

By the Eev. J. Baeon, D.D., F.S.A.* 

^f^>HIS stoiKJj represented in an autotype plate annexed, was 
||f^| found during the restoration of St. Peter's Church, Codford, 
Wilts, in 1864, under the care of T. H. Wyatt, Esq., F.S.A., built 
in as old material on the north and nave side of the fifteenth century 
chancel arch, about 2ft. above the floor, and it is now fixed against 
the north wall of the chancel for preservation. 

The dimensions are as follows : — front elevation — height, 4ft. lin.; 
width at base, 1ft. lin. ; width at top, Gin. Side elevation {i.e. pro- 
jection from the face of the wall against which the stone is now 
fixed) — at base, 5|in.; at top, S^in. 

The subject has never been satisfactorily explained, and is still 
open to investigation. Probably, if its date could be approximately 
fixed, it might by a comparison of contemporary documents be found 
to be a conventional way of representing some religious incident, 
e.ff., Noah as the builder of the ark, and as a husbandman, or the 
return of one of the spies from the promised land. In the front 
elevation is seen the figure of a man holding in his right hand, over 
his head, a branch of an apple or other fruit tree, and looking up at 
it in a very awkward manner; in his left hand he holds a mallet, 
or it may be a wallet. His short smock and his slipper-shaped shoes 
agree with Anglosaxon costume. The bamboo-formed moulding or 
leaning pillars with which the figure is enclosed appear also to belong 
to the same period, i.e., the tenth or eleventh century, say about 
A.D. 1000. Compare Strutt's Horda, vol. i., pp. 37, 107, and plate 
viii., fig. 1; London, 1774; Westwood's Palaeographia Sacra, p. 

• The Committee desires to express its cordial thanks to Dr. Baron for his kind presentation of 
the two plates of remarkable sculptured stones at Codford and Warminster. They are autotypes 
from careful drawings by Miss Baron and Miss A. Baron. [Ed.] 



"Sculptured Slo?ie at Codford St. Peter," 8fc. 139 

145; London, Bohn, 1845. Compare also the bamboo frame 
on the organ depicted in the illustration of Psalm cxlviii. (149), in 
the Utrecht Psalter, copied in Westwood^s Facsimiles; London, 
Quaritch, 1868. In the illustrations of the Bodleian MS. of Caed- 
mou, as re-produced in Archseologia, vol. xxiv., there are no traces 
of bamboo or baluster-form in the pillars, but in the illustrations of 
the Benedictional of St. Ethelwold, reproduced in the same volume, 
there is some resemblance to this form in plates xiv. and xvi. The 
slipper-shaped shoe is well illustrated. Ibid, plates, xvi., xxviii., 
xxix,, XXX. For bamboo form of pillars compare also the window 
in tower. Earls' Barton Church, Northamptonshire, engraved in 
Rickman's Architecture, App., p. xix. ; London, J. H. Parker, 1848. 
In the side elevation the foliage ornament is carved with much skill 
and freedom. 

The foregoing notes are nearly the same as those which I read 
when I exhibited full-sized drawings of the front and side elevations 
at an ordinary meeting of the Society of Antiquaries, London, 20th 
June, 1878. Those notes were printed in the Proceedings, 2nd S., 
vol. vii.. No. v., pp. 429, 430, but without any illustrative engraving. 
I now submit a reduced autotype plate of the two elevations to the 
Wilts Archaeological Society, in the hope that the subject of the 
sculpture may yet be identified, sooner or later. The persistence 
and wide-spread prevalence of certain treatments of religious subjects 
in early times are remarkable. Moderns commonly ascribe this to 
poverty of invention and want of drawing skill. The truth seems 
to be that early Christian artists preferred to be orthodox and gene- 
rally intelligible rather than original. About the year 1845 I was 
permitted to copy some painted glass in the tracery of a fourteenth 
century window in Great Milton Church, Oxfordshire, representing 
two angels with a dead body wrapped in a cere-cloth, looking much 
like a mummy, except that the place of the eyes and nose was 
marked so as to form a cross. The subject was a great puzzle at 
the time. It was conjectured to represent angels discoursing over 
the body of Lazarus, &c. More than ten years afterwards, in pe- 
rusing Mrs. Jameson's work, I discovered, from a small wood-cut there 
given, that it was the conventional way of representing the Burial 

VOL. XX. — NO. LIX. L 

140 "Sculptured Stone at Codford St. Peter, 

of Moses, as in " Bible de Noailles/' AD, 1000.^ This picture, which 
puzzled many industrious antiquaries in the nineteenth century, was 
doubtless, from its conventionality, well understood in the fourteenth, 
even by the unlearned worshipper and the catechumen. Apart from 
all questions of originality or skill in the artist, it would be a token 
and reminder that the doctrine of the resurrection was revealed to 
Moses, and that the bodies as well as the spirits of the faithful are 
in Divine keeping. 

The treatment of the Majesty, which prevailed during the middle 
ages, in manuscripts, in sculpture, and in painted glass, is found in 
Anglosaxon manuscripts of the tenth century, and on Byzantine 
coins of the ninth. Mr. Birch has shewn how a good idea in the 
Utrecht Psalter has been successively re-produced in the Harleian 
and Eadwine.2 If I am right in assigning the Codford sculpture 
to A.D. 1000, the paucity of the remains of Anglosaxon art renders 
it very precious, and it is possible that the design, which now appears 
grotesque and unintelligible, may, in its own time, have been well 
understood as the received and orthodox expression of some point in 
Scriptural or legendary lore, and may have lived on in later times. 

Although the sculpture has remained a puzzle in its own locality 
during the eighteen years of its re-appearance, the solution may 
yet be found in some Church, or manuscript, or in one of the many 
archaeological publications of the present day. 

Many of the quaint little sculptures round the inside of the 
Chapter House at Salisbury, forming a sort of memoria iechnica of 
Scripture History, would be inexplicable, but from their position in 
the series. One of these represents Noah as a husbandman with a 
vine, but does not bear any close resemblance to the Codfcrd sculpture. 

The stone with heraldic devices, represented in the autotype plate 
annexed, was found in the year 1857, in pulling down the London 

* Compare Guide to Architectural Antiquities, p. 306 ; Oxford, J. H. Parker, 
1846 ; and Hist, of Our Loi'd, by Mrs. Jameson and Lady Eastlake, vol. i., p. 
185, illustration, 74 ; London, Longman, 1864. 

2 Hist., &c., of Utrecht Psalter, by W. De Gray Birch, F.K.S.A., plates 1, 2, 3, 
p. 211, 213, 214 ; London, Bagster & Sons, 1876. 

and Heraldic Stone at Warminster." 141 

Inn, Warminster, Wiltshire — not a very old building — to make 
room for the Athenaeum which now occupies the same site. It was 
in two pieces, built into the walls as old material in two different 
places, the carved side being turned inwards. The two pieces were 
fitted together and built into the wall of the court-yard of the 
Athenaeum, Warminster, for preservation. The line of fracture may 
easily be traced at the beginning of the third and central compart- 

Attention was re-called to this stone by the meeting of the Wilt- 
shire Archaeological Society at Warminster, in August, 1877, but 
the heraldic bearings have not yet been satisfactorily identified. It 
appears to be good work of the fourteenth century. The length is 
6ft. 4in. ; the height, 2ft. My own attention was first drawn to 
it during the said meeting, by C. H. Talbot, Esq., of Lacock Abbey, 
Wilts, and I have also consulted respecting it the Rev. Canon 
Jackson, F.S.A., who very kindly sent me his notes made upon in- 
spection of the stone ; and I have referred to John de Havilland, 
Esq., F.S.A., York Herald, who, upon receipt of a photograph I 
had had taken, expressed an opinion that the heraldry was the work 
of a good herald, and gave me some valuable hints towards the 
identification of the coats. The great difiiculty is the absence of 

The details of the compartments, beginning at the left of the 
spectator, are as follows : — 

No. 1. A tilting helmet, with drapery behind terminating in a 
tassel, surmounted by a chapeau or cap of estate, and thereon a lion 
statant gardant. The cross indicated in front is not merely 
devotional, but constructional. Beneath is a small shield hung 
obliquely, obliterated. 

For the fofrm of the tilting helmet and appendages compare the 
illustration from the brass of Sir John Harsyck, Southacre Church, 
Norfolk, A.D. 1384, given in BoutelFs Heraldry, plate i., facing 
p. 16 (third edition). Compare also a beautiful coloured drawing of 
the efiigy of Giinther, of Schwarzburg, King of the Romans, 1349, 
in Frankfort Cathedral, given in Hefner's Costume du Moyen Age 
Chretien, vol. ii., plate xxvii., p. 37. A reduced engraving of this 


142 "Sculptured Stone at Cod ford St. Peter, 

drawing is given in the Archaeological Journal, vol, ii., p. 219. 

It is said that King Edward III. was the first who introduced 
the crest of the lion statant gardant into the royal arms, and it is 
LornCj so placed on a cap of estate, by himself, and by his sons 
Edward the Black Prince and Thomas of Gloucester; but the royal 
crest lion is crowned. See Sandford's Genealogical History, pp. 
124, 125; and for the like crest, borne by Henry of Lancaster, 
afterwards King Henry IV., see Boutell^s Heraldry, plate Isxix., 
facing p. 258. 

No. 2. Party per pale, three lions, passant to sinister, two and 
one, counterchanged. The charges on this coat appear to be turned 
to the left, in order to look towards the central coat. Compare en- 
gravings in Sandford's Genealogical History, pp. 122, 123, 124. 
The vertical line in pale of this coat is fin. in breadth, and it 
seems clearly to be the proper way of indicating, by sculpture. 
Party per pale and counterchanged. 

No. 3. On a chevron between three leopard's faces, three mullets. 
This is probably the coat of the principal person commemorated by 
the sculpture. In Papworth's Ordinary the following names are 
given as belonging to coats with these charges, but with tinctures 
that vary : Pormort, Brickleton, Davers, and Perell or Pearle, Co. 

No. 4. A coat of which the blazon is not quite certain, but it 
looks like a cross between four lions rampant. Many names might 
be suggested for a cross between four lions rampant; but it seems 
worthy of note how closely this coat corresponds with that of Philippa 
of Hainault, Queen of King Edward III. Boutell states that the coat 
of Queen Philippa ought to be divided quarterly, 1st and 4th, Or, 
a lion rampant sable, for Flanders, 2nd and 3rd, Or, a lion rampant 
gules, for Holland. Vredius gives the following blazon : — " Hainau- 
moderne ; d'or, a quatre lions cantonnez ; le premier et dernier de 
sable, qui est de Flandres ; le 2 et 3 de gueulles, qui est de Hol- 

No. 5. A tilting helmet surmounted by a coronet, and a leopard^s 
face as crest, very similar to the faces on the central coat. Small 
shield defaced, as in No. 1. Caps of estate and coronets were more 

and Heraldic Stone at Warminster" 143 

indicative of rank in the fourteenth century than in later times. 
Lions are, as we all know, very frequent in coat-armour, but it 
seems curious that all five compartments of this sculptured stone are 
leonine in their heraldry. Lions were borne by the Kings of Eng- 
land before King Edward III., and even before Richard Cceur de 
Lion, but King Edward III. seems to have given a stimulus to 
leonine bearings, not only from his natural character and exploits — 
in allusion to wliich he is called " Invictus Pardus," on his monument 
in Westminster Abbey — but also from his intercourse with Flemings 
and Germans, who greatly aflfected lions in their coat-armour. 

Upon the reading of these notes (at an ordinary meeting of the 
Society of Antiquaries, London), opinions were expressed to the 
effect that, notwithstanding the similarity of bearing, the coats of 
four lions could have no reference to Queen Philippa. A. W. Franks, 
Esq., Director, remarked that, judging from the excellent drawing 
exhibited, the sculpture must have formed an architectural decoration 
at some elevation, the shields and bearings being too large for the 
sides or front of a monument placed on the floor of a Church. 

This conjecture has now been curiously verified. The wall into 
which this sculptured stone was built for a rough kind of preserva- 
tion in 1857, was pulled down on the 1st of March, 1879. It then 
became clear, from the shaping of the back of the stone, and from 
marks of smoke, that it had originally formed the front or lintel of 
a chimney-piece, being probably the last vestige of a family mansion 
which tradition assigns to the same site. Petit, one of the local 
families, bore a chevron between three lions' faces. The stone is 
now built into the wall over one of the main entrances of the Bleeck 
Memorial Hall, at the Athenaeum, Warminster, Wilts. 

The above notes were read when a full-size drawing was exhibited 
at an ordinary meeting of the Society of Antiquaries, London, 23rd 
January, 1879, and are reported as above in the Proceedings, but 
without any illustrative engraving. The annexed reduced autotype 
plate is here submitted to the readers of the IFiltshire Archmlogical 
Magazine, with a reprint of the notes, in the hope that the arms, 
from some local source, may yet be more fully identified and illus- 
trated by documentary evidence. 

144 "Sculptured Stone at Codford St. Peter," ^c. 

It seems humiliating that three combined, well sculptured, four- 
teenth century coats, even without tinctures, should remain enveloped 
in the mists of conjecture. 

I am informed by an old inhabitant of Warminster that the 
London Inn was built about 1818, upon the site of a former small 
inn called " Search Hope,"' which was burnt down and had been 
insured in the Sun Fire Office. Under the heading "The Searee 
hoop Inn,'' I find that a lease was granted by Sir Edward Hungerford 
the 1st of June, 1678, to Jeffery, Eyton, of a messuage or tenement 
on the north part of High Street, and a close of meadow or pasture 
adjoining there, &c. This would appear to be a long time after the 
disappearance of the above-mentioned mansion. 

It is said that the stone was found when " The Scarce hoop Inn " 
was pulled down, that is, when the ruins were being removed after 
the fire.^ 

It may be well to recapitulate the points which have now been 
ascertained in the history of this heraldic stone : — 

1. From the heraldic devices sculptured on the front, and the 
shaping of the back, it is clear that in the fourteenth century it was 
the lintel of a high chimney-piece in a lordly mansion. 

2. In 1818 it is found in the debris of " The Scarce Hoop Inn," 
and is built into the London Inn in two pieces as old material. 

3. In 1857 it is found in pulling down the London Inn, and 
built into the boundary wall of the Athenaeum for preservation. 

4. In 1877 attention is called to it by the meeting of the Wilts 
Archaeological Society at Warminster. 

5. In 1879, upon the pulling down of the said boundary wall, 
it is built into the wall over one of the main entrances of the Bleeck 
Memorial Hall, then in the course of erection at the Warminster 

I commend the name, " The Scarce hoop Inn," to the students of 

J. Baron. 

' Cf . Hist, of Warminster, by Eev. J. J. Daniell, ch. xviii., p. 48 ; "Wanninster 
Coates, 1879. 


''€arig pei'alkg m §ogton CIjur% Milt$'': 

lecokrg of a llissiitg f inh. 

By the Eev. J. Baeon, D.D., F.S.A. 

EN the Church of Boyton, Wilts, are still preserved two in- 
teresting coats of arms of about A.D. 1300, which, from 
some general points of resemblance, have always been supposed to 
be identical, but are, when inspected with heraldic caution, indis- 
putably distinct, and the achievements of families very diflPerent in 
name and lineage, although connected in history and the feudal 
tenure of Boyton. One of these coats, displayed on the shield of 
the eflBgy which reposes in the easternmost bay of the south or 
Giffard Chapel, has always been rightly understood to be GiflPard. 
The three lions passant in pale, borne by that distinguished and 
historic family, are sculptured in bold relief with much skill and 
spirit on the large convex and well-pointed shield. A label of five 
points, a mark of cadency usually distinguishing the eldest son, but 
sometimes the elder house or branch of a family, is here rendered 
very instructively, as noted long ago by Sir R. C. Hoare, indicating 
the original method of wearing the label, which in this case was 
evidently nothing more than a cord or string o£ silk tied round near 
the upper part of the shield, and five ends of ribbon depending from 
it. This feature has been very imperfectly shown in otherwise 
pleasing and correct drawings which have been made of this re- 
markable effigy. The string, or cord, or piece of rolled silk which 
passes across the neck of the uppermost lion, and which is in the 
sculpture about fin. thick, is in the drawings shown as a band about 
]in. broad. The undulations of the sculpture intended to indicate 
the five points or depending ends of ribbon probably presented 
difficulties which could be only overcome by special skill in drawing, 
and from a particular point of view. Sir R. C. Hoare thinks the 
label may be the distinctive mark of the Giffards of Boyton, as 

146 "Early Heraldry in Boyion Church, Wilts." 

being the younger house, compared with the GifFurds of Brimsfield, 
Gloucestershire. Although this sculptured coat certainly belongs 
to the Giffard family, for many generations lords of Boyton, there 
has been much difficulty in ascertaining who of that family is the 
particular individual commemorated by this effigy. Sir R. C. Hoare 
timidly and tentatively suggests that it may be Sir Alexander 
Giffard/ fourth son of Hugh Giffard, Constable of the Tower of 
London, brother of Walter Giffard, Archbishop of York, who died 
lord of Boyton in 1279, and also brother of Godfrey Giffard, Bishop 
of Worcester, who died lord of Boyton in 1301, holding it of John 
Giffard, then a minor. 

Mr. Fane has most persuasively elaborated the aforesaid suggestion 
with references to contemporary documents, shewing that, " accor- 
ding to the strict laws of feudal tenancy. Sir Alexander Giffard left 
his native home at Boyton, and followed his liege lord, the gallant 
Longespee, to the war.^' This was the crusade under St. Louis, of 
France, A.D. 1250, and the chief scene of the exploits of lord and 
vassal was the assault of Massoura, in Egypt. 

When Longespee, hardly bested by the Saracens, scorned to fly, 
and resolved to die fighting, he thus laid his commands as liege 
lord upon Sir Alexander Giffard : " If you can escape, you, who 
have the care of my goods, and are my knight, distribute my goods 
among my people in this manner," etc. " Giffard instantly obeyed 
his lord^'s command, and dashing with his unwounded war-horse 
against the host of Saracens, he passed through, as Paris asserts, 
graviter vulneratus, he swam the river, reached the coast, and re- 
turning to England, probably died at Boyton in early manhood." - 

The arms still preserved in a lancet window on the north side of 
the chancel are certainly not the coat of Giffard, but of Thomas 
riantagenet. Earl of Lancaster, Derby, Leicester, Lincoln, and 
Salisbury, who, from his consanguinity with the royal families of 

' Sir E. C. Hoare, Hundred of Hej'tesbury, Boyton, p. 198. In plate xi., ihid, 
the label is not well shown, and the name is thus given at the bottom of the 
engraving : — "Effigy of Elias Giffard in Boyton Church." 

2 Cf. WiltB Mag., No. iv., April, 1855, vol. ii., pp. 105-6. 

By the Bev. J. Baron, D.D., F.S.A. 147 

Eng-land and France, bore the royal arms of England differenced 
with a label of France. 

Any one visiting the Church can satisfy himself as to the differ- 
ence of the two coats. On the sculptured stone shield of the G^gy 
the three lions are merely passant, that is, walking along looking 
straight before them, following their noses ; the label is of five 
points, which are waved, apparently in imitation of ribbon, but 
bear no traces of fleurs de lis} 

On the other hand the coat depicted in the painted glass of the 
window has three lions passant gardant, i.e., walking along, but 
looking towards the spectator, and of gold ; the label of five points 
is azure, and has two fleurs de lis of gold distinctly marked on each 
point.- The sculptured shield of the effigy bears, indeed, no marks 
of colour, but the arms of Giffard, with or without a label, are 
perfectly well known, and so also are those borne by Thomas Plan- 
taganet. Earl of Lancaster from the decease of his father, Edmund 
(Crouchback), A.D. 1296, till his own decease in 1322. 

The blazons, or proper heraldic descriptions of the two coats in 
question, are : — 

Giffard. Gules, three lions passant Argent, with a label azure.* 

Thomas Plantaganet, Earl of Lancaster, &c. Gules, three lions. 

> Cf. Anastatic drawing of the GifEard effigy at Boyton, in Wilts Mag., vol. i., 
facing p. 237. The label presented special difficulties, and is not successfully 
shewn. Also seal of Thomas GifEard, showing label of three points, Ibid, vol, ii.,. 
p. 387. 

* Usually three fleurs de lis on each point. 

^ The blazon, Gules, three lions passant Argent, is given for GifEard in Glover's 
Ordinary, p. 22 ; and in Edmondson's Alphabet of Arms, art. GifEord, Gloucester- 
shire, &c., both in Edmondson's Body of Heraldry. 

The following blazons are of special value as being nearly contemporary : Sire 
Johan Giffard, de goules, a iij lyons passaunz dargent, p. 3. 

OxsENFOKDESCHiEE. Sir Johan Giffard le boef, de goules, a iij lions passanz 
de argent, e un label de azure, p. 29. 

Gloucestreschiee. Sire Esmoun Giffard, de goulis, a iij lyonz passaunz 
dai^ent, e un lable de sable [in another but apparently an early hand], p. 76. 

A Roll of Arms of the Reign of Edward the Second, ed. Sir N. H. Nicolas ;. 
London, Pickering, 1829. For Earl of Lancaster, cf. Ibid, p. 1. 

148 " Early Heraldry in Boyton Church, Wilts." 

passant gardant Or, with a label of five points Azure, each charged 
with three Jleurs de lis Or.^ 

If it be asked, " How did the above-mentioned mistake creep 
into a work of such authority and general accuracy as the History 
of Modern Wilts?" we may reply in the words of Sir R. C. Hoare 
himself, in the preface to the Hundred of Warminster : " The 
Topographer, if advanced in age (as I am), cannot depend solely 
upon his own exertions ; he cannot be hie et ubicj[ue, but must employ 
several agents to complete his undertaking." 

If it be further asked, " How is it that this inadvertency is not 
corrected in Mr. Fane^s interesting and valuable papers on Boyton 
Church,^ and the family of Giffard?"^ it may be replied that, although 
any one may appreciate the difference of the two coats when pointed 
out, probably no ordinary observer, unacquainted with early heraldry, 
and who was not already familiar with the coat of Thomas Plan- 
tagenet. Earl of Lancaster,* would have thought of challenging the 
statement of Sir R. C. Hoare. 

If an apology for the oversight on the part of Mr. Fane be 
needed, it may be given likewise in his own words : " I trust my 
brother archaeologists will accept this my hastily-compiled memoir. 
Your Secretary will tell you how unwillingly I undertook a task 
that others could so much better have performed. I will hope 
another year there will be no possible crevice of our archaeology to 
be filled by the overtasked and very humble Vicar of a large parish." ^ 

It would be out of place here to enter upon any discussion as to 
the merits or demerits of the said Earl, who was a conspicuous 
figure in the history of England during a very troublous and critical 

' Compare Sandford's Genealogical History, pp. 102, 3, 7. The number of the 
points of the label are varied from five to three, according to space. 

2 Wilts Mag., vol. i., p.p. 237, 8. Mr. Fane not only adopts, unhesitatingly, 
the confusion of the two coats, but boldly transfers the tinctures AnA Jleurs de 
lis from the window to his description of the sculptured coat of the effigy. 
3 Ibid, vol. ii., pp. 100-8. 

■• The same coat is preserved, in painted glass of about A.D. 1300, at Dorchester, 
Oxon. See engraving, fig. 6, and description, p. 46, Dorchester Abbey Church ; 
Oxford, Parker, 1860. 

s Wilts Mag., vol. ii., p. 108. 

By the Rev. J. Baro7i, D.D., F.S.A. 149 

period,' but it falls properly within the scope of the topographer 
and antiquary to note some points of his special relation to Boyton 
and the GifFards, and the result of this will be to illustrate and 
confirm some of the most interesting- particulars supplied to the 
TFilts Magazine, twenty-eight years ago, by Mr. Fane. 

A.D. I:i96. Upon the decease of Edmond, Earl of Lancaster, 
Leicester, Derby, Steward of England, &c., surnamed Crouch-Back, 
his eldest son Thomas succeeded him in all his honours and estate, 
being then about twenty-one years of age, and having previously 
betrothed or married Alice, daughter and eventually sole heiress of 
Henry Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, who was also Earl of Salisbury in 
right of his wife, Margaret, then deceased, heire^js of William 
Longespee, and granddaughter of William Longespee, Earl of 

A.D. 1300. Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, was with King Edward 
the First, and the English army at the siege of Carlaverock, in 
Scotland. He was then about twenty-five years old. It is related 
that his arms were " those of England with a label of France, and 
he did not wish to display any others.''^^ His brother Henry at the 
same siege bore the arms of England, " with a blue baton, without 
the label .^' 

A.D. 1310. Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln and Salisbury, 
being about sixty, dies, having solemnly charged his son-in-law, 
Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, to stand up boldly in defence of the 
Church and nation, and to take counsel with Guy, Earl of Warwick. 

^ For a critical review of the character, position, and actions, of Thomas Earl 
of Lancaster, see Constitutional History of England, by Professor Stubbs, vol. ii., 
pp. 322, 349 ; Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1875. One sentence may be quoted : 
" The cause was better than the man or the principles on which he maintained it." 

- Siege of Carlaverock, p. 46. Cf. Sir N. H. Nicolas ; London. Nichols, 1828. 
The words of the original French text of the contemporary poem are very re- 
markable and full of meaning, which is somewhat missed in the above-quoted 
translation : — 

" De Engleterre au label de France 

Et ne veul plus mettre en souffranee." 
" Souffranee " is here a word of heraldic and feudal import. These arms declared 
his nearness to the English throne, and his affinity to the royal family of France. 
This was his paternal coat, than which nothing could be more honourable, and he 
did not wish to obtain recognition for his many additional achievements. 

150 ''Early Eeralclnj in Boyion Church, Wilts." 

Alice, the wife of the said Thomas, was certified at this time to be 
of the age of twenty-eight years. ^ The age of her husband would 
be about thirty-five. Thus the said Thomas came into the possession 
of the earldoms of Lincoln and Salisbury, in addition to those o£ 
Lancastei", Leicester, and Derby, inherited from his father.^ 

The parish of Boyton was included in the property of the earldom 
of Salisbury, and we find at a very early period after the Conquest 
that this estate was subinfeuded to the GifFards, who were already 
tenants in capiie, of the adjoining parish of Sherrington."^ 

It was, therefore most natural that the GifFards of Boyton should 
insert in a window of their parish Church the arms of their superior 
lord, to whom they were closely and devotedly attached by feudal 
and social ties, and the preservation of this Plantaganet coat in 
painted glass is a much more precious historical link and token than 
a mere repetition of the Giffard arms would have been. 

A.D. 1317. On the Monday before Ascension Day, Alice, wife 
of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, at Caneford, in Dorsetshire, was 
violently taken away by a certain knight of the family of John, Earl 
of Warren, there being many in the conspiracy; and (as was said) 
by the King^s consent she was carried in triumph, and in contempt 
of the Earl, her husband, to the Earl of Warren's Castle of Reigate. 
In their passages among the hedges and woods between Haulton 
and Farnham, those that conveyed her saw several banners and 
streamers (the priests and people being then in a solemn procession 
round the fields), upon which they were struck with a sudden terror; 
thinking that the Earl or some of his retinue were come to rescue 
the lady, and revenge the affront, they left her and fled away ; but 
when sensible of their mistake, they returned, and with them a 
person of a very mean stature, lame, and crook-backed, called Richard 
de St. Martin, who, with wonderful impudence, challenged the 
countess thus miserably insnared for his wife, openly alleging his 

' Bishop Kennett, sub an. 1310, Par. Ant., vol. i., pp. 515-6. 

^ Cf. Chronicon Walter! De Hemingburgh, sub ann. 1311, p. 285. In note' 
Chester, instead of Derby, is said to be one of the five earldoms. Eng. Hist. 
Soc, London, 1849. 

^ Family of Giffard, of Boyton, by Rev. A. Fane ; Wilts Mag., vol. ii., p. 101. 

By the Bev. J. Baron, D.D., F.S.A. 151 

intimacy with her before she was married to the said earl^ which she 
likewise freely acknowledged to be true : so as this lady, who, through 
the whole course of her life, had been reputed chaste and honourable, 
on a sudden change of fortune must be proclaimed through the 
whole world for a lewd and infamous woman. The wretch who had 
thus got possession of her grew so insolent as to presume, in his 
pretended wife's name, to claim in the King's court the earldoms o£ 
Lincoln and Salisbury, but with no effect.' This occasioned the 
divorce between the earl and his countess, which historians mention 
to have been some time before his death. ^ 

It is curious that in a previous generation John, Lord Giffard, of 
Brimsfield, is said to have carried off, from her castle at Canford, 
A-D. 1271, Matilda, the widow of the third Longespee, and that 
the marriage was excused upon his paying the King 300 marks.^ 

A.D. 1322. Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, after being formally 
pardoned for his share in the illegal putting to death of Piers de 
Gaveston, being again in arms with associated barons against King 
Edward II. and his favourites, was taken prisoner at Boroughbridge, 
in Yorkshire, carried to Pontefract, his own castle, to the King and 
the two Spencers ; and three days after was, in implacable haste, 
condemned to be hanged, drawn, and quartered ; but in honour to 
his great birth the sentence was mitigated into the loss of his head; 
and on the 22nd of March " this noble patriot/' being carried to a 
hill without the town on a lean white jade without a bridle, was 
made there to kneel, and when he directed his face to the east was 
compelled to turn toward Scotland, while a villain of London cut 
off his head. Of the death of this great peer the King himself 
did soon repent. Many miracles were reported to be done in the 
place where he was buried, and a beautiful Church was there erected 
to the honour of his memory.* 

' Cf . Walsingham, sub an., quoted in Bp. Kennett's Par. Ant., vol. i., p. 539 ; 
Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1818. 

2 Ihid, p. 540. 
3 Wilts Mag., vol. ii., p. 102. 
* Bp. Kennett, who quotes Pakington, Walsingham, Dugdale, Barnes ; Par. 
Ant., vol. i., pp. 556, 7. 

152 "Early Eeraldry in Boyton Church, Wills." 

John Giffard, of Boyton, surnamed " The Rich/^ as inheriting 
also the Brimsfield estates, naturally and perhaps almost necessarily 
followed the fortunes of his superior lord. ^ The histories commonly 
say that he was hanged at Gloucester, but it seems possible that, 
from his local influence in that neighbourhood, decapitation may, in 
this ease also, have been substituted for the more ignominious death 
ordered by the actual sentence. 

Mr. Fane states that John Giffard, of Boyton, surnamed le Kych, 
was beheaded at Gloucester, and mentions that, having occasion, in 
the course of repairs, during the year 1 853, to move a very large 
slab of Purbeck marble in the centre of the north chapel of Boyton 
Church, he found beneath it, in a stone grave (not coffin), a skeleton 
with the skull placed on the left side of the skeleton, as if on the 
interment this position had been originally established.^ 

In the same year that Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, was beheaded, 
Alice, who had been his wife, resigned to the King the manors 
of Ambresbury, Winterbourn, Troubrigges, Wilts ; of Caneford, 
Dorset; and of Hengisterigge and Cherleton, Somerset, which were 
of her inheritance.^ 

Each of the two husbands she afterwards married claimed to be 
Earl of Lincoln, in her right, but no mention is made of the earldom 
of Salisbury. She died in 1349, without issue. 

Henry, the younger brother of Thomas, became Earl of Lancaster, 
Leicester, and Derby, and died, leaving issue, in 1345 ; but in 1337 
King Edward III. created William de Montacute Earl of Salisbury. 

The painted glass in Boyton Church, depicting England with a 
label of France, is very early, and the shape of the shield is very 
pointed, in the style of the thirteenth rather than of the fourteenth 
century, but Thomas, Earl of Lancaster from 1296 to 1321, is the 
only one of his family who held the earldom of Salisbuiy, and so 

^ In a former generation, A.D, 1250, " according to the strict laws of feudal 
tenancy," a Giffard, of Boyton, had followed a Longespee in the Crusades. Wilts 
Mag., vol. ii., p. 103. 

2 Ibid, p. 107. 
' Dugdale, Bar. i., 782 ; Bp. Kennet, Par. Ant., suh anno. 

By the Rev. J. Baron, D.D., F.S.A. 153 

was brought into special connexion with Boyton and the GiSards. 
It is quite time that a correction of the long standing mistake 
respecting these two historical coats should be supplied, for I 
observe that, in Boutell's Heraldiy, Historical and Popular, it is 
stated that Sir Alexander GifFard, of Boyton, bears, gu., three lions 
pass, in pale arg., a label of five points az., charged on each point 
with two fieurs de lis or. An engraving is given of this supposed 
coat.^ ^hesQ fieurs de lis never existed on the sculptured coat, except 
in the imagination of those who, from want of due heraldic and 
antiquarian caution, transferred to it the tinctures and details of the 
painted coat. A smaller mistake has been current respecting the 
animal at the feet of the knight. This has been otiosely described 
as an auimal which may be either a wild cat or a lion.^ It is cer- 
tainly not a lion, or a cat, or a dog, either heraldic, conventional or 
zoological, but anyone who will observe it attentively, particularly 
the head, the flat-shaped beaver-like tail, and the wide- spreading 
aquatic paws, must allow that it is a very realistic representation of 
an otter. The river Wily flows through the village of Boyton, not 
far from the Church, and its fisheries are important, even at this 
day. In former days they were, doubtless, still more considerable. 
Where fresh-water fish abound there is likely to be found the 
poaching otter. The heraldic representation of the otter on the 
monument may have been assumed by the Giffiirds from the fisheries 
on their estate, but it also seems probable that the otter, in place of 
the usual lion or dog, may have been specially represented at the 
feet of Sir Alexander Gifiard, in remembrance of his gallant swim- 
ming through the river at INIassoura, like an otter, not to escape 
from the enemy, but to make bis way to England, to execute the 
dying commands of his liege lord, William Longespee. 

^ Compare Boutell's Heraldiy, p. 225, and No. 503 A., plate Ixsx, facing p. 149, 
3rd ed. ; London, Bentley, 1864. 

* Wilts Mag., No. iii., Nov. 1854, vol. i., p. 237. In a subsequent paper on 
the GifBards of Boyton, the Rev. Arthur Fane describes the same^animal as " aii 
heraldic beast which has given rise to a strange local^tradition." Ibid, vol. ii., 
p. 106. 

154 On the Ocmrrence of some of the Rarer Species of Birds 

The contemporary poem thus describes the exploit : — 

" Sir Alexander Giffard escaped with the gold and silver which was delivered 
to him. He got the horses together and loaded them, and took the road towards 
the city of Damont. He leaped into the long and wide river ; he wished to arrive 
at Diote, as he had promised his liege lord, the good Longespee, for the purpose 
of distributing his property according to his commands. As soon as they entered 
the river, the perfidious Saracens observed them, and cast the Greek fire, which 
was intensely hot, upon them ; but they would have been burnt to dust rather 
than have moved back a foot." * 

R. H. Collins, Esq., C.B., when at Boyton House, first called 
my attention to the shield in the window as a curious old coat, said 
to be GifFard. I easily identified it as appertaining- to Thomas, Earl 
of Lancaster, from having traced and illustrated the same arms in 
Dorchester Church, Oxon.^ Mr. Collins, on the same occasion, 
pointed out to me that the animal at the knight^s feet is an otter. 

J. Baron. 


©aiimtia of mu d tlje ^arcr cSjcrt^s of 
§itte itt % |lcigPouv|oolr of <Sali$6ttrg. 

By the Eev. Aethue P. Moeees, Vicar of Britford. 
(Continued from Vol. xviii., page 318.^ 


ifc^'tyS^N resuming my papers on " The Rarer Species of Birds in 
W-W/s\ the Neighbourhood of Salisbury, •'•' I fear I shall justly lay 
myself open to the charge of not keeping to the subject-matter in 

* See text and translation of A Contemporary Poem describing the Assault on Massonra, in 
February, 1250, pp. 80-1, lines 346—355. In an earlier part of the poem, line 136, is the expression 
" la flume tot avalant," the all gwalloycing rivtr. Excerpta Historica ; London, Bentley, 1831. 

^ Compare Dorchester Abbey Church, xvi., plate following p. 44, fig. 6 ; and 
pp. 45-6 ; Oxford, Parker, 1860. 

In the Nei(/hLourhood of SuUtsljurj/. 155 

hand, as I cannot find it in my heart to omit the mention of some 
of our commonest ornitholog-ieal friends, to whom the description 
rarer certainly cannot be applied. Yet, kind reader, pardon me ; 
for if of human beings this is true, so also is it of other bipeds, that 
if we know the faults best of those we associate with the most, so 
ought we also to be more intimately acquainted with their virtues — 
and these mni/ not be omitted, although such qualities, in bird as 
well as in our human friends, are often wont to be overlooked, if 
their existence be not altogether denied, owing to the blind un- 
charitableness of our fallen nature. 

Now of all our ornithological acquaintances, I am bold to say that 
there are no truer friends to the human race than this oft-abused 
trio, " the Rook, the Sparrow, and the Woodpigeon." Does not 
the intuition of common sense tell us, that the commoner any bird 
is, the greater function it must necessarily have to fulfil in this world 
of ours ? For in creation nothing is too small or insignificant to 
have escaped the minutest calculation and inscrutable wisdom of its 
Almighty Creator, who orders all things in " measure and number 
and weight " ; and woe be to the presumptuous hand which rashly 
interferes with the finely ordered balance of Nature, and thinks to 
better by its own short-sighted management the nicely adjusted 
proportions of the Creator''s handiwork. Doubtless that balance, 
which once was perfect, has been rudely interfered with by the Fall 
of Creation, through man's sin ; so that even as the ground has to 
be tilled, ere it yields its perfect fruit, and cleared of thorn and 
brier, so also in the animate races of creation, the good they were 
originally formed to carry out, is counterbalanced by a certain pro- 
portion of baneful influence as well, which has undesignedly (as far 
as their original purpose in creation is concerned) crept in ; and this 
has to be provided against by man's forethought and care. But yet 
even as the ground is capable of administering, and does administer, 
to man's blessing, under his careful tillage, and honest endeavour, 
so may the irregularities of the bird-world be regulated and held in 
check by the same qualities in creation's Lord and Master; so that 
the evil they occasionally do may be largely counterbalanced by the 
systematic good of which they are the source. At one time this 


156 'On the Occurrence of some of the Rarer Species of Birds 

simple fact remained sadly unrealized ; though, fortunately long ere 
this, that most true regulator of an Englishman's actions, his pocket, 
has caused the inveterate persecution to cease that was ruthlessly 
waged against many of our commonest quadrupeds and birds. 

An example of this I happily find in the first page of an old 
parish account book, in which the following items appear for the 
churchwardens' account of the year 1S27 : — 



For 41 Hedgehogs 



For 14 Crows 



For 2 Stoats 


For 141 dozen, and 9 sparrows 

2 7 


£3 3 1 
making a total which might well have been applied to some far 
nobler purpose ; but I am delighted to find my grandfather's name 
appearing at the end of this first annual account, attached to a pro- 
test against any further charge for Hedgehogs and Stoats (though 
ceteris paribus, I really think he began at the wrong end of the 
condemned list, as our little feathered friends are uudoubtedly en- 
titled to our truest sympathy) neither am I in a position to state, 
from obvious reasons, whether it was true friendship for his four- 
footed friends, or rather sound principles of economy, that moved 
him to stand up in their defence. While in 1835 I find the still more 
laudable protest of ii. H. Hill, the Curate-in-charge, and my father- 
in-law, against any further charge for Sparrows' heads ; though the 
eight years' delay between the abolition of the persecution of the 
quadrupeds and the bipeds cost the Sparrow tribe the loss of no less 
than eight thousand eight hundred and ninety-two of its members, 
and the parish the sum of £12 5*. 2)d. ; the fury of the persecution 
ranging from seven dozen Sparrows, in 1832 (which partial cessation 
is apparently accounted for by a change in the regime, as manifested 
by a different handwriting appearing in the accounts), to as many 
as one hundred and sixty dozen, one hundred and sixty-three dozen, 
and one hundred and seventy-nine dozen respectively, in the three 
succeeding years (when the old familiar handwriting re-appears). 
After this, as twenty-four out of thirty entries in the annual balance- 
sheet were taken up with various items of Sparrow slaughter, the 

In the Neighbourhood of Salisbury. 157 

utilitarian mania would seem to have come to the rescue, and the 
massacre ceases. And here let me remind my readers, that in some 
districts where the persecution has raged with greater fury than 
usual, man has found it necessary to re-import their much-maligned 
friends, to do that for them which they could not do for themselves, 
i.e., to reduce the number of that mighty army, '' the palmer- worm, 
the canker-worm, and the caterpillar,^^ which, in the absence of the 
consumer, were quickly over-mastering their crops. 

Another deeply-merited punishment, which often accrues from 
man's avaricious temperament, and his undue interference with the 
balance of Nature, may be seen in the oft-recurring paroxysms of 
disease, which play as much havoc amongst the Grouse as the pesti- 
lence amongst human beings. The cause is not far to seek. The 
grouse-moor, over which the Peregrine, and at times the Moor Buz- 
zard, and Harrier, were accustomed from time immemorial to exercise 
their clerical right, then undisputed, and ungrudged, of taking tithe 
in kind, no more resounds to their sharp shrill cry of delight, or 
warning, as mate calling to mate, spake to each other of the coming 
feast, or toyed around in ever ascending circles, over the scene of 
some successful chase ; and the Grouse, undisturbed by their aerial 
and hereditary foes, increase in such undue proportion that the land 
will not rightly bear them ; while the sickly produce of a late hatch, 
or weakly parents, propagate their inherited maladies, till they spread 
as a dire scourge over whole districts at a time. Whereas, had 
there been, perhaps, a single pair of Peregrines to act as keepers 
over the moor, not one of those weakly birds would have had a 
chance of propagating the mischief, as they would have been the 
first birds marked out for the Falcon's meal. " Why," do you ask? 
For the same reason that you, good reader, would take hold of the 
nearest tool to hand that answered your purpose, or the short cut 
across the common, instead of going round by the road. For the 
same reason that the cowardly bully at school intuitively picks out 
the shrinking sensitive boy, on whom to work his baneful will, 
avoiding the stronger pluckier mind, that would anyhow make a 
fight for it, ere he gave in. Yes ! as in the school, as in the world 
at large, so on the moor, " might is right," " the weaker goes to 

M 2 

158 On the Occurrence of some of the Rarer Species of Birds 

the wall " ; and so, when the pack is sprung, it is the sickly one 
the weak one, the " lag-last/' which, with a cry of impending and 
unavoidable fate, yields up its life to the unerring swoop of its re- 
lentless foe. 

But I Euust hasten on to my mention of the first family of the 
Kasores (literally scratchers) , or Ground Birds, which consists of 
the Doves, of which there are four well-known species, indigenous 
to our islands, all common, though some more local than others. 

Of these the first to come to the front would naturally be Columha 
Palumius, " The Woodpigeon " : also called the Ring-Dove, Cushat, 
Quest, Quisty, &c. This is a bird dear to every juvenile sportsman, 
on whose memory will be indelibly impressed his first successful stalk 
after so coveted a prize. I shall never forget the eager clutch I 
made at a crippled sjDecimen of the above, as he was shuffling as 
fast as he could to the shelter of some friendly brambles, which he 
reached just before I could overtake him ; the result of which was 
that he left his entire tail in my hand, spoiling altogether the ap- 
pearance of my prize, which, to my vexation, did not look afterwards 
half as big as it ought to have done. 

This is one of our abused friends at times ; though, like a sensible 
bird as he is, he does not take much notice of it, and goes on his 
way without giving heed to the calumnies heaped upon him. I 
need not introduce him personally to the I'eader, as he is admitted 
into bird society generally, and, when got up in his best dress, is a 
well-to-do comely-looking bird; and though not showy, reads a 
lesson to some of us in taste as to the pleasing effect of judiciously 
blending cognate colours, and avoiding strong contrasts. Our 
friend's reiterated song (or that, rather, which he means for one) 
need not be dwelt upon either, though here, again, his character has 
been maligned, should the old tradition be indeed trae, that it was 
he who induced the Welshman to think that he might as well be 
hung for a cow as a sheep, or rather steal two cows while he was 
about it, instead of one, for which, perchance in punishment, he is 
still constrained to utter the same refrain " Ttoo cows Tafiy-take," 
laying the most unmistakable stress on the number to be appropri- 

In the Neighbour hood of Salisbury. 159 

This bird in winter at times assembles in vast flocks, and then is 
the time that, if not watched, it is likely to do considerable damage, 
though not so much, I think, as is generally supposed. It feeds at 
such times voraciously on turnip-greens, though not on the turnips 
themselves, unless they find perchance an unsound root, into which 
they may be induced to insert their bill. But as an example of the 
mischief they will at times do, I can quote an instance from my 
own parish, in which a farmer having planted a field with very 
promising young cabbage plants, which had cost him fifteen guineas, 
had the pleasure one fine morning of finding that the entire plant 
had disappeared ; a large flock of some thousand pigeons or more 
having settled down upon them, and simply cleared away every 
vestige of them. This was certainly rather provoking, but the 
question is, knowing well, as he did, that this large flock was about, 
ought he not to have kept a better look-out, until they had left the 
neighbourhood ? Most certain it is, however, that although now 
and then they do such mischief as this, or thresh considerably a 
piece of laid corn, or lay a heavyish tax on an over-ripe field of peas, 
yet they do incalculable good at other times of the year, from the 
quantity of noxious seeds they consume, such as the charlock, dock, 
and rag- weed. Thus Mr. Stevenson, in his " Birds of Norfolk," 
mentions a quotation from Mr.St. John to this effect: — "Although," 
says he, " There is a great extent of new-sown wheat (Nov. 2i3rd) 
in every direction, I shoot Wood Pigeons with their crops full of the 
seed of the dock, and without a single grain of corn. They also 
have in their crops a great deal of the rag-weed, and small potatoes 
as large as marbles." 

I remember once myself taking out of the crop of a Woodpigeon 
I had just shot, twelve large acorns, each a good inch in length, 
forming a veritable handful, which you would scarcely have thought 
the bird's crop could have held, though from the pace the bird was 
flying when I killed it you would not have gathered it was in any 
way incommoded by its meal. Talking of the flight of this bird, 
I once noticed a manoeuvre on tbeir part I could not at the time 
account for. In the autumn of 1876 I was standing talking to one 
of my parishioners when we were both startled by hearing a sudden 

160 0» the Occurrence of some of the Rarer Species of Birds 

rushing sound over our head as of an engine blowing off steam. 
On looking up we found it proceeded from a large flock of some 
seventy or eighty pigeons which were in the act of shooting down 
perpendicularly from a high elevation in the air, with closed wings, 
at a most unusual velocity, which made my friend exclaim, " They^re 
going at their best pace/' At the time it gave me the idea that 
they were avoiding the swoop of a falcon, or some bird of prey. 
But this was evidently not the case, for on my way home I saw, and 
heard, the same manoeuvre repeated by a smaller flock of some 
twenty birds, which went through exactly the same evolution as 
the others, descending in the shape of a wedge, the thin edge down- 
wards, with no apparent cause whatever — and maintaining after- 
wards the same rapid flight in a south-easterly direction, which I 
had observed them taking before. There was certainly no hawk 
near them, and I can only conjecture that they did it to avoid, per- 
chance some adverse current of wind they were encountering in the 
higher regions of air where they were. 

It is not often that any variation in colour takes place in this 
species, but I remember coming across a pair of local specimens 
which were of a light cream colour ; the light bars on the wings 
and the patches round the neck being indistinctly visible through 
the light-coloured plumage with which they were surrounded. There 
is, fortunately, but little chance of the Woodpigeon ever decreasing 
amongst us to any great extent. It is one of our most attractive 
sylvan birds ; and no one can listen to its plaintive notes, or watch 
it in the breeding season soaring upwards in the air, rising with 
loud clapping of the wings to a considerable elevation, and then 
descending gracefully with out-stretched pinions to its former level, 
without eye and ear being captivated by its motions, or yielding 
one's self up to those thoughts of peace and contentment, to which 
the actions of the bird itself seem so plainly to testify. 

Columha ^nas. The next species that comes before our notice is 
the " Stock Dove,'' which in this immediate neighbourhood is almost 
as numerous as the preceding one, and is very similar to it in many 
of its habits, though it can be at once distinguished from it by its 
shorter tail, more compact shape, and the absence of the white ring 

In the Neighbourhood of Salisbury. 161 

on the neck and the white bar on the wing. It leaves us in the 
depth of winter, returning early in the spring. One of these birds 
was well nigh the origin of my present collection, for on shooting 
one out of a large flock of a hundred or more, in the middle of 
February, in our water meadows, the beautiful gloss on the neck so 
captivated my fancy that I could not help having it preserved, and 
I have gone on collecting ever since. I generally have two pairs of 
these birds breeding annually in the vicarage garden, choosing for 
their nesting place the thick ivy that covers some very large and 
fine poplar stems. One of these pairs had certainly three, i£ not 
four, broods during the same season, though from certain untoward 
circumstances only two of the broods came to maturity. These 
birds are often called, about here. Blue Rocks, which name is more 
properly applied to their first cousin, the Rock Dove ; while their 
general name Stock Dove is also more or less a misnomer, having 
been given to them from a common but mistaken idea that they 
were the original source from which our tame Pigeons were des- 
cended ; whereas the Rock Dove is undoubtedly their progenitor ; 
this species being a truly wild bird, and never mating with any 
other kind than its own. Neither can you derive its name duly from 
the kind of places it often chooses for nesting purposes, i.e., the 
stocks, or bolls of trees, for where such resorts are not at hand, it is 
in no way dependent on them, but commonly breeds in the mouths o£ 
deserted rabbit burrows, or under some thick furze bush on the ground. 

It is a quick lively bird in its motions ; clapping its wings to- 
gether smartly once or twice when it takes its flight, and doing the 
same when it alights. This bird is a very close sitter, alio win o- 
itself at times to be almost lifted from its eggs ; and uttering during 
the breeding season a rumbling grunting kind of coo, quite different 
from its congener, the Woodpigeon. Common as it is about here, 
it would seem to be a bird much overlooked, and unnoticed by many 

Columba Livia. "The Rock Dove." This is the true parent of our 
tame Pigeons, at once to be distinguished from the last-named species 
by the patch of white on the upper tail coverts, and the two com- 
pleted dark bars across the wing. I have never noticed this bird 

162 On the Occurrence of some of iJte Rarer Species of Birds 

anywhere in our immediate neig'libourliood, nor do I think it ever 
occurs here; its natural home being more to the northward, where 
it breeds in large numbers in the holes and crevices of the cliffs on 
the coast. Its place, however, is well supplied by its descendants, 
the semi-domesticated Pigeons that lead an Arab and nomad life, 
owning no master, and building securely in some carefully-selected 
spot that well represents its natural habitat, such as the more ancient 
of our belfry towers, or loftier public buildings, where they rear 
their young in safety year by year. 

As a proof of the fecundity of the tame species, which are des- 
cended from the Rock Dove, I remember once having a tame pigeon 
of almost precisely the same plumage as the wild sort, which mated 
with a carrier ; and these birds brought up thirteeen broods in one 
year, the old birds all through the spring sitting on eggs and feeding 
the former pair of nestlings at the same time with most laudable 
energy, another nest being generally made close to the old one where 
the nestlings were. I had various kinds of pigeons at the time. 
Carriers, Almond Tumblers, Jacobins, Fantails, and other sorts ; but 
this was the only pair that bred in this most extraordinary manner. 

Columha Turtur. " The Turtle Dove.''^ This is by far the most 
beautiful and elegant variety of all our British Doves, with its softly 
blended colouring, and delicate mottling on the back. From its 
very appearance it declares itself a lover of fair and sunny climes, 
only condescending to visit us for about four months in the year, 
appearing generally about the beginning of May, seldom before, and 
leaving us again at the end of August, or early in September. It 
has a short and rapid flight, being of slender proportions, and having 
much more pointed wings than any other of the Doves. This bird 
is very generally, if not universally, held up as a pattern of conjugal 
affection and faithfulness ; an idea which is doubtless strengthened 
by its peculiarly plaintive, and soothing notes. Indeed there is no 
note of any other bird that strikes one more forcibly with the idea 
of loving and peaceful contentment than the voice of the Turtur. 
But I have always heard, and very much fear, that this character 
after all is but ill-deserved by it, for this species is said to differ 
from all the other Pigeons in its attachment to its mate. " The 


In the Neighhourhood of Salishuri/. 163 

males arriving- some time before the females, and pairing only for 
the season." (Meyer.) It is also said to be spiteful and quaiTelsome 
in the extreme when in captivity, ruling the roast over birds much 
stronger or larger than itself, allowing them but little peace, pur- 
suing and harrassing them incessantly. Let me, in conclusion^ 
advise no inexperienced bird-stuffer to select one of these birds ou 
which to try his prentice hand, the skin being unusually tender,, 
and the feathers loosening themselves from the skin with but little 

Columba Migratoria. "The Passenger Pigeon.^' I am afraid I shall 
be considered a bold speculator if I endeavour to claim this species 
as having occurred in our more immediate neighbourhood. All I 
can say is that Mr. King, of Waiminster, a knowing and experienced 
stufFer, assured me that one of these birds was brought to him for 
preservation about the year 1862-3. It was in the flesh, and had 
no sign of captivity whatever about it. He told me he kept it for 
some time without its being enquired after, and then he had sold it. 
This must go for what it is worth. But there seems no reason why 
it should not more frequently occur in this country than it does, 
especially when we remember the amazing rapidity of its flight, 
and the countless myriads that throng the American forests, which 
would seem to be vast beyond conception, and which is so graphically 
described in Wood's Natural History of Birds, from the descriptions 
of Wilson and Audubon, pp. 577 — 580. He there records how this 
species will fly hundreds of miles for its daily food, pigeons having 
" been killed with rice still undigested in their crops, though the 
nearest rice plantation was distant several hundred miles." It is a 
curious fact that this species never lays more than one egg; a pro- 
vidential ordering, by which their marvellous numbers are somewhat, 
held in check. 


PJiasiamis Colchiciis. " The Pheasant." Of all birds not strietlj 
indigenous to our country the Pheasant is ike one which may justly 
claim to have acclimatised itself the most thoroughly. Uncertaiia 
as the period is when it was first introduced amongst us, it is now. 

164 Oil the Occurrence of some of the Rarer Species of Birds 

to be found in every corner of almost every county, and that not 
simply in a semi-domesticated state, but oft-times in a state of 
Nature, in which it is well able to look after itself; and though its 
presence amongst us may not be the cause of un- mixed good, yet 
most people surely will allow that the good it is the author of far 
outweighs the evil. His plumage is pleasant to the eye. His flesh 
pleases the palate. His rearing and preservation afibrds employment 
to hundreds of people. His presence is the occasion of many a re- 
union of friends. His slaughter, true recreation, and keen pleasure 
to scores of sportsmen — not the pleasure, my sentimental friend, of 
taking life, but that arising from the manly exercise of keen eye, 
and true hand ; and that satisfaction, stigmatise it as you will, which 
does accrue from the successful outwitting, through the use o£ 
reason and intelligence, of the keenly-developed instinct inherent 
in the animal creation. Nor must we fail to add to the category of 
good which this bird gives rise to, the true gratitude awakened in 
the mind of the recipient, when an unexpected brace of Pheasants 
is brought to his door, and the genuine pleasure also experienced by 
the unselfish donor. This is a long list of benefits to be mentioned 
as accruing from the presence of this noble bird amongst us, and 
are all these to be counterbalanced and outweighed by this one 
drawback, i.e., that he is sometimes the innocent cause of illustrating 
the truth o£ this homely couplet : — 

"He that takes what isn't his'n, 
When he's caught must go to prison." 

I fail to see it ; and while I should be always a strong advocate for 
dealing leniently with the ordinary poacher, from the remembrance 
how deeply the innate love of sport is ingrained in the British con- 
stitution, and that it is only the accident of birth or wealth that 
enables one man lawfully to follow out the passion of his heart, 
while the lack of it forbids the other to do so ; yet there can be no 
excuse whatever for the organised midnight attack on the preserves, 
where far more than the life of bii'd or animal is at stake, and which 
arouses the direst passions of our human nature. A man might just 
as well empty his neighbour's poultry yard, as his Pheasant preserve, 


In the Neighbourhood of Salisbury. 165 

neither of which can be maintained without much care and expendi- 
ture, while of the two the Pheasant often costs more per head to 
rear and bring to hand than his more humble relation— and if the 
Pheasant should be extirpated from amongst us, from overstrained 
notions of philanthrophy, not only would a great delicacy, and 
abundant supply of wholesome and nutritious food, be withdrawn, 
but also acres upon acres of wood and waste land would be rendered 
unprofitable to the owner, while a healthy and legitimate source of 
recreation would be also put a stop to. And here, again, it is a common 
thing to hear Pheasant shooting decried as a thing requiring but 
little skill and practice. But never was there a greater mistake. 
It must not be forgotten that, in one way, the larger the game is 
that has to be brought to bag, the more accurate must be the 
shooting, if you would kill and not merely hit— for you must not only 
hit it, but hit it in the right spot— and few things can be more 
vexing to the owner of a good cover than to see Pheasant after 
Pheasant go off riddled with shot by an inexperienced hand, and yet 
not stopped, or killed outright. No ! Let anyone who has never 
tried it, be posted at some hot corner, where some score or so of 
birds are constantly rising at once, with a noise that is simply 
deafening, and if he does not, when placed in such a situation for 
the first time, miss with both barrels, it will be very greatly to the 
credit of his nerves. There are many combinations required to make 
a good Pheasant shot— coolness of nerve, quickness of aim, decision 
in at once picking your shot, accurate judging of distance, which 
practice, and practice alone, can acquire ; whereas if any one, while 
standing in the ride, can knock over some half dozen " Rocketers " 
in succession, going at their best pace, and aided, perchance, with 
the wind in their favour, that man may justly claim to be able to 
kill a Pheasant as he ought, but scarcely before. 

But whether a person be an advocate or not of battue shooting and 
big bags (and many a one, methinks, may be induced to speak 
against such things partly on account of the sourness of the grapes 
which he cannot reach, and partly, perchance, because he has 
but little taste for sport, and therefore, if so, is an unqualified 
judge of the matter), yet few will be found to deny the pleasure of 

166 On the Occurrence of some of the Barer Species of Birds 

circumventing some crafty old cock, who has wandered far from his 
original domain, and knows full well how to use all the wits witli 
which Nature has so liberally endowed him. I shall never forget 
the pleasure that such an occurrence gave me personally, when, in 
the dead of winter, I was Snipe shooting in our water meadows. It 
was on a keen cold day, the herbage affording but scant shelter for 
any bird, when coming suddenlyto the edge of one of our "carriages " 
(as the watercourses are called which " carry " the water into the 
meadows from the main stream) , I surprised two fine old ring-necks 
at their afternoon draught ; and which, separating in grand circles 
to the right and left, returned to their mother earth, in a quicker 
way than either of them had intended ; though I am bound to say 
I missed a third cock bird directly after, from making too sure of 
my prize, after my former unexpected luck. 

The craft of an old cock Pheasant is really something surprising ; 
and if you are unaware of his dodges, he will surely outwit you, 
generally making such use of his legs that you find him yards from 
the spot where you confidently expected to discover him ; or at other 
times flattening himself against the ground in stubble or fallow, so 
that you literally walk over him, although from a little distance off 
you may have satisfied yourself that you have marked to an inch 
where he is. No ! long may Phasianus Colchicus and his allies, the 
Ring-necked and other varieties, find a home in our preserves and 
hedgerows, or at times be found paying an unexpected visit to our 
farmyards and gardens — as, for example, on the Sunday before last, 
when a fine old cock stalked out of my front gates, seeming to depend 
on the security the Sunday gave him, and perhaps knowing that he 
would have been safe in my domain even on a week-day. 

Tetrao Urogallus. " The Capercaillie.'' Although I cannot by any 
ingenuity include this magnificent bird as even an occasional strag- 
gler into our neighbourhood (though I see the Rev. A. C. Smith 
mentions an instance as having occurred in the parish of Winter- 
slow in 1841, which must have been a veritable straggler indeed), 
yet I cannot help referring to it from an amusing incident that this 

In the Neighbourhood of Salisbury. 167 

bird unwittingly gave rise to. I have a very fine old cock bird in 
my collection, that came from Scotland about 1865. It weighed 
between ten and eleven pounds, and was in its finest breeding 
plumage, having come to its untimely end in the middle of the 
May month, when I discovered it in the flesh in a well-known bird 
stuffer's shop in London. There was an old man in my parish who 
had spent all his life, and that a long one, in our water meadows, 
and who had a keen eye for natural history specimens, always ob- 
serving, and telling me of any uncommon bird that he came across. 
But a specimen of the Capercaille he had never seen before. Now 
my old parishioner had a son, of whom he was very proud, being 
one of the first pupil teachers from this district who had entered the 
training college at Winchester. His admiration for this pupil teacher 
(or, as he called him in his own vernacular, " Bugle-Tatur") knew 
no bounds, and from him, during his vacation, spent under the 
paternal roof, he picked up many a word, which was as new to him 
as was Tetrao Urogallus himself. These words, of course, he was 
accustomed to introduce into his conversation as frequently as pos- 
sible, to show, doubtless, how subtil was the leaven of the training 
college over all that it came in contact with. One of these words 
was " apropos." One day he was looking over my collection, and 
when he came before the Capercaillie he stopped in astonishment, 
never having seen such a bird before ; and after being silent for 
some time, during which he was taking in the bird's general ap- 
pearance, and being evidently much struck with the strong curved 
beak of the conifer cracker, he touched me on the shoulder, and 
with that peculiar twinkle in the eye which tells that a man feels 
he is treading on uncertain ground, he said " I should consider, Sir, 
that that ere Mrd was h' apropos to a h' eagle"; about as bad a shot 
as any school-boy could make, who, putting a bold face upon it, 
endeavours desperately to flounder through some passage of the 
" Satires of JuvenaV or " The Georgics," which he has never once 
looked at, or, as we should say at Winchester, has taken up " ex- 
trumps.-" The poor old man has gone to his rest, but I never look 
at the case without smiling at his mal-apropos suggestion. 

Tetrao Tetrix. "The Black Grouse." This bird can far more justly 

168 On the Occurrence of some of the Rarer Sjjecies jf Birds 

claim a local habitation and a place amongst us than the last-named 
species; though at the present time it only occui's as an occasional 
visitor. They used to be met with on the downs around Ebbesborne 
and Sutton^ and also, I believe, on TefFont Common and elsewhere. 
This is not surprising when we remember that in the adjacent 
counties of Hants and Somerset, on either side of us, they are not 
infrequent. I have sprung them several times in the New Forest, 
round Rufus's stone ; and on one occasion near Verwood I noticed 
a fine old cock bird on the bank of the railway, which in no way 
showed any fear of the passing train, but held up his head as a bird 
who was in no way ashamed of showing himself. On the other side 
of us, in Somerset, they are numerous on some of the ranges of 
hills. On the Quantocks, ranging from the district of Taunton to 
St. Audries on the coast, they are found in considerable numbers. 
I remember one day in the woods above Bagborough, when I was 
anxious to obtain a good cock of my own shooting for my collection, 
I sprung some eight or ten brace of grey hens, mostly single birds, 
but only three cocks put in an appearance, and that at such a discreet 
distance that I could not secure one, my only chance being at one 
that got out of the lower branches of a thick spruce fir, and which 
took me so by surprise that I was not quick enough for a snap shot 
through the boughs. The old cocks get very cunning, and give 
one the slip much in the same way as a cock Pheasant will. The 
specimen I have was one out of eight cock birds that had congre- 
gated together, as they will, in the early part of December. Mr, 
Wyndham, of Dinton, has a good pair of local specimens in his 
collection. The cock bird having been killed, to the best of his 
belief, on December ]5th, 1820, just where the parishes of Ebbes- 
borne and Sutton* Mandeville meet; while the grey hen was killed 
at Langford on December 5th, 1819. Even now they are oc- 
casionally to be met with in their old haunts, as the Rev. T. 
Wyndham informs me that a grey hen was killed by Robert 
Way, one of his brother^s gamekeepers, as recently as November 
11th of last year (1880). This bird, no doubt, may have been 
a straggler; but it is extraordinary how birds will continually 
re-visit their old haunts, led by that unerring instinct which 


In the Neighbourhood of Salisbury. 169 

causes them to pitch upon the right spot, just as in a still more 
extraordinary way the seed of some rare plant will often find out a 
patch of soil suited to its growth, though it be severed by many an 
intervening mile from the common habitat of its tribe. It is not 
uncommon to see hybrids between this bird and the Pheasant, some 
of them being handsome specimens. Mr. F. J. Strange, writing to 
me on November 7th, 1881, from Fritham, mentions a peculiar 
instance of this kind, saying, " There is in the village a bird, a cross 
between (I should say) the Black Cock and a common fowl, a very 
peculiar bird, and, if so, extraordinarily uncommon/' but he does 
not mention the peculiar features of this specimen. Occasionally 
the hen bird will assume, in a lesser degree, the curved tail of the 
cock, just as is similarly observed in mule Pheasants, when the hen 
will don, and that sometimes in a very perfect degree, the more 
gorgeous colouring of the cock bird. 

Tetrao Scoticus. "The Red Grouse.^' We come now to a bird, the 
Red Grouse, in whom every Briton should take a lively interest, in- 
asmuch as he is a " Briton of the Britons," and has never been known 
to wander from his native shores. It is a very noteworthy thing 
that this bird is purely British, and is found nowhere else in the 
world except within the range of our own islands. Truly he sets us 
a good example of staying at home and minding our own business. 
He practically reads us the same lesson as " Gaarge Ridler and his 
Dog," as exemplified in the following verse of that old west-country 
song, known well, doubtless, by all my readers, but which, however, 
I will quote for the edification of anyone who may not have come 
across it : — 

"Droo' all the world, owld Gaarge would bwoast, 
Commend me to merry owld England mwoast. 
While vools gwoes scamblin' vur and nigh 
We bides at whoam, my dog and I." 

For, although " Tetrao Scoticus " favours Wales, Scotland, and 
Ireland, as well as England, and so extends his peregrinations rather 
beyond our above-named friends, yet he shows a wholesome appre- 
ciation of his native shores, beyond which he takes no interest. 
This species has just occurred often enough in Wilts to include it 

170 On the Occurrence of some of the Rarer Species of Birds 

in our county list. Among other instances, Mr. E. Baker, of Mere, 
informs me that one of these birds was killed at West Knoyle, on a 
farm in the occupation of Mr. J. Romsey. It was shot by a party 
of sportsmen while out Partridge shooting, in 1848, and was sent 
to Sir Hugh Hoare, at Stourton. 

These birds, though infinitely more numerous than the Black 
Game, are, unlike it, monogamous, neither are they ever known to 
perch or roost in trees, as the Black Grouse does. The numbers 
that are annually killed are something enormous, and the prices 
given for a Grouse moor become higher and higher as time goes on. 
In fact the presence of this bird turns land which would be otherwise 
utterly worthless into a substantial source of income. Now that all 
vermin is so narrowly looked after, the way the Red Grouse increases 
is truly marvellous, and though the price realised for a moor makes 
it, perhaps, imperative that the owner should stock it as well as 
possible, by keeping down all causes antagonistic to its increase, yet 
one would fain see more of some of our birds of prey about than are 
now visible, and which, as long as they were not allowed to get too 
numerous, would do as much good as harm, by keeping down the 
weak and sickly birds. It has, indeed, been computed that " a 
single nest of Peregrines would destroy, in a single season, nearly 
three hundred brace of Grouse alone ^^ — truly a startling number, 
and one which would seem to justify the preserver in extirpating 
it altogether from his moor; while the following extract, as quoted 
by Mr. Wood, in his Natural History of Birds, p. 72, also testifies 
to the game-destroying propensities of the Peregrine. "Mr.Sinclair,'" 
he says, " while exercising his dogs on the Belfast mountains, pre- 
paratory to Grouse shooting, saw them point, and coming up, 
startled a male Peregrine oflF a Grouse, just killed by him, and very 
near the same place came upon the female bird, also upon a Grouse. 
Although my friend lifted both the dead birds, the Hawks continued 
flying about, and on the remainder of the pack, which lay near, 
being sprung, either three or four more Grouse were struck down 
by them — thus two-and-a-half or three brace were obtained by 
means of these wild birds, being more than had ever been procured 
out of a pack of Grouse by my friend's trained Falcons." This 

Li the Neighbourhood of Sallshiiri/ . 171 

certainly shows the capabilities of the Peregrine, but still, if the old 
mottoe, " Live and let live," were more the order of the day, I don't 
think any very great or sensible diminution of the Grouse would be 
apparent, and there would be a greater chance of seeing oftener 
such a grand flight as that mentioned above. 

This bird demands a very extensive range of heather for its home, 
not remaining satisfied with a partial range, as is the Black Grouse. 
It has been tried more than once to introduce them on the Quantock 
Hills, in Somerset, but though the range is some miles long, it is 
not broad or varied enough for the Red Grouse ; and when imported 
there, they very soon re-crossed the Bristol Channel into some of the 
Welsh mountains. I was surprised in turn to find that there are 
no Black Game on the Welsh Hills round Crickhowell and Aber- 
gavenny, where I was staying the past summer, as I should have 
thought the situation well suited to their habits. 

Syrrhapies Paradoxus. Pallas's Sand Grouse, I cannot find any 
other instance of this rare straggler to our county, except the 
specimen mentioned by the Rev. A. C. Smith, which was shot in 
the year of their irruption into Europe (1863), by Mr. Joseph Dean, 
of Imber. It was a most extraordinary migration, and the number 
altogether killed in this country was something considerable. There 
is a most interesting account in Mr. Stevenson's Birds of Norfolk 
o£ their appearance in Norfolk and Suffolk in that year, which 
would well repay any ornithologist's reading. Those were naturally 
the counties wherein most might be expected to have been secured ; 
and he records the total number of specimens obtained in those 
counties as being in all seventy-five ; thirty males and thirty females 
in Norfolk, and eight males and seven females in Suffolk. The 
first being picked up dead on Yarmouth beach on May 23rd, the 
last, a male, said to have been shot near Lynn, in the last week of 

Ferdix Cinerea. " The Partridge." The bird, J9«r excellence, of all 
others in a sportsman's eye, as is proved in common sporting parlance 
by the usual soubriquet of "Birds " being used to designate them, 
instead of the proper name which distinguishes the species, for few 
would talk of having bagged so many Partridges, but rather so 

VOL. XX. — NO. LIX. N 

172 On the Occurrence of some of the Barer Species of Birds 

many " Brace of Birds/'' I am bold to say that this homely little 
bird attracts more notice^ and affords a more general topic of conver- 
sation, year by year, than any other bird, 1 was going to say, almost 
any other thing, in our islands. There is no need to speak at any 
length of it, as every lover of Nature has his own store of anecdotes 
and bird-lore connected with it, yet I cannot pass over my old 
friend altogether without a recognition. This bird is not always 
very careful as to the situation it selects for its nest; oftentimes 
choosing a place where there is very little probability of its ever 
hatching out its young in safety. An instance of this I cannot 
help recording. I was once playing in a village cricket match ia 
the field just in front of the vicarage. Through this field a footpath 
runs : and on this occasion it lay between the wickets and the post 
usually called " Point/^ which was not more than two or three yards 
from the pathway. We had not been playing long when the at- 
tention of the fieldsman at "Point" was attracted to a tuft of 
rather thicker and darker herbage than the rest (our village grounds, 
dear reader, are not, as a rule, quite equal to " Lords " or " The 
Oval'"), and, on stooping down to examine it more closely, he ex- 
claimed, " Why, here^s a Partridge's nest with seven eggs.'" This 
was latish in the summer, and yet there that nest had remained 
undiscovered to that very moment, although then, of course, for a 
long time deserted. No passer by had ever seen it, and it was close 
by the Church path, constantly used. The mowers had mown over 
it without noticing it; the haymakers had made hay over it, and 
yet had neither seen nor trodden upon it ; and, more curious still, no 
prying Jackdaw or Rook had found it out, or plundered it ; and it 
was reserved for my friend to discover it in this most unique way — 
a way in which I much doubt whether Partridge's nest was ever 
found before — i.e., by a fieldsman at " Point " in the midst of a 
cricket match. 

But though not always over careful about the situation of its 
nest, this bird is a very close sitter, and will defend its eggs and 
young to the last. Over and over again is the sitting bird killed 
by the mowers in the long grass ; whereas, if it is near hatching, 
it has often been known to remove its eggs, to the nearest hedge, or 

In the Neighbourhood of Salishuri/. 173 

similar place of safety, in an incredibly short space of time; and if 
the young are hatched will entice the intruder away by the most 
cunningly practised devices. Most people, I dare say, have seen 
an instance of this, and how the parent bird will shuffle and tumble 
about upon the ground, as though it had not a leg to stand' upon, 
or rather a wing to fly with — a manceuvre, however, which is com- 
mon to many other birds, and one which I myself have seen practised 
most craftily by the Plover, Wild Duck, Land Rail, and also by the 
little black-headed or Reed Bunting, and that quite as cleverly as 
by the Partridge. Indeed the little Bunting almost effected its 
purpose. I was at the time hunting for its nest in an osier bed (as 
my boys wanted some eggs of this species for their collection) , when 
out flew this little bird from the very osier stump over which I was 
bending, and began to tumble about on the ground in such a comical 
manner that I could not help following it for a yard or two, and had 
much difiiculty to find the nest again, which was so deeply embedded 
in the stump that I never should have found it at all had it not been 
for the antics that the bird played. 

I had an interesting anecdote of the maternal instinct of the 
Partridge related to me the other day. The Rev. R. S, Woodyates, 
Vicar of Pembury, Tunbridge Wells, wrote to me thus : — " An in- 
cident of instinct in Partridges, I saw the other day. A brood was 
caught in the mowing grass, and placed in a coop under a Bantam 
hen, some dutance from where they were found, and in a garden. 
The old birds came fearlessly and took away each of the nine birds 
in the brood, by laying down flat; the little one mounted the back, 
and off flew the old bird. The young one must have dug its feet 
into the plumage of the old one's back, and so got a hold." 

Though so bold when affection for their young demands it, these 
birds would seem to be of a nervous temperament, and are at times 
given over to a kind of panic, which seemingly destroys their powers 
of self-preservation. A whole covey a little time ago settled in one 
of the streets of the suburbs of Salisbury, and allowed themselves 
to be caught one after another, being apparently paralysed by the 
strangeness of their position ; and not long after I myself saw one 
captured on the line, by the porters, in the middle of the Salisbury 

174 On the Occurrence of some of the Rarer Species of Birds 

Station. It had nothing' the matter with it^ but ran right down 
the Une into the middle of the station, as though it were impelled 
to its fate, never attempting to use its wings ; and so it continued 
running backwards and forwards on the line just under the platform 
until it was caught and pocketed. It is astonishing at times how 
many of these birds are killed by the telegraph wires at the side of 
our railways, especially when first newly-erected ; though in time 
they seem to become aware of the danger, and avoid it. I was 
told by the late Mr. Norwood, one of the officials on the South 
Western line, that a man who had charge of sis miles of line be- 
tween Porton and Grateley picked up no fewer than eighty-four 
Partridges killed in this way on his part of the line during the first 
year after the wires had been erected, though in succeeding years 
there were only one or two occasionally found. This seems a 
large number, but the narrator assured me he spoke from personal 
knowledge of the facts, and I had no reason whatever to doubt his 

At times very rare birds are found killed in this way. Not long 
ago a friend of mine brought me the wing of a bird he had picked 
up on the line, which had evidently been thus severed by the bird 
flying against the wires, and which he could not distinguish. It 
proved to be the wing of a " Spotted Crake," which — although I 
expect commoner than is generally thought — is by no means of 
frequent occurrence amongst us. I once shot a very peculiarly- 
marked Partridge, which I have always regretted was not preserved, 
as I have never seen one like it since. The back was a very dark 
mottled brown, not unlike the plumage of some Red Grouse, while 
all the under parts were almost of a creamy white, affording a 
wonderfully strong contrast. It was a hen bird, without the horse- 
shoe. Pied varieties of this bird, or white ones, are not infrequently 
met with. 

Perdix Rufa. " The French or Red-legged Partridge." If hand- 
some plumage and superior size were the chief qualities to be re- 
garded our friend "The Frenchman" would certainly take precedence 
of his English relative. But these things pale before the greater 
and more essential qualities in a game bird of good flavour to the 

In the Neighbourhood of Salisbury. 175 

palate, and sport in the field — our English Partridge must certainly 
be awarded the prize in both the two last-named points ; and if one 
of the two species had to be expatriated the French bird would 
certainly be the one to be sent into exile. Indeed many a sportsman 
has regretted its introduction from across the Channel, and has 
done his best to exterminate them from off his property. The great 
drawback in connection with this bird is its well-known habit of 
running before the dogs or beaters, topping the further hedge of 
the field almost as soon as you are in it yourself, and by its restless- 
ness disturbing other birds as well. Notwithstanding, the plumage 
of this species is so exceedingly pleasing, that one cannot help being 
glad that it has become domesticated amongst us. They are in no 
way numerous in this district ; in fact it is rather an unusual thing 
to meet with them, thougb a pair crop up here and there in un- 
expected places. There was a pair seen in the parish in 1876, one 
of which was killed, but this is the only instance of its occuiTing 
here, as far as I am aware of, for the last thirteen years since I have 
been here. There was another killed during the same year in the 
neighbourhood of "Warminster ; though there also they are but little 
known. A single bird was caught at Mere, in the yard of the Ship 
Inn, by Mr. J. Coward, on April 11th, 1874, having apparently 
taken refuge there from a Hawk ; but the cases of its occurrence 
round here seem isolated and infrecjuent. A year or two ago the 
keepers were driving in the game into the Clarendon Woods, pre- 
vious to a day's shooting, and a pair of these birds commenced 
running before the beaters, as run they will, until they were run 
down, and caught alive. It was a drenching day, and their plumage 
apparently got so soaked that at last they lost the opportunity of" 
using their wings at all, one stretch of which might have landed 
them in safety, thus affording an illustration of the old adage : — • 

" He that will not when he may, 
When he will he shall have nay," 

for at last they could not rise, and are now perpetuated in the 
keeper's cottage. A curious incident connected with these birds 
occurred near Bath not long ago. A few years back my brother 
was shooting at Holt, near Bradford, when he sprang an old cock 

176 On the Occurrence of some of the Barer Species of BirrJs 

bird by the side of some standing- barley, and killed it. This was 
on September 9th, 1S74. He saw no more of the kind for the next 
five or six years, when on September 20th, 1880, he shot a hen — a 
solitary bird — in the very same field where he had killed the cock 
six years before. Should this have been a pair, (and from the cir- 
cumstance of finding them in the very same field, and although 
shooting over the same ground regularly year by year, from never 
seeing or hearing of any other instances of the occurrence of the 
species, it would certainly appear to have been the ease,) it shows 
how tenaciously at times birds will stick to the spot that they have 
once chosen as their home, notwithstanding many an adverse cir- 
cumstance. The eggs of these birds are considerably larger than 
those of the common Partridge, and are freckled and mottled with a 
dull red colour. They differ also from the English bird in their 
arboreal habits, often flj'ing up into trees, or perching occasionally 
on the hedge-row, or the corn stack, in which latter place they 
not infrequently make their nests. 

Perdix Firginiana. " The Virginian Partridge,*^ or " Colin. ■'^ 
This also is an imported species, but one which apparently cannot 
hold its own amongst us as well as the last-named species, the " Red- 
Leg," can, and when turned down is apt to wander far from its 
intended home, and thus gets slaughtered inadvertently. In the 
season of 1875-6 Mr. W. Hart informs me that he came across 
sundry specimens of this bird in the neighbourhood of Christ- 
church. There was a covey of fourteen of them, besides two or 
three single birds. He killed three single birds whilst out Partridge 
shooting, and has them now in his collection. I have not heard of 
any others nearer home than that, and doubtless those mentioned 
must have been turned down in the neighbourhood at some previous 
period, though the covey bears testimony to their having bred in 
the wild state, and that most successfully. Meyer mentions, I see, 
that this bird differs from other cognate species by building a nest 
for the receptioQ of the egg^, in shape resembling that of a Willow 
Wren with a hood to it, and that the eggs are ten or twelve in 
number, which accurately corresponds with the number of the covey 

In the Neighbourhood of Salishury. 177 

Perdix Coturnix. *' The Quail." This pretty little bird is not 
anything like so numerous with us as it used to be some years back. 
In fact it adds considerably to the excitement of a day's Partridge 
shooting when a bevy of these little stragglers can be found. I 
have shot them at New Farm, in the parish of Stratford Tony, near 
here, and have also seen them at West Harnham, close to Salisbury ; 
and 1 have no doubt that they are more frequent than is generally 
supposed, as, owing to their skulking habits, they are very hard to 
rise, and when risen are so small that some people might not notice 
them. I have also killed them at Marshfield, just outside this 
county on the borders of Gloucestershire, and have also met with 
them at Holt, near Bradford, where my brother killed several when 
I was out with him. On this occasion it was extraordinary the 
diflSculty we had in rising them. We knew that they were in a 
certain stubble field, and that not a lai-ge one, and therefore tried it 
very closely ; but we certainly should not have seen anything of 
them on that day had we not known their whereabouts, and been 
determined to find them. They are sometimes met with very late 
in this country, and it would seem to be a question whether some 
of them may not possibly stay with us now and then through the 
winter. But more probably, perhaps, they are but hapless indi- 
viduals, which may have been slightly wounded during the previous 
season, or some that, having been hatched out later than usual, were 
not strong enough at the normal time of migration to set forth on 
their arduous journey. On one occasion, not long ago, in our parish, 
Mr. P. M. E. Jervoise told me he had sprung a Quail in the middle 
of the December month, while I have a note by me that another 
was killed on Christmas Day, at Mere, by Mr. James Jesse, as 
communicated to me by Mr. E. Baker, of that place. I have heard 
also of several other instances of this bird having been observed in 
this neighbourhood as late as December; on one occasion several 
being seen at the same time. This bird cannot but be surrounded 
with unusual interest to all readers when they remember the inspired 
testimony we have as to the enormous numbers in which they appeared 
in the peninsula of Sinai in the time of the Israelites, " He rained 
flesh upon them as thick as dust, and feathered fowls like as the sand 

178 On the Occurrence of some of the Rarer Species of Birds 

of the sea " — a testimony which, if it needed any corroboration, 
could find it still in the inexhaustible multitudes which are seen at 
times in the south of Europe and other places around the Mediterra- 
nean coast. Their egg- is very prettily mottled, and very similar 
to that of the Spotted Crake, the latter only having rather larger 
splotches upon it, and not being quite so rounded at the upper end. 


Otis Tarda. " The Great Bustard/' Had I been writing this 
paper but a few years previously to the present time, it must have 
consisted only of past reminiscences and bygone memories, as far as 
the Bustard was concerned, with an apparently useless regret that 
our celebrated " Plain " was to know it no more, although once it had 
been one of this noble bird's chief strongholds amongst us. But 
more recently, as most of my readers will be aware, the Great 
Bustard has once more re-visited its old haunts on Salisbury Plain, 
and has also been procured during the winter of 1879-80 from no 
less than seven different places within the range of our islands. 

As is well known through tradition, Salisbury Plain was one of 
the strongholds of this bird in former years : the large, open 
undulating reaches of down, varied with patches at that day, of 
cultivated land, affording it exactly the kind of haunt necessary to 
its existence; the very grandeur of the appearance of the bird 
declaring that it cannot brook to be "^ cribbed, cabined, and confined" 
within enclosures, however spacious, which, besides being distasteful 
to it in themselves, afford that vantage ground to its enemies to 
creep upon it unobserved, of which it would seem intuitively afraid. 
Of late years, indeed by the present generation you may say, the 
Bustard has been looked upon as an extinct local species, surviving 
amongst us only by tradition — as exemplified, for instance, in the 
sign of the inn, in the middle of the plain, which bore a Bustard 
on its escutcheon, thus testifying to its quondam frequency amongst 
us — or as having been seen by one or two octogenarians possibly 
still living, who having had an ornithological taste early developed 
within them, might by some remote chance have actually remembered, 
as boys, having once themselves caught sight of the great bird. 

In the Neighbourhood of Salishnry. 179 

wViioli, even then, was too notable a thino^ to allow it to pass by 
uncommemorated. But even this source of testimony would very 
soon (if it has not already) passed away, while in turn we should 
have been dependent only on the memories of those who, not being 
eye-witnesses themselves, were still able to speak of the records of 
the occurrence of the Bustard, as detailed to them by their fathers, 
or fathers' fathers. Of such memories the following instances would 
have then been our only source of information. The Rev. T. 
Wyndham, in a letter received on the 10th instant, says, "In an 
entry in my grandfather's game book, dated 1801, he speaks of 
seeing a hen Bustard for the first time on the wing, whilst riding 
to Upavon. This my brother (W. Wyndham, Esq., of Dinton 
House) thinks will be of interest to you." Again, Mr. John 
Waters, of Salisbury, kindly writes me, " I well remember having 
heard my father say, on many occasions, that his elder brother, Mr. 
John Waters, who, somewhere about 1803, 1804, was living at and 
renting Normanton Farm, some two miles this [or, the Salisbury] 
side of Amesbury, in the valley, killed from a cart the last of the 
Bustards seen about at that date. I have also a recollection of 
hearing that there were several killed about and previous to that 
date." This bird was sent to the then owner of the Amesbury 
estate — the Duke of Queensberry — who, it would appear, could 
not have been a very ardent ornithologist, as the sender never 
even received any thanks for it, and it must be left to the reader^s 
imagination to decide whether His Grace^s memory or ornithological 
taste was in fault. This would seem to have been, as far as I can 
ascertain, the last Bustard recorded as having been seen on our 
plain during that generation. 

We must not, however, imagine that this was veritably the last 
of the Mohicans that still found refuge in our inhospitable island. 
Long after 1804, Norfolk and Suffolk were strongholds of the 
Bustard. About the year 1812, as recorded by Mr. Stevenson, in 
his " Birds of Norfolk," there was a fine drove of some forty birds 
in that county, while for nearly two decades still further on there 
were two recognised droves that frequented stated parts in the two 
counties, consisting of eighteen or a score each, which manfully held 

180 On the Occurrence of some of the Rarer Species of Birds 

their own for a considerable period; though year by year growing 
still beautifully less, until in 1832 the last specimen is recorded in 
SuflPolk, while in the sister county they lingered on certainly until 
1838 — while indistinct rumours asserted that one had been seen, 
now in this place, and now in that, as late as the year 1813, or even 
1845. In fact, in 1833 five ^gg?> — two pairs and a single one — had 
been taken on Massingham Heath, from the belief that they would 
prove barren, as all the remaining birds in the drove had for some 
time been observed to be females only. From that time, however 
(1845), for a long stretch of years]the list would seem to have been 
as blank in Norfolk, as that referring to our own plain in Wilts. 

After having premised thus much, therefore, imagine my surprise 
on receiving a kind note from Mr. Henry Blackmore, late of this 
city, during January, 1871, asking me to lunch with him on a 
certain day, as he thought, being interested in birds, I should like 
to say that I had partaken of a Salisbury Bustard ; for that a female 
bird had been killed on January 23rd, the skin of which had been 
sent for preservation to King, of Warminster, while the body would 
be sent up to table on the appointed day. I need not say I gladly 
accepted the invitation, and am able to plume myself on having 
done, what few of my cotemporaries have had a chance of doing, 
i.e., dined off a Salisbury Bustard. 

The capture of this bird was recorded thus in our local journal : 
" A Great Bustard was shot on Monday last on the Maddington 
Manor Farm, by a bird-keeper named Stephen Smith, in the em- 
ployment of Mr. E. Lywdod. The gun was loaded with a ' marble,' 
and the shot was a long one — 132 yards. The bird, which was in 
company with two [?] others, had its wing broken, and fell in an 
oblique direction with great violence to the ground a distance of 
about 20 yards. One of the survivors shortly afterwards wheeled 
round the spot, passing within 15 yards of Smith, evidently looking 
for its companion. Mr. Lywood brought the bird to Salisbury 
on Tuesday last, and very kindly presented it to the Salisbury and 
South Wilts Museum; it is a female weighing seven-and-a-quarter 
pounds only. The crop was quite empty, and the bird was not in 
good condition, although in excellent plumage. It measures 31in. 

In the NeigJibourJiood of Sul'ishury. 181 

from the beak to the end of the tail, and 6;iin. from tip to tip of 
the wing-s/^ 

Tliis bird would appear to have been one of a small drove of eig-ht, 
which had some weeks previously appeared in Devonshire, and which, 
when it had arrived on our plain, had dwindled down to four. Two 
out of the four that had thus previously disappeared had been shot 
in the counties further west, and came into the possession of the 
Rev. Murray Matthews, then Vicar of Bishop's Lydeard, and of Mr. 
Cecil Smith, the squire of the same parish, both of whom have large 
and very perfect collections of our British birds. There were now 
three birds still remaining', one of which, for certain, was a cock 
bird ; and this bird soon shared the same fate as its predecessors, as 
on the Thursday following the slaughter of the hen, a cock bird was 
killed with a bullet on Mr. Pinckney's ground at Berwick St James. 
The birds were then exceedingly wary, and the only way by which 
they could be approached was by forming four or five different 
parties, and drawing in upon them simultaneously in a large circle. 
This bird weighed fifteen pounds, and measured 7ft. Sin. in expanse 
of wing, and 3ft. 4in. from beak to tail. This, again, was but a 
little weight for a male Bustard, for sometimes under favourable 
circumstances, they reach a very large size^the Rev. A. C. Smith, 
of Yatesbury, for instance, having a remarkably fine specimen in 
his collection, which came from Portugal, and which weighed no less 
than thirty pounds and a-half. 

The pair of birds which were thus eventually left out of this 
persecuted drove were never shot ; and there was an effort made on 
the part of some to respite them from the untimely end of their 
comrades, as is evidenced by the following letter, which was ad- 
dressed to the editor of our local journal, " A Plea for the Bustards.^* 
" Sir — may I request your valuable assistance by inserting a plea for 
the lives of the beautiful pair of Bustards which are still walking 
over the lands of this and the parishes adjoining, as doubtless they 
would breed, the close time being so very near, and thus pleasantly 
add to the unexpected novelty of their re-appearance in our gene- 
ration." They soon, however, disappeared from amongst us, and as 
far as I know were traced no further. There was a rumoui* of a 

183 On the Occurrence of some of the Rarer Species of Birds 

pair of Bustards having' been once more seen on the plain in 1877, a 
declaration to that effect having appeared in the Field, and been copied 
from thence into our local journal. But proof was wanting, I believe, 
to substantiate the assertion, although of course there is no reason 
why the report may not have been true. But as few lovers of birds, 
perhaps, ever cross our plain without thinking of the Bustard, 
and doubtless also longing to see them once more in their old haunts, 
it is quite possible that the wish may at times become father to the 
thought, and birds of lesser celebrity, as seen through the distorted 
mil-age of fond imagination, assume the more portly carriage and 
proportions of this stately bii'd. 

Since that date, however, there have been seven or eight undoubted 
occurrences of the Great Bustard within the range of our own islands, 
a list of which has been kindly forwarded to me by Mr. W. Hart. 
On December 5th, 1879, one at Woodham Ferres, Essex; December 
8th, two specimens at St. Clement, Jersey ; December — in the 
same month, one in Romney Marsh, Kent; 1880, one at Great 
Chard, near Ashford ; January 10th, one on Cranborne Downs, 
Dorset ; January — • in the same month one from Wye ; February 
6th, one at West Wickham, Cambridgeshire. 

This finishes the notices I have been able to gather concerning 
this, the grandest of all our British game birds. Would that there 
was once more a chance of their staying and breeding with us. Of 
this, however, there would seem to be but little hope, as the increase 
of population and of agriculture leave them now but few spots where 
such a thing would be practicable ; while their size renders their 
escaping notice next to an impossibility. There are now two pairs 
of these grand birds in our Salisbury and South Wilts Museum, 
one pair coming from Yorkshire, killed in 1825, and the pair from 
our own plain, procured as above-stated, in 1871. 

Otis Tetrax. "The lattle Bustard.^' This is quite a rare bird 
amongst us, never having been known to breed with us as the last 
species, and only appearing as a straggler late in the autumn or 
during the winter months — a male in summer plumage never having 
been killed, as I believe, in our islands. On coming to talk of local 
occurrences of this bird in our neighbourhood, I have but little to 

In the Neighbourhood of Salisbury. 183 

communicate. The following notice, however, was kindly sent to 
me from the local paper, and if it could have been duly substantiated 
might have enabled us to claim it as a county visitor. The paragraph 
referred to was the following, which I have still by me : — "Bustards 
on Salisbury Plain." " Sir — riding on the old drift-way which leads 
from Salisbury to Everleigh, when near the latter place, at the back 
of Sidbury Hill, on the open down, I came suddenly on a pair of 
Bustards. I know the birds perfectly, having seen them on the 
plains near Casa Viechen, half way between Cadiz and Gibraltar, in 
the South of Spain. There are two sorts, the Greater and Lesser. 
It was a pair of the Lesser Bustards I saw this day. Meeting an 
old man shortly after, I enquired if he had ever seen such a thing. 
His answer was, ' T am seventy-two, and never have, but I have 
heai'd my father speak of them as having been quite common in his 
youth.^ I hope no sportsman or naturalist will think it necessary 
to shoot them, as they may breed. Yours, &c., Viator. April 4th, 
1867." I am much afraid, however, this account carries in itself 
its own condemnation. First of all I cannot hear of any instance of 
this bird occurring so late as April 4th in our islands, just before 
the breeding time : almost all the specimens being procured between 
the end of October and beginning of February. Though I have 
noticed one mentioned as having been shot as late as March 4th. 
But there is certainly a jumble made in " Viator's " account between 
the Greater and Lesser varieties — or, if not in his own mind, most 
certainly in the old man's, whom he is represented as interrogating. 
This old man of seventy-two declares that he had heard his father 
say that they "were common in his youth." Undoubtedly the 
Great Bustard was ; but the Little Bustard as certainly was not ; 
and the old man's assertion clearly referred to Otis Tarda, and not to 
Otis Tetrax. " Viator " certainly, from his pronounced experience, 
ought not to have been mistaken, but we cannot help remembering 
the presence on the plain of the Stone Curlew, or Norfolk Plover, 
a fine bird in itself, and something of the same tint in general 
plumage as the Little Bustard, and which by an uninitiated eye, or ex- 
citable imagination, might be mistaken occasionally for the rarer bird. 
However the paragraph is too interesting to be omitted, such as it is. 

184 Oil the Occurrence of some of the Rarer Species of Birds 

On coming- to authenticated instances Mr. W. Hart informs me 
til at a Little Bustard was killed some years ago at Heron Court, in 
a turnip or swede field ; and that it is now in Lord Malmeshury's 
collection — while there was another specimen procured from Fossie 
Common, Winforth, in Dorsetshire, on December 26th, 1853. These 
are the only two instances he knows of as having occurred anywhere 
in our neighbourhood. 

With this bird we come to an end of the Rasores, or Game Birds ; 
and I must warn my kind readers that if their interest in ornithology 
is sufficient to cause them to peruse another paper of this series, 
they must be prepared to " wade " with me deeper into the waters of 
ornithology, and associate themselves with the " Grallatores," which 
come next in order. I must also ask the reader not to criticise this, 
or any other of these papers, with too captious or scientific an eye, 
inasmuch as the writer is neither a professor of ornithology nor a 
scientific naturalist, but only one who takes a supreme interest in 
the " Fowls of the air," and to whom it is a real pleasure to turn 
from severer studies, however tired he may be, and spend a half-hour 
amongst his feathered friends. The object of these papers, therefore, 
is not so much to describe accurately the bird itself, nor to dive too 
deeply into its ways or habitat ; but simply to jot down whatever 
occurences can be discovered, that others also may keep their eyes 
open, and their ears attentive, to ornithological news, of which there 
is always so much more to be picked up than is generally thought, 
if only a pertinent question is now and then put. And further, to 
describe what has interested the writer himself, in the hopes that it 
may possibly interest others also. And I may say in conclusion 
that I shall be always grateful for any bird news that anyone may 
be able to send me, and still more for any specimen out of the 
common, which the possessor for the time being may not know what 
to do with, and such as is often thrown away, from not knowing 
what to do with it, or where to send it. If a rare bird is shot, and 
generally it would be far better to leave it unharmed, it is a thousand 
pities not to perpetuate it in some collection, and so let it tell its 
own tale — whereas, to kill it first, and then throw it on one side, is 
acting but like the thoughtless schoolboy, who, attracted by the 

Some Account of the Parish of MonJcfon Farleigh. 185 

gorgeous colouring of the butterfly, eagerly pursues it, and whea 
caught, idly treads it under foot. Nay ! kind reader, although man 
has doubtless been made lord oi all God's works, and so is justified 
in freely using the inferior creation in any way that may either 
tend to his lawful profit, or minister harmlessly to his recreation, yet 
all must feel there is a point at which his licence must stop, and that 
point surely is the taking away, without due cause, the life he can 
never restore. 

Arthur P. Moures. 
Britford Vicarage, 

December Ist, 1881. 

c^ome Recount of t|e "patblj of HloiiMoit 

By SiE Chaeles Hobhouse, Bart. 
(Continued from page 106 J 


Ecclesiastical History. 

ilJR living is a rectory, and partly from a paper collated from 
the Wilts Institutions, and partly from a careful search of 
the registers I have put together a list of our rectors and of the 
patrons of the living. Appendix B. a. 

Up to A.D. 1334 there are no presentations recorded, although 
the Church was certainly in existence in 1291, but practically from 
that year to 1533 the patronage was with the Priors of Farleigh, 
and thereafter with the see of Salisbury. There were interregnums 
—viz., 1334 to 1348 and 1639 to 1(560— when the King, or (1660) 
the Commonwealth, presented, but these were accidents. Circa 
1334, William Falshaw, the Prior of Farleigh, deserted his post. 

186 Some Account of the Parish of Monhton Farleigh. 

and then the King — not unwillingly no doubt — presented. Again, 
John Davenant, Bishop of Salisbury 16^1 — 41, incurred the Court's 
displeasure/ and so, perhaps on that account, the King again pre- 

But practically the patronage has not varied and we were and are 
a Church presentation. As little, too, has our glebe varied. In the 
Tasatio Ecclesiastica of Pope Nicholas (A.D. 1291) Appendix C, 
the assessment only is mentioned. That was £5, and the tenth was 
10*. But temp. Edward III., c. 1372, the jurors gave a more par- 
ticular valuation. It runs thus : — 

9th of corn, wool, and lambs of the ecclesiastical 

parish, due to the King 53/3 

And ditto ditto Prior de Farlega ditto 13/ 

Rector's messuage and garden 26/- 

And 26 acres of land and pasture, valued at 26/8 
Tenth of the milk, ferri, lini, canabis, casei lactis, 

&c., valued at 20/- 

Total £6 18 11 

In the Valor Ecclesiasticus of Henry VIII. (1533) : — 
John Davys, rector, the gross valuation was £8 12 
Less annual pension to the Prior of Farle 1/- 
Less archidiaconal dues 9/11 = 10 11 

Net value £7 10 3 

At the tithe commutation, 22nd February, 1847 : — 

A. R, p. 
The acreage of the parish is found to be 1810 2 20 
Less demesne, exempted from tithes by pre- 
scription, as held under the Bishop 1034 1 25 

776 35 

Less glebe, when in occupation of the Rector 25 3 10 

And the acreage liable to tithes is 750 1 25 
' Jones, Fasti Ecclesite, p. 112. 

By Sir Charles Ilobhouse, Bart. 187 

So, though the lands themselves have, I believe, been chopped 
about, yet the glebe acreage in 1881 is to a fraction what it was in 
1372, or five hundred years ago. 

The tithe rent charge is assessed at £192 per annum^ inclusive of 
£7 assessed on the glebe, but receiving an addition of £10 per annum 
from the occupant of the manor house and estatCj and the usual 
corn averages. 

The land liable to tithe rent charge is :^ 

A. R. p. 

Arable land 

356 3 7 

Homesteads, gardens^ and orchards 

23 1 6 


25 3 26 

Pasture land 

354 1 26 

Acres 760 1 25 

The Pauish Registers. 

They commence thus : — " The Book of Weddings and Baptisms 
and Burials of ye Parish of Monkton Farley made in ye year of our 
Lord God 1570 and day of August by John Williams Rector 


The following analysis represents their value and condition, but 
not the omissions and losses, which must, I am convinced, have 
been much more considerable than would appear : — 

1570 — 1608. Well-written. One handwriting, perhaps Parson 
Bragge, and partly at least copied in all at once. 

1608 — 41. Generally ill-written, probably by the churchwardens, 
John Butler and Walter Grant; with an entry, "Good reader, 
pardon .^^ 

1641 — 53. Well- written by Parson Allambrigge. 

1653—67. With difficulty deciphered. 

1677 — 1788. Well-written and well kept as to baptisms and 
weddings, but burials deficient. Parchment disused for a time 
after 1699. 

1780—81. Well kept and written. 

There are various entries in these registers, not strictly proper to 

VOL. XX. — NO. LIX. O 

188 Some Account of the Parish of Monhton Farleigh. 

the subjects of them^ which ifc may yet be interesting or amusing to 

record : — 

" Memorandum. In the year of our Lord 1 626. John Walter and William 
Baker, Churchwardens for the said year, did place in the second seat of the south 
side of the Church of Mounkton-Farleigh the wife of the said John Walter and 
gave sixpence to the Church. Item they placed in the said seat the wife of 
Eobert Baker and she gave sixpence." 

Then follow the solemn witness and signs of the two churchwardens. 

Here evidently the two dames had had a quarrel for precedence, 
and we can readily picture the stately manner in which on that 
Sunday in 1626 it must have been solemnly adjusted. 

Parsons Bridges, Allambrigge, Medlicott and Gunner record their 

several inductions, and that by Allambrigge is as follows : — 

" Memorandum. That at the time of my induction, John Butler the elder 
being then (and many years after in the time of troubles) [he was inducted Jan. 
30th. 1641] Churchwarden, kept on paper a register of Christenings, Burialls and 
Weddings, the parchment book being full ; which papers since his death can not 
yet be found ; I therefore (no Churchwarden taking care or notice) begin from 
the said Butler's death ; what is lost ego nescio nee ego ciu-o it being ever the 
Churchwarden's office." 

So up to this time it had been the Churchwarden's office to keep 
up the registers, and it was only because no churchwarden cared to 
prevent him that the parson undertook the duty. 

He kept his registers well, too, but there must ever have been a 
spice of the " non ego euro " in his disposition, for he could not 
resist the following entry : — 

"March 7th, 1656. Christopher Morris his Cocke was killed by John Allam- 
brigge his Cocke." 

Then occur some apparently charitable donations : — 

" 1664. Given to the Breife for the City of Oxford 1/- and to the Inhabitants 
of the Parish of St. Dunstanes, West London 6'', and to the Briefe 
for Fordingbridge in the County of Southampton 1/2, and paid 1/- 
to the BailifE of the same Towne." 

And, to come down to modern times, we have this entry, August 

21st, 1830 :— 

" Eeceived by the hand of Thomas Gardiner one penny as a fine for permission 
to pass through the Eectory field to the Churchyard, paid by Captain Long at 
the funeral of his son, D. W. E. Long." 


By Sir Charles Hoh/iouse, Bart. 189 

I am at a loss to know why Captain Long should have desired to 
pass through this field, but the fine was no doubt paid to save the 
right of way whenever a funeral had passed unchallenged. 

The first marriage by licence is that of Edward Seymour, in 1716, 
and between that year and 1752 there are no less than twenty-seven 
such marriages, and they then cease until quite recent times. 

In 1724 begins a series of marriages by certificate. Between that 
year and 1753 there are no less than twenty-nine such marriages, 
and then they cease. They are always between non-parishioners. 

From 1701 to 1710, and again from 1720 to 173 6, there are a 
great number of marriages between non-parishioners and from 
neighbouring parishes. Is there any connection between this fact 
and the tax on marriages imposed in 1695 ? 

In 1592 I find a marriage thus curiously attested: — 

" Witness. Jolin Butler his hands and God's. Amen." 

In the matter of deaths and burials there are only two deaths 
recorded as the effects of accident. The age is seldom recorded 
until quite in modern times. From the year 1813 to 1829 in one 
out of every eight deaths the age exceeded eighty years. In 1795 
as many as twenty deaths are mentioned, and amongst these the 
deaths of no less than four of the children of R. Holland, curate. 
In 1832 are recorded five deaths from Asiatic cholera. In 1697 is 
mentioned the burial of one Bollen " amongst the Quakers." This 
is the first note of dissent, and I am happy to be able to add that 
it was also the last, for although there are evidences of the existence 
of Quaker families amongst us, yet they did not remain, nor is there 
any trace of any edifice of worship save the Parish Church. We 
have a few Dissenters with us now, but they attend the Church 
and send their children to the school. 

During 1683-88-90-95-96 many persons are "buried in woolling." 
This of course refers to the period (1677) when British woollens 
were prohibited in France, and when, consequently (29th Charles 
II., 1678) all persons were obliged to be buried in woollen under a 
penalty of £50. So conservative is our retired community that the 
custom still lingers in the burying in flannel of all persons in a 
sufficiently good position. 

o S 

190 Some Account of the Parish of Moukton Farleigh. 

There are only five adult and one private baptisms recorded. In 
1786-87-88-91-92 baptismal entries marked with a cross are noted 
as " exempt from the tax," on the ground that the parents were 
receiving relief from the parish. So we evidently passed through 
that evil time when baptismal fees were the rule. The entries of 
"Base-born, spurious or illegitimate^^ children commence in 1651 
and close in 1831. They are fifty-four within the one hundred and 
eighty years. The custom was apparently to baptise under any 
circumstances, so I imagine that these figures fairly represent our 
moral character in this respect, but I note that in one series of years, 
when there was no resident rector, the evil was peculiarly rampant, 
and thus much of our immorality had no doubt its root in the neglect 
of spiritual oversight. 

The analysis of Christian names is, in a small way, quite a history 
in itself. The earliest names, both of men and women, are pure 
Norman or Saxon : — Chrystopher, Edward, Giles, Henry, John, 
Perigord, Eobert, Richard, Thomas, William, Walter, or Alice, Agnes, 
A vice, Bridget, Cybil, Gyllyan, Joan, Maude, Margaret, Marion, and 
so on. Then certain names only come in with the Sovereigns, as 
Charles (1656), and Elizabeth (1585), and Mary 1578). Then 
comes a flood of old Scripture names with the Commonwealth : — 
Abigail, Deborah, Dinah, Esther, Hannah, Judith, Kezia, Leah, 
Miriam, Ruth, Rebecca, Rachel, or Abraham, Aaron, Benjamin, 
David, Daniel, Ephraim, Enoch, Elisha, Jacob, Joshua, Joseph, 
Jonathan, Joel, Jeremiah, Isaac, Mary, Mordecai, Obadiah, Solomon, 
Samuel. Interspersed are the Quaker names of Timothy, Betty, 
Joyce, Martha, Prudence, Pleasant, Patience, and so on. Later on 
are the Charlottes and Georges of Hanover, and occasioaally are 
names in honor of the manor house — as the Anna-Maria of the 

The surnames over a period of three hundred yeai's are compara- 
tively few, and amongst them are many like those of the Bolwells, 
the Deverells, the Ganes, and the Godwins, where the same family 
is lineally traceable throughout, and there is scarcely one family in 
the parish now which has not, in name at least, been in the parish 
always. I give particulars in Appendix E. 

By Sir Charles Ilobhouse, Bart. 191 

It is to be regretted that the occupations of our parishioners have 
so seldom been recorded. From 1700 to 1713, and again from 
1781 to the present day, there are such records. The community 
in the earlier of these periods was made up principally of farm 
laborers, but we had clothiers, weavers, masons, bakers, maltsters, 
tailors, shoemakers, carpenters, blacksmiths, a shearer, grocers, 
thatehers, and even a fiddler resident. So we were a community in- 
dependent of all the world. We made our own clothes, baked our 
own bread, sheared our sheep, brewed our beer, built and thatched 
our houses, and fiddled at our village festivals. 

But in later times and at the present day it is with difficulty that 
we preserve a baker, a carpenter and a blacksmith amongst us for 
our most pressing daily necessities, and for eveiy other want we have 
to resort to the nearest town. The small trader must always have 
a hard time of it, he therefore ends by throwing up or by migrating 
to the nest town. There the country villager must follow him, and 
whilst good roads and cheap railways make it easy for him to do 
so, the credit he can obtain by flitting from shop to shop is another 
inducement. Here, it seems to me, is one of the reasons for the 
marked decrease in the rural populations and the comparatively 
marked increase in the populations of the towns. 

But " revenons a nos moutons " and from our registers let me 
pass to 

" Our Church " and Churchyard. 

Our Church was re-built under a faculty of date the 30th June, 

The tower, the entrance porch, and the font are parts of the old 
structure; the windows in the nave are five in number, and are 
exact re-productions of three that before existed ; but the rest of the 
building is new. Such ancient ai'chitecture as we have in it is 
pronounced not later than John, 1199 — -I^IG; but the doorway to 
my mind is earlier, corresponding in its circular ornamentation, its 
shafts and capitals with the fragments in existence of our Priory 

The Church is dedicated to St. Peter, and a figure in the east 

192 Some Account of the Parish of Monhton Farlelgh. 

window, aud the historical old cock on the tower, preserve the 
memory of this dedication. 

The following was the approximate expenditure on the rebuilding, 
viz. : — 

£ s. d. 
Outer walls and roof 300 

Chancel, desk, and lectern 212 8 

Seventy-five free seats at the west end 105 

Cost of the faculty 9 9 

Total £626 17 

Of this sum the Rev. E. Brown, the Rector, gave £317 8*. Zd., 
and Rector Cozens £20. 

In 1874 a series of high family pews still stood in unsightly 
contrast with the seventy-five free seats ; the seats in the chancel 
were ill-placed and rickety, and the pavement throughout the Church 
was old and imperfect. 

So a second faculty was obtained. The nave is now furnished 
throughout with open seats of oak of an uniform pattern, and the 
pavement is of encaustic tiles. The chancel was raised two feet and 
the altar one foot higher still. The altar railing of oak, which existed 
in 1843, was given away to do duty (as it still does) as staircase 
railings in the house of Mr. James Cottle, of Farley-Wick, and was 
replaced by an open stone railing. This in its turn was removed in 
1874 to the top of the chancel steps. 

Stalls of oak have been put up for the choir, and the reading desk 
is in the chancel. The pulpit has every appearance of the age assigned 
to it, and we may honestly believe in the tradition that Bishop 
Jewel preached from it. The inscription is as follows : — '' Blessed 
are Thay y"^ heare y^ word of God and Keepe it.' — Luke, xi., 28." 

The gallery was doomed to removal by the faculty, but was re- 
prieved for want of means. It is, on the whole a disfigurement and 
a nuisance. It takes away all light and air from a number of the 
free seats ; it harbours disturbance ; it destroys the fair proportions 
of the nave ; and it cuts oflP the tower as an efiective part of the 

By Sir Charles Hobhouse, Bart. 193 

Church. Were Bishop Burgess^ school room, now used only as a 
vestry, thrown into the Church, the gallery might, with every ad- 
vantage, be removed. 

The expense of the improvements in 1874 was £540, and whilst 
Mr. Tooke, the Rector, met the expenditure on the chancel, the 
principal parishioners found the balance required. 

A board containing the twelve commandments, of date 1616, a 
black letter bible, and many hatchments were in existence within 
the memory of man, but, so far back as the time of Mr. Powell, 
were " non inventi." 

The material used throughout the building is the freestone of the 
locality, and it is clear from the outward and inward appearance of 
this, from the aspect of the ground outside, from what was uncovered 
of the vaults in 1874, and from the details of expenditure in 1843, 
that the site and foundations have ever been the same, and that the 
material is the stone-work of the original Church. 

There is a very large proportion of free seats j and there is a rule, 
under the authority of the vestry, that when the bell ceases to toll 
all unoccupied seats are free. I myself should prefer to see every 
seat free — save, it might be, out of courtesy to punctual Church- 
goers, and to the necessities of age and infirmities — and I believe 
the old adage would still preserve us from inconveniencies : — 

"Cloth of gold, be not too nice, 
Though thou be match'd with cloth of frieze ; 
Cloth of frieze, be not too bold, 
Though thou be matched with cloth of gold." 

But the lower classes have their pride and their proprieties, and 
there is still amongst us some of the leaven of our forefathers, whose 
dames had their quarrels of precedence in 16£6, as I have before 

In times still recorded from hear-say the custom of our Church- 
going was very much more dignified than it is now. Instead of 
the slip-slop tumbling into and out of Church at any moment, 
and without any order or respect, the practice was this : the people 
assembled for Church service before and inside the porch ; then 
came the rector in his robes, and his dame in her silk apron, and 

194 Somt> Account of the Parish of MonJcton Farleigh. 

they entered the Church first ; the people made their reverencies 
(alas ! the custom has, with the word, almost died out in these 
days ! ) stood aside, and followed into the Church ; and so on coming' 

The east window was put up in memory of the Rev. E. Brown, 
rector, who died in 1863. The centre figure is that of St. Mary 
Magdalene, and that on the left St. Edward the Confessor. The 
origin of such a juxtaposition is said to have been entirely fanciful 
and sentimental. 

The tunes that used to be played on the barrel-organ are almost 
a matter of bygone history, but they are worth recording if only for 
the sake of keeping in memory the tunes that our forefathers loved. 
They are : — 

Barrel 1. Barrel 3. 

1. Evening Hymn. 1. Easter Hymn. 

2. Portugese, 89. 2. Luther, 139. 

3. Somers, 106. 3. Harrow, 149. 

4. Sheeland, 25. 4. Staines, 27. 

5. Abingdon, 9. 5. Old Hundredth. 

6. Sheldon, 13. 6. Sicilian, 43. 

7. Devizes, 92. 7. Ashley, 5. 

8. Morning Hymn. 8. Mount Ephraim, 67. 

In 1553 the King's Commissioners, Sir Anthony Hungerforde, 
William Sherrington, and William Wroughton, Knights, gave over 
to the churchwardens " three belles for the use of the Church." Our 
bells are still three in number, but only one of them (and that 
cracked) is hung and is used. One bell bears date 1724, and the 
names Daniel Webb, Esq,, and " John Tozier, re-fecit.^' The others 
are inscribed 1783, Thomas Cottle and Daniel Taylor churchwardens, 
and William Bilbie, Chewstoke, Somerset. 

" One cup of viii. oz., and one chalice of viii. oz." were also made 
over by the Commissioners in 1553, and I may as well here record 
exactly what Church furniture we have now : — 

In the Chancel. 
Two curtains and rods against the east wall. 
One communion table of oak. 

By Sir Charles Hobhouse, Bart. 195 

One green embroidered altar and super altar cloth. 

One damask cloth for holy communion. 

One embroidered cambric and two patten cloths. 

Two oak alms boxes. 

One organ stool. 

Two altar stools, embroidered I.H.S. 

Two oak chairs. 

Four altar cushions. 

One long and two small pede clothes. ' 

One paten -n 

Two cups V Plated, and in a wainscot box. 

One alms dish J 

One brass lamp, suspended. 

Two communion books. 

Chants and hymnals. 

In the Nave. 

Twelve lamps on iron standards. 

Ninety hymnals, " Ancient and Modern.'* 

One folio bible. 

Two oak benches. 

Kneeling stools. 

Curtain to the porch door. 

One oak lectern. 

One font. 

One fald stool. 

One iron chest for records. 

In the chancel and in the nave respectively are still a number of 
tablets, but old Thomas Sweetland confirms the information given 
to Mr. Powell that there were " a terrible sight " of these before 
Mr. Brown's restoration, so, some day or other, perhaps the vaults 
in which they were all said to be heaped together may be discovered. 

The Churchyard and Tombstones. 
Mr. Powell suggests that so much of the churchyard as lies south 
of the Church was an addition, and perhaps it was, but if so it must 
have been at some time antecedent to the old duchess's burial in 1802. 

] 96 Some Account of the" Parish of MonJcton Farleigh. 

The north side is certainly more full of graves, and it was there, 

too, that a " Butter Cross " stood within the memory of Thomas 

Sweetland — born 1801. He used to hear of people coming to 

market there from Bath and Bradford, and he himself has played 

on the steps, where the cross stood, which were flat at the top. 

There is but one tombstone worthy of full record, and it is 

that of Daniel Taylor, blacksmith and churchwarden, who died 

April 17th, 1795. It runs thus : — 

"My sledge and hammer lie declined, 
My bellows they have lost their wind. 
My fire's extinct — my forge decayed, 
And in the dust my vice is laid. 
My coal is spent — my irons gone. 
My nails are driven, my work is done. 
My fii'e-dried corpse lies here at rest. 
My soul well smoked soars to be bless''." 

There are epitaphs almost word for word similar to the first six 
lines of these at East and Mid Lavant, near Chichester, and at 
Hatfield, near Doncaster. 

That at Hatfield is to John Seaton, o£ Stainforth, and is of date 
1802. Those at the Lavants are to John Ewen and Richard Sanford 
respectively, and are of date 1750 and 1825 respectively. Here the 
families were related, and the Churches close together, but I can 
trace no connection between them and that at Doncaster and our 
own epitaph. 

The Rectory. 

The old rectory stood about 20 yards below the present house, on 
the site of what is now partly lawn and partly stables. The present 
house was built in 1844-6 by the Rev. Edward Brown, rector, at 
his sole charge, and at an expense of £2120 3*. 6f/. The architect 
was Mr. Hicks, and the contractors, Messrs. Wilcox & Co., of Bristol. 

The present rector, Mr. Tooke, has added very materially to the 
accommodation and comfort, and has completed the design of the 
house ; and, whether we consider its site, its proximity to the Church 
and the parish, its accommodation, its present interior ornamentation 
and arrangements, or its outward form and aspect, it would be diffi- 
cult in all Wiltshire to find a more beautiful and suitable parsonage. 

By Sir Charles Jlohhouse, Bart. 197 


The following is a list of churchwardens, very imperfect, no doubt, 
but the best I can get : — 

1372. William le Boteler. John Spakeman, senior. 

John de Lewes. John Spakeman, junior. 
1553. Anthony Woodward. John Walter. 
1626. John Walter. William Baker. 
1636. William May. Richard Batterbury. 
1641. John Butler " ye elder." 
1659. James Barrett. John Deverell. 
1700. William Cottle. 
1754. John Lee. 

1783. Thomas Cottle. Daniel Taylor. 
1798. William Cottle. Joseph Blinman. 
1811. Joseph Blinman. Thomas Bull. 
1829. Richard Clarke. John Crooke. 
1850-1876. John Moon. Whyatt Cottle. 
1877-1880. John Moon. Sir C. P. Hobhouse. 
1881. Sir C. P. Hobhouse. 

Church Rates, Collections, and Expenditure. 

Taking an average (from 1836 to 1859) o£ twenty years, excluding 
those years during which there was an extraordinary expenditure 
for the re-building of the Church, I find that the usual Church rate 
amounted to about 2fi?. in the £, and produced as nearly as possible 
£20 a year. 

I give a summary of our Church expenditure for the year ending 
Easter Day, 1881, and it will be seen from this, which is a good 
average year, that our Church expenses are, as nearly as possible, 
what they always were. 

So also is the incidence of them ; for now, as before the abolition 
of the compulsory Church rate, it is the principal ratepayers who 
supply the funds. We are therefore practically, and I may add 
cheerfully, exactly where we were in this parish, so far as this rate 
only ifi concerned. 

198 Some Account of the Parish of Monkton Farleigh. 

But the summary below has another tale to tell. The rector 
and the squire are the sole resident gentry. There are no other 
residents ot" much substance^ or surplus means. Therefore whatever 
contributions there are in the summary, apart from the school, are 
derived mainly from the pence of the laboring man, and it will be 
seen that towards the Church and its necessities, whether in the 
parish or at home or abroad, the laborers amongst us subscribe yearly 
a sum of about £10. The gift in them is comparatively large, and 
the habit of giving for Church purposes on a broad principle has 
been engendered and as it is " Where we give there we love most," 
it may be hoped that the Church is here gaining strength every year. 

Paeish of Monkton Faelet — Voluntaet Chuech Rate. 
Churchwarden s Seccipts and IExj)enditure, 1880-81. 


Balance due to Chuvchwar 
den, Easter, 1880 

Archdeacon and Apparitor's 

Cleaning Cliurch 


Insurance of nave 

Warming Church 



Washing surplices, com- 
munion cloth, &c 

Sacramental wine 

Register book for baptisms 

Churchwarden's expenses 

Balance in hand, Easter 

£ s. 
. 3 10 



. 18 



. 2 12 

. 1 

3 11 


. 1 6 


2 14 


1 4 

, 13 



.' 1 8 


£22 13 



Subscriptions at 2d. in the £ — 

*. d. 

F. Dening, Esq 

H. Hancock, Esq. 3 

Sir C. Hobhouse, 

Bart. ... 5 

Mr. C. Kendall 2 
H. Spackman, Esq. 5 
The Rev. T. H. 

Tooke ... 2 

20 16 8 

Offertories for Church 

expenses ... 19 llf 

Donations — 
Mr. J: J. Cottle 5 
Mr. E. Doel ... 2 6 
Mr. John SweetlandO 5 

12 6 
Refund of error in sexton's 

salary ... ... 4 

£22 13 If 

Blinman's Charity. 

1880. £ «• (i- 

Received by churchwarden, 

one year's dividends ... 17 17 2 

£17 17 2 

1880. £ s d. 
St. Thomas's Day. Dis- 
tributed in coals ... 9 3 
Ditto, distributed in cash 8 14 2 

£17 17 2 

By Sir Charles Hobhonse, Bart. 


Summary of Sums Collected foe various Charitable Purposes in the 
Parish of Monkton Farley, for the Year ending Easter Day, 1881. 

For the National School — 

£ s. d. 

£ 5. d. 


35 5 

School pence 

14 12 11 

49 17 11 

For Church expenses — 

Voluntary Church rate 

20 16 8 


16 6 

By ofEei-tories — 

Church expenses 

19 111 

22 13 1| 
17 3 

Curates' Augmentation Fund 

Poor Benefice Fund, in accordance 

with the 

Bishop's letter, for the Diocesan Societies ... 

16 4 

The Bath United Hospital 

1 12 

The poor of the parish 

11 19 10 

National Society 


Foreign Missions, S.P.G. 


By subscriptions and donations to ditto 

6 19 

8 7 

£98 10 5| 

I append a table of Church fees, from the Church board. May 
31st, 1861 :— 


„ certificate of 
Marriage by licence 

„ by banns 
Vault in Church, two cofiins width 
Opening such vault 
Single brick grave in Church 
Opening such grave 
Tablet in Church, 7*. 6c?. per foot 
Marble or flag-stone 
Vault in churchyard, two coffins width 
Opening such 
Single brick grave in churchyard ,., 






£ s. 
























































. 3 



. 2 



. 2 



. 2 



. 1 









200 Some Account of the Parish of Monkton Farleigh. 

Eaised tomb over vault, with iron railings 

„ ,, „ without „ 

Tomb of small size, over single brick grave . 
Head, foot, and body stones, for double grave. 

„ „ „ „ single „ 

Mural monument, outside Church, per foot . 

Breaking ground for burial of non-parishioner 

„ ,, „ parishioner 

N.B. — For the opening of vaults, erecting of tablets, &c., &c., the previous 

consent of the minister or churchwardens, or both, as the case 

may be, must be obtained. 


CiviL History. — Means of Education. 

In 1829 Bishop Burgess built the room attached to the Church 
"for the use of the Suuday School of this Parish." This is still 
used to some extent for this purpose, but practically it has become 
the vestry. In Rector Brown's time a night school was, during the 
four winter months, held in this room, the average attendance being 
from fifteen to twenty. The age of the scholars was from fourteen 
to twenty-four, and each paid 2s. 6d. in advance for stationery, 
firing, &c. The teachers were the curate and his wife and John 
Bishop, the schoolmaster. There is, for the time, no longer any 
night school in the parish. Up to the year 1835 the room was used 
as a boy's day school, a dame's school being at the same time kept 
by one Birt in the cottage opposite the Church gate. The Sunday 
school hours were one hour before the morning and one before the 
afternoon service, and the average attendance — 1853 to 1863 — was 

The teachers were the rector's wife, the curate and his wife, and 
the schoolmaster and mistress. The Sunday school is now held in 
the National school-house, and in the vestry. The hours are from 
10 to a quarter to 11 in the morning, and the average attendance 
is thirty. 

In 1845-6 Mr. Wade Browne established a boys' and girls' school 
with a master and mistress, but the master died and Rector Brown 

Bi/ Sir Charles Hohhouse, Bart. 201 

then kept up the boys^ school at his own expense. The average 
daily attendance was twenty-five^ and the ages tour to eleven, Mr. 
Wade Browne kept on the girls' school, giving the children a 
distinctive dress, viz., red cloaks, blue gowns, and white aprons and 
collars. The average daily attendance was thirty, and the ages four 
to twelve. On Mr. Wade Browne's death this school was still kept 
up by his widow by means of a bequest of ^35 a year, which Mr- 
Browne had made for that purpose. This bequest, however, was 
conditional on the family's continuance in the manor, and when 
they left it lapsed. The school was held in the cottages opposite 
the Church Farm, and there it was mantained until the year 1870. 

In that year the present National School was built at a cost of 
£626 \Qs. Id., towards which each one of the principal landowners 
subscribed the sum of £100. The site is on glebe land. There is 
a master's cottage and garden attached, and the buildings are vested 
in the rector and churchwardens for the time being. 

The school is denominational, instruction in the Bible and in the 
doctrines of the Church of England being given by the rector every 
morning from 9 to 10; it is a school of boys and girls mixed, iu 
charge of a mistress, and is maintained partly by the Government 
grant in aid, partly by school fees and partly by voluntary sub- 
scriptions. The report of 1881 shews the general working of the 
school, and the details of the several sums paid for its maintenance. 

These details, when they are analysed, shew the very important 
fact, viz., that there is scarcely one person in the parish who does 
not, according to his ability, contribute towards the education of 
the youth of the parish — the rector, the landowners, the quarry- 
masters, and others, in the shape of voluntary contributions, and the 
villagers in the shape of school pence. 


Jteport made to the Education Department, for the Year ending 
dlst March, 1881. ■ 

N.B. — It is computed that the attendance of children in elementary schools 
ehould be at the rate of one for every six of the population. In our case it ought 

202 Some Account of the Parish of Monhton Farleigh. 

to be 416 -j- 6 = 69. The highest weekly average reached in the year was 87'2. 

1. — The total number of children on the register, 31st March, 1881, with their 
respective ages, is as follows : — 

Over 3 and under 4 

„ 4 


,, 5 


„ 6 


„ 7 


„ 8 


„ 9 



, 11 


, 12 

„12 , 

, IB 

„ 13 „ 14 





































47 43 


2. — Total number of attendances in the year : 

3. — Total number of times the school has been opened, 420 

4. — The average daily attendance throughout the year : — 

Between 3 and 7 ... 1292 724 

Above? ... ... 23-29 2430 





31-54 67-75 

5. — Total number who have attended 250 or more times, and qualified tbemselves 
for examination : — 

Above 4 and under 7 
Above 7 

6. — Eates of payment per week 
Number paying at each rate 

Average attendance 


Passes in R., W., and A. 


Pupil teacher 



Vd. 6d. 


81 1 


(vas as foUosvs : — 

£ *. 


68 @ 6/- 

20 8 

20 @ 8/- 


111 @ 3/- 

16 13 

48 @ 2/- 

4 16 


£51 17 

By Sir Charles Hobhouse, Bart. 


Cash account of the Monkton Farley National School, for the Year ending 
31*# March, 1881. 

1880. RECEIVED. 




Payments. £ 



Mai'. 31. Balance in hand 



Salaries — 

June. Government grant 



Mistress ... 55 

Annual subscriptions — 

Pupil teacher ... 10 

Mr. James Cottle 


Paid monitor ... 6 

F. Dening, Esq. 2 

Gardener & Marsh, 


Messrs. ... 1 


Stationery and books ... 5 



H. Hancock, Esq. 7 

Fuel and light _ ... 1 11 


Sir C. P. Hobhouse, 

Replacement and repairs to 

Bart. ... 7 

furniture, and cleaning 3 



Mr. W. Hyatt ... 1 

Rates, taxes, and insurance 



Pictor & Son, 

Repairs to buildings ... 6 



Messrs. ... 1 


Balance in hand, 31st March, 

Randell &Saunders, 

1881 14 



Messrs. ... 1 


H. D. Skrine, E.sq. 2 

H. Spackman, Esq. 7 

Stone, Brothers ... 1 


Mr. I Sumsion ... 1 


Mr. J. Sweetland 


Eev. T. H. Tooke 3 




School pence — 

Quarter endingMid- 

summer, 1880... 3 



Do. Michaelmas do. 2 



Do. Christmas, 'do. 3 



Do. 31st Mar., 1881 5 



12 11 









The Bishop's Inspector reports as to religious Icnowledge, 2nd November, 
1880 — " I really have no fault to find with this school ; the children are well 
and carefully taught, and do full credit to those who have taken so much trouble 
with them. It was a great pleasure to examine them." 

The Government Inspector reports as to secular knowledge, 7th May, 1881 — 
'• The children are thoroughly well disciplined, and the writing of the first 
standard and geography of the third, are the only exceptions to the otherwise 
good results of the examination. The improvement in arithmetic and grammar 
is most marked ; and, in view of the difficulties of the past year, reflect the 
greatest credit on the school staff." 


Buildings of Interest. 
I have already spoken of the manor house and of the rectory, and 


204 Some Account of the Parish of Monkton Farleigh. 

besides these the only houses^ that can properly be so called^ of in- 
terest are, that occupied by Mr. James Cottle, and that at present 
used as an inn — the " Fox and Hounds " — at Farley-Wick. The 
first, according to Mr. Powell, dates back to the time of James I., 
and the other has a curious courtyard and entrance-pillars. 

But some of the cottages in the parish have a history which, 
should not,.! think, be overlooked. 

There is one with the initials T.H., and the date 16S9; another, 
W.S., 1737; and a third, J.B., 1737. These initials represent 
respectively Thomas Hooper, William Symes, and John Bigges, the 
latter two being certainly, and the former probably, masons by trade. 

These persons were undoubtedly the builders of the several cot- 
tages, and the dates represent the building, and these facts point to 
a class of persons and to a system, both of which have passed away 
from us, viz., to the class of customary tenants and to the system 
of letting lands for lives and on building leases. 

The class of customary tenants is as old at least as Domesday, and 
no doubt they always built their own cottages, such as they were, 
but these cottages would come to an end from time to time, and the 
population would and did, as we know, inci-ease, and so more cottages 
had to be built, and these too of a better description, and the question 
arose who was to find the labor and the capital to build them. 

The wood for building and repairs, as, indeed the leases stipulate, 
was freely given from the manor; the stone, in our parish, at least, 
was to be had almost for the hauling, and still came off the manor ; 
and there were masons and carpenters to be found in the parish in 
abundance; so the land and the matei'ials were the landlord's, the 
labor was the tenant's, and hence, the bargain of leases for lives or 
for long tenure at small quit rents, the copyhold system, in short, in 
that particular form of it. 

The customary tenant of Domesday became thus merged into the 
tenant for life or long tenure, and this tenant has now in his turn 
succumbed altogether. 

The causes are obvious. The builder, though usually skilful 
enough to be his own architect, was not a wealthy man, and he 
was building for a limited period. His heart was not, therefore. 


By Sir Charles Hohhouse, Bart. 20$ 

bent on perpetuity, and his means, materials, and workmanship 
were never of the best, so the buildings were not made to last. 

Then, if he occupied for his own life, ten to one but the cottage 
passed to strangers on his death. Either he had no family, or too 
large a family, to succeed him, and the object was not to inhabit as an 
heirloom the cottage, but to let it to others. Then ensued a practise 
of rack-renting on the one hand, and of no sufficient repair to the 
tenement on the other, producing at once the two evils of high rents 
and bad accommodation. There were no means or no inclination to 
pay for fresh lives or prolonged tenures, and so at last the tenement 
tumbled, in some cases literally, into the landlord's bands, a veritable 
white elephant. 

It has been, I believe, by some such process as this that in our 
.parish the number of life-renters, which, within the memory o£ 
living man, was very considerable, is reduced to some three families 
resident on what was " The Green," at Farleigh-Wick. Happily, 
the materials for our buildings were o£ stone, and so many of our 
life cottages have been preserved, but even so it has been in some cases 
almost at the cost of re-building; and there are some yet standing 
and inhabited which should properl}^ speaking be pulled down and 
replaced. The late Mr. Caldwell did very much in a very short 
time to remedy this evil, and I hope we have not fallen off since his 

There is one other cottage which is deserving o£ mention, as 
preserving the memory of another system, also gone by. The house 
and shop now occupied by our baker was the parish poor-house. It 
is remarkable outwardly for its stone doorway with its pointed arch. 
Here old Sally Mizen, a veteran of the parish, was brought up, 
and here her father, mother, and five or six children, and often as 
many as thi*ee families besides, lived all together — no distinctions 
made as to age or sex. " Figure to yourself," says Hannah Moore 
(aith October, 1794) "from ten to thirty, forty, or fifty or more 
ignorant creatures of both sexes and all ages crammed under one 
roof — that roof so ragged as to admit the rain on such poor wretches 
as were confined to their beds. Six or eight persons in one room 
without regard to age or sex. Parents and children of all ages 

p 2 

206 Some Account of the Parish of Monkton Farleigh. 

sleeping together, this attended with some circumstances I can not 
write. In one of our most decent parishes I am now visiting, two 
women, on the point of lying-in, are terrified beyond expression at 
the idea that men will sleep in their rooms at that time." 

Look upon the picture thus presented, and then at that which our 
Union Poor House at AvonclifFe now presents. An average of one 
hundred persons of both sexes, representing the whole extreme 
poverty o£ a population of 10645 persons. The sexes separated so 
as to provide, as far as such means can, against impropriety or in- 
decency. The class of persons represented — the sick, the very aged, 
and the feeble only. Separate sick wards and ample and skilful 
medical attendance for each sex. Cleanliness, order, and sanitary 
arrangements fully provided for. The labor test enforced on va- 
grants and the few able-bodied malingerers who still infest the house. 
Admirable schools for the orphan or deserted or destitute children, 
with out and in-door recreation and labor. Economy watched over 
and the whole institution governed by a body of guardians, chosen 
out of the locality, thoroughly acquainted with its wants, and, as a 
rule, cheerfully and efficiently giving their unpaid labor, spared from 
the gains of life, for the benefit of their poorer neighbours. 

If it were possible, and it is found amongst other nations to be 
possible, to have no poor relief, it would be better, and no doubt the 
present system, especially in its out-door features, is very imperfect ; 
but compare the in-door system with that which obtained within 
the memory of a living generation, and surely it is one o£ the most 
promising and beneficial changes of the age. 

Peculiar Names of Places. 

I append a list of our field-names, taken principally out of the 
tithe apportionment papers. I do not profess to give the derivation 
of the names, some are no doubt fanciful, as Pennsylvania and the 
Mountains ; some are probably corruptions, as Plaisterers and Starve- 
all ; and some are directly historical, as Pound Piece and Mary's 
Croft (the fish-pond and the croft of St. Mary^s Priory) ; but the 
majority have had their origin in the combined vanity and industry 
of man. Men, as David says, "think that their houses shall 

By Sir Charles Eohkouse, Bart. 207 

continue for ever, and call the lands after their own name/' But 
whatever the origin of the names one thing is certain, that they 
speak to the history of the parish, and that they are, and ever will 
be, mixed up in that history. Therefore they demand a record.^ 

OuK Occupations and Amusements. 

We have very few manorial records, and I judge o£ our ancient 
customs partly from the facts recorded in our parish registers and in 
our manorial leases, and partly from analogous facts recorded of 
neighbouring parishes. 

I have elsewhere given some account of the population of our 
parish up to the time of the dissolution of the monasteries, and I 
find that after that time our society was made up of the gentry or 
nobility at the manor house, the parson and the yeoman, and of 
the hand-working classes. We had a succession of husbandmen, 
blacksmiths, masons, bakers, tailors, shoemakers, grocers, carpenters, 
and agricultural laborers, with now and then a clothier, a weaver, 
a maltster, a shearing-man, and even a fiddler. 

So I imagine that up to the beginning of this century our parish 
was fairly self-contained and self-supporting, even down to our 

Fiddling was one of our amusements, evidently, and so was cock- 
fighting; and we can well imagine the excitement in the parish 
when, in 1656, Parson Allambrigge pitted his cock against Chris- 
topher Morris', and afterwards recorded his victory in the registers. 
Probably, too, we had the game of " nyne holes,'' forbidden at one 
time, but still surviving in " pitch penny." 

Our amusements now are perhaps more varied. Our squires, in 
Mr. Blinman and Mr. Long's time, kept harriers and greyhounds, 
but their kennels even are now removed and give protection to the 
more profitable fowl-yard. Our nearest pack of hounds — the Duke's 
— pays us an occasional visit, but our country is a terra ignota in this 
respect to most sportsmen, and our squires resort to the more ignoble 
pursuit of shooting. Rabbits to them are happily vermin, and hares 
and partridges are scarce ; but tame birds are turned out to become 

' Appendix F. 

208 Some Account of the Parish of MonMon Farleigh. 

wild, if they will, and are shot in hot corners and in flocks like 
fowls — proh pudor ! 

Lawn Tennis is another institution of the day, and as it does not 
oust the more manly g-ame of cricket, and on the other hand is a 
game in which both sexes may indulge, and which promotes a 
sensible sociality, replacing to some extent the dull and costly dinner 
party, long may it flourish. 

Our rustics play cricket and rounders, and have besides their 
annual festivals : — one, the club feast, at which they dine and dance; 
another, the school feast, given by the Rector to the children; and 
two others, the village concert and the Christmas tree, given usually 
in Christmas week and managed by the manor house. There is 
also a reading room for males above 13 years of age, where news- 
papers, a few books and periodicals, drafts, dominos, and bagatelle 
are found. The subscription is 1*. a quarter, and this includes the 
above and fire, lights, and the room. The institution does not pay, 
and the attendance is in summer next to nil, but in winter a con- 
siderable proportion of the youth of the parish is attracted, 

A curious custom still lingers in the parish, which has its uses. 
"When man and woman are taken "flagrante clelictu" their efiigies 
are made up in straw and dressed in the nearest approach possible 
to the usual costume of the delinquents. These effigies are then 
placed on a hurdle and paraded three nights in succession throughout 
the village. Halts are made and unparliamentary remarks passed 
at the doors of the delinquents, and on the third night the effigies 
are burnt with all honors. Justice, in the shape of the parish 
policeman, is for once judiciously blind, and as no actual disturbance 
of the peace takes place, the custom, as I have said, has its uses. 

If our amusements were and are still, circumscribed, we were in 
our occupations a busy community. We tilled the land, we built, 
we carpentered, we tinkered, we wove, we tailored, we baked, and 
in short we found ourselves in all our ordinary wants, and we had 
our public duties also. We had our courts baron and leet, our views 
of frankpledge, and our duties as jurors. We had our constables, 
our tithingman, our heywards, and no doubt our ale-tasters, and our 
sheep-tellers. We adjudged copyholds, heriots, burglaries, evil 

By Sir Charles Eobhouse, Bart. 209 

living', bad language, gossipping, gambling', tippling, breaking 
bounds, stealing wood, forfeitures, neglecting Church, and so forth. 
Perhaps, too, we had onr Sunday closing of ale-houses, and our 
prohibitions of nuisances. 

In fact we were very much a law unto ourselves, but the effect of 
centralization has changed all this. We still till the soil ; we have* 
in addition, the " irritamenta malorum " in the dug-up treasures of 
our stone quarries ; we have a parson, a carpenter, and a blacksmith, 
but jurisdiction we have none left ; and for almost every want of 
daily life we have to resort to the nearest town. And so, as a rule, 
the population of our rural parishes is everywhere decreasing, and 
that of our towns increasing. Perhaps, unless new industries or 
new systems of old industries spring up, the time may come when 
the parish may be represented by the manor house, when all its 
wants may be supplied entirely from the nearest town, and when 
the parson and the squire may have the parish Church to them- 
selves. Meantime I haste to record what remains of our population, 
and I append to it a list of names of families gone and existing. 
Appendix E. 

Condition of our Villagers. 

According to the return made in 1535, our village was then made 
up of agricultural laborers only, and it is not until the year 1700 
that I find in our registers any specific mention of occupations or 
trades of any kind, but inasmuch as in those days the son usually 
followed the occupation of the father, no doubt we had other occu- 
pations beside that of the agricultural laborer in vogue in our parish 
long before the year 1700. This, indeed, would follow, ex necessitate 

But I imagine that the condition of a non-agricultural laborer in 
a rural parish would not, in the first instance at least, be any better 
than that of the agricultural laborer, and that so Harrison's des- 
cription of the latter would apply equally to the former. 

The agricultural laborer, he says, as he now is, first began to 
appear towards the close of the sixteenth century, and this was his 
then condition : — he had a daily wage of 4/d. (equal to 20*. of omx 

210 Some Account of the Parish of Monkton Farleigh. 

money a week), but besides this he had his fuel gratis, he had free 
range for his pigs, his ducks, his geese, and his cow ; he was, per- 
haps, even — a small return given in kind or in labor — practically a 
freeholder ; and, if the statute of Elizabeth was ever in force, he 
was a landowner of as much land as he could personally superin- 

I cannot say whether this description of the agricultural laborer 
of the sixteenth century is applicable to our laborer at that time, 
but certainly their position here about the middle of that century 
(1635), and even at an earlier period (1294), was very favorable, 
for when they had paid a quit rent, either in money or in manual 
labor, to the value of 10*., or at the most £1 a year, they would 
seem to have been practically independent. 

"'Twere hard to tell and sad to trace 
Each step fi"om grandeur to disgace," 

but certainly the laborer of 1863 in our parish, as described by Mr. 
Powell, must have been in a sorry plight, and " quantum mutatus 
ab illo •'•' of the sixteenth century. The wages but 8*. to 10*. a 
week ; the lodging indifferent and indecent ; the drainage bad ; the 
will and the means for domestic comfort alike wanting ; and, I may 
add, the privileges of land, pasture, fuel, and forage, entirely swept 

Happily, in the short interval of some seventeen or eighteen years, 
we have a different story to tell. Nearly one half of our hand- 
labouring population consists of quarrymen. Their labor is for the 
most part piece-work in the free-stone quarries, and their weekly 
earnings are from 155. to 25*. and even 30*. The agricultural 
laborer, if his earnings are not so high in cash, is yet comparatively 
well off. His wages are from 12*. to 15*. a week; he has a cottage 
rent-free ; at lambing or harvest time, or in hauling for other than 
land work on the farm, he gets extra allowances; his potato-ground 
is given to and ploughed for him. Thus, whilst his yearly income is 
nearly equal to that of the ganger or head quarryman, his earnings 
are more sure, and his work is neither so severe nor so dangerous 
to life and limb, and is far more health-giving and maintaining. It 

By Sir Charles Hobhouse, Bart. 211 

may be that his life lacks something' of the independence of the 
quarryman, but on the other hand it has far more of sound discipline, 
quietude and order. 

It is rare still to see butcher's meat amongst any class of our 
hand-labourers, but the meal of bacon, potatoes, fresh vegetables, 
tea and soup is usually plentiful, wholesome and cleanly cooked. 

The cottage accommodation, though not sufficient for all those 
who make a livelihood within the parish, is for the most part good 
and cheap enough of its kind, and is certainly not perversive of life's 
decencies. There is usually a good kitchen, a scullery, a larder, a 
coal hole, and from two to three bedrooms. There is a vegetable 
garden of from fifteen to twenty perch, and a plot for flowers,, 
and if more ground is wanted for potatoes, it can be obtained iu 
allotment land at about ^d. a perch per annum. The average yearly 
rent is £5, the landlord paying the taxes. The sanitary arrange- 
ments' are under the eye of the rural sanitary authority, and are 
rarely a subject of real complaint. 

Our cottager has also an excellent National School, under Govern- 
ment control and direction, and the daily superintendence of the 
Rector, where he can educate his children in all essentials at Id. a 
week — or less than 4*. a year ; and a Sunday school, where education 
is given gratis. He has a Church, where, twice on Sundays and 
once on week-days, and on the greater fasts and festivals, he can 
always find a free seat, and which is warmed and lighted for him in 
the winter. He has, further, the advantages of a fortnightly offer- 
tory, administered by the Rector ; of a benefit club, and a clothing 
club, maintained by his own subscriptions. The benefit club sub- 
scriptions are funded under rules sanctioned by the Legislature, are 
available in times of sickness, accident, or infirmity, and are dis- 
tributed by a governing body elected from out the subscribers 

And, these resoiu'ces failing, the cottager can at the worst fall 
back upon the poor-law system. Unhappily this, as at present ad- 
ministered, will assist him in needs which are the result of his own 
improvidence or misconduct ; but on its better side it will at least 
rescue from actual want and starvation those who, from no fault of 

212 Some Accoicnt of the Parish of Monkton Farleigh. 

their own, would otherwise be reduced to such a state, and it will 
minister to the sick and helpless. 

As a matter of fact there is next to no pauperism in our parish, 
and though there is occasionally some privation, it is rarely of that 
degree that it cannot be relieved within the parish itself; and if, at 
a moment^s notice, inquisition were made into our cottage life, the 
spirit of order, cleanliness, peace, and comparative comfort would 
but in a very few instances be found wanting. 

I do not, of course, mean to say that we have no shortcomings 
and no vices even, or that we do not need reform in many matters 
■ — the national beer drinking, for instance — but on the whole we are, 
I think, an unusually sober, peaceful, and harmless community, 
neither " alieni apjietens" nor " sui profusus." 

Our Rates and Taxes. 

I have found it quite impossible to ascertain in any sufficient 
sequence the extent and the principles on which our parish was 
taxed until the present time, but such traces as we have of taxation 
had best be recorded. 

At Domesday the geld we paid was 70<s. solidi, equivalent to about 
200#., or £10 of our money. But this was only paid for a very short 
period, for when the Bohuns made a grant of the manor to the 
priory there were no restrictions, not even as regards any feudal 
service, so that so far as the King, i.e. the State, was concerned, the 
priory would seem to have held the manor free of all State taxes. 

Again, in the Taxation of Nicholas IV., A.D. 1291, although 
the priory would seem to have paid its decimae or tenths for Churches 
and chapels appertaining to the priory estates generally, yet no 
mention is made of any tenths paid by our parish in any shape. 

I should suppose, however, that whenever the monarch for the 
time being required money for his wars or other exigencies he did 
not spare our manor, and certainly in the year 1372, temj). Ed. III., 
both our parsonage and our manor, as I have shewn above, paid 
their dues of corn, wool, lambs, milk, &c,, to the then monarch. 

So again in the time of Henry VIII., c. 1533, the tenth of the 
yearly income of our manor, after deducting certain outgoings, was. 

By Sir Charles HobAonse, Bart. 213 

together with the tenths of the priory estates generally, paid to the 
King, and there were apparently certain special payments adjudged 
against our manor, which more than swallowed up the whole profits 
of it, viz. : — 

£ s. d. 

To the Trustee of Eaton College by feod '' firm " 38 

Annua Pencio Priori de Lewys 13 4 

Distributed to the poor on the day of the Csense 

Domini et Paschenes on the anniversary of 

Humphrey de la Bound Fundatur huj ' priorat " 2 

Making a total of £40 13 4 
After the Dissolution, first the Somersets, and after them the 
Bretons, paid the above sum to Eton College, and a pension of 
46s. 8^. to the Crown, in the tenth and twelfth of Elizabeth's reign; 
but in the eighteenth Elizabeth the then Earl of Hertford paid a 
sum down on account of this pension " due for the house and site 
of the Priory of Farley in order that the said Earl eundem situm 
clamavit in perpetuum •" and thereafter I find no traces of these 
payments, nor in fact of any State charges upon the manor at all, 
except in a general way under the names of " quit rents, pensions, 
portions, annuities, fees, tithes, troubles and incumbrances,^^ some of 
which were apparently due to the Crown. 

But when we come down to present times we find ourselves in 
the midst of a posse of rates and taxes, which I will as shortly as 
possible put on record, premising that our present rateable valuation 
is £3955, and that all these rates and taxes fall more or less directly 
upon it. 

1. Income tax, schedules A. and B., at 5^. and 2|r/. in the pound 

2. The poor rate, which now includes the sanitary and school 
and the county main road rates, at an average of 2a-. in the pound. 

3. The highway rate, now a district rate, and falling on this 
parish at from %(l. to Is. in the pound. 

4. The tithe rent charge at perhaps 5 per cent, on about half the 
total acreage of the paiish. 

214 Some Account of the Parish of Monkton Farleigh. 

5. The inhabited house duty, at 'del. in the pound on the rateable 
value of the house assessed. 

And voluntary Churcb and school rates varying according to the 
good will of the donors and the exigencies of the case. 


Of these we have a plentiful supply. The best known is that 
which issues from the Monks' Well, in Conduit Close. The water 
in this has been analysed and pronounced to be very pure. "Each 
quart " is said to contain " only about 20 grains of solid matter, and 
this is composed chiefly of lime in the condition of carbonate and 
muriate, so that, in fact, chalk is the principal part of the 20 grains." 
The water from this spring is conducted into a cistern within the 
manor house garden, and thence supplies the house, the Conigree, the 
fountain, and some troughs in the avenue. 

There is another spring at Ashwell. This supplies first the King's 
Arms Inn and the farm-yard opposite ; and next Mr. Spackman's 
bailiff's house. Thence it passes into a cistern by the village pump, 
and thence by earthen pipes down the village street to a turncock 
opposite the baker's house. It is public property, and the keys are 
kept at the manor house. 

A third spring proceeds from a well in the Lower Sands and 
passes by iron pipes to the Upper Calcord and to cisterns in the 
manor house grounds. These conduct to the manor farm and to 
the Conigree, and thence to a fountain in Link Lane, and into the 

There are springs also in Park Wood and in Pond Mead. These 
pass thence first into the Wraxhall and then into the Broughton 
Brook, and this falls into the Avon at Monkton in Broughton Gifford. 

Remarkable Occurrences. 
Canon Jackson has recorded the death of one of our notorieties, a 
Tropnell, who was strangled by his own dog-couples; but Mr. 
Powell has found in the Gentleman's Magazine of September 8th, 
1806, a more remarkable occurrence still, viz., the account of "a 
man struck in a thunderstorm near Monkton Farleigh." 

By Sir Charles Hobhouse, Bart. 215 

" Some gentlemen shooting in a wood near Kingsdown found a 
man lying motionless. Finding some symptoms of life in him they 
had him conveyed to an house. His name is John Lockyer, and he 
is well known in Bath. Being on his way home on Tuesday evening, 
the 19th of August, during the tremendous thunderstorm, he was 
struck senseless by lightning. How long he remained in that state 
he has no conception, but, on recovering his recollection, he was 
incapable of standing. 

"That a human being should exist 20 days without any sub- 
sistence but the little rain water he was able to catch in his shaving 
cup and by chewing the surrounding grass, will appear incredible, 
but it is a fact, and will be clearly substantiated. His senses would 
appear to have recovered much sooner than his power of speech or 
the use of his limbs. He was conscious of his situation before he 
had the ability to speak or move, 

" The medical men who attend him expect he will recover the 
partial use of his limbs. The following are the memoranda he 
minuted on the slate leaves of a black letter case, and which book 
is bent and cockled up, evidently appearing to have been soaked 
through by the wet. 

" ' I am just able to pencil this. I believe the fatal thunderstorm 
(to me) was on the 18th of August. [It was on the 19th.] I 
should not have known how the time went on only by hearing the 
guns go off for the Partridge shooting Sept. 1st, and it is now the 
4th I am pencilling this — from the above time until now I have 
not had anything to put into my mouth .^ 

" On another leaf he had written on the day he was found : — ' As 

I was going across the wood to Farleigh I was struck down 

by a violent clap of thunder — where I lay senseless for God knows 
how long. When I came to myself my hands and my feet were 
swelled very much, so that I could not stand, nor have I eat or drank 
any thing for three weeks past/ He has since undergone the am- 
putation of one of his feet." 

This is the account in the magazine, and to this I may add that 
Tom Sweetland tells me that his father used often to talk of the 
occurrence, that it happened in Ashley Wood, that he saw Lockyer 

216 Some Account of the Parish of MonJdon Farleigh. 

directly after he was found, and described him as a perfect skeleton . 
In further confirmation of the story I may add that a person coming 
from Kingsdown to Monkton Farleigh would naturally skirt Ashley 
Wood, and that a very slight, and yet, in the nutting season, a very 
natural divergence, would place a traveller in a position where he 
might not be found for weeks, and where yet he might naturally be 
lighted upon after the commencement of the partridge season. 


The origin of this compilation — for it is nothing more, is simply 
this. The late Mr. Wilkinson wrote a history of the neighbouring 
parish of Broughton Gifiord, in which I have an interest. This 
suggested to me that something similar might be done for our own 
parish, and I then discovered that Canon Jackson had written a 
history of our priory (see Wilts Arch. 31agazine, vol. iv., pp. 267 — ■ 
284), and that Mr. Powell, when a curate amongst us, had collected 
materials for a more complete account of the parish. This history 
and these materials were placed unreservedly at my disposal, and 
my principal work has been simply to vex'ify the materials, as far as 
I had the means of doing so, and to put them together. 

To this end I have carefully examined and analysed the parish 
registers, and I have consulted Domesday, Leland, Dugdale, Tanner, 
Hoare, and other minor authorities, and, through the kindness of 
Mr. Henry Hancock, I have had access to such of the manorial 
papers as are still in existence. 

I have thus been enabled to arrive at some new facts, and I have 
ventured to introduce a few veiy obvious remarks and comparisons. 

I have not the knowledge nor the materials that would have 
enabled me to write a history of so complete a character as that o£ 
Mr. Wilkinson's, and in speaking of persons or of events I have 
endeavoured as a rule to speak of them only to the extent that they 
were connected with our parish, and if at any time I have ventured 
to introduce any extraneous matter, it has been because I thought 
it had some more or less direct bearing upon the history of the 
parish, or was a matter deducible from facts relating to it. 

I do not suppose that more than half-a-dozen persons out of the 

By Sir Charles Hohhouse, Bart. 217 

parish will care to read the greater part of the eompilatiorij but 
perhaps if some one jjerson in every parish were to follow my ex- 
ample, and were to put together facts and reflections connected with 
itj there might be for some future Macaulay a collection of materials 
which could be turned to more general account. 

It only remains for me to thank, as I do most heartily, the Rev. 
Canon Jackson ; Mr. Smith, of Yatesbury ; Mr. Powell, of Buckland- 
Filleigh ; Mr. Tooke, of Monkton Farleigh ; Mr. Henry Hancock, 
of Bath ; Mr. Adye, of Bradford-on-Avon ; and Mrs. Abbott, for- 
merly Mrs. Wade-Browne, for their kindness in placing their labors 
and papers and information at my disposal. 


The Order of Clugniacs. 

When the fact is considered that a community of Clugniac monks 
actually dwelt in our parish for a period of four hundred years, it 
cannot but be interesting to know something of the history, customs, 
and daily life of such a community. According to Dugdale (Monas- 
ticon), the founder of the order was one Benon, and Odo was the 
perfector of it, and the first Abbot of Clugni, A.D. 912. The first 
monastery was established in A.D. 895. at Clugni in Burgundy, 
and the rules adopted were those of St. Benedict. It was William 
de Warenue, who married the Conqueror's daughter Gundreda, who 
first introduced the order into England; and thereafter, according 
to Tanner, twenty-seven, but according to Dugdale, forty-two 
priories and three cells were established in this country, the greater 
part of them before the reign of Henry II., but the last A.D. 1222. 

The cells were usually made up of a prior and twelve brethren, but iu 
the greater monasteries there were, besides the brethren, the following 
ecclesiastical and lay officers : — An abbot, a great prior, deans, a 
cloister prior, choristers, masters for the boys, a prechaunter, a cup- 
board-keeper of the Church books, a chamberlain in charge of the 
clothing, a treasurer in charge of the Church treasure, a cellarer, a 

218 Some Account of the Parish of MonJcton Farleigh. 

master of the guests, an almoner, an infirmary keeper and oblate 
or lay monks to ring the bells and sweep the Church and choir. 

The Church services were numerous and carefully attended to. 
Every day two solemn masses were sung, a monk of one of the 
choirs offering two hosts at each. On common days, three monks; 
on Sundays, five monks; on solemn festivals, the deacon and sub- 
deacon ; and on the three days before Easter all the monks com- 

Bread for the sacrifice of the altar was thus prepared. The wheat 
was selected grain by grain, was washed, was put into a bag set 
apart for the purpose, was carried to the mill by a selected servant, 
dressed in an alb, and with his face covered, all save the eyes, with 
a veil, and was then ground between millstones, washed before-hand 
and covered with curtains. Similar ceremonies were performed in 
the preparation of the meal. The warden of the Church, two other 
priests or deacons, and a lay brother, set apart specially, matins 
ended, washed their faces and hands. The three first named then 
put on albs, and whilst one washed the meal, the others baked the 
hosts in iron moulds, and whatever remained uneaten was finished 
by these four persons. 

After November 13th in each year the elders stayed in the choir 
after matins, while the younger brethren resorted to the chapter- 
house to learn to sing. Psalms were recited whilst the brethren 
were at work. After complin no eating was allowed. 

After September 13th only one meal was allowed, except on 
festivals of twelve lessons. Two meals were allowed within the 
octaves of Christmas and Epiphany. 

Silence was observed until the hour of prime, and this so strictly, 
especially amongst the novices, that a series of elaborate and oc- 
casionally very ludicrous signs was established to prevent the ne- 
cessity of using the human voice.' 

Each monk had in turn to be cook, and had to cleanse the pots 
and pans. Each had to clean his own shoes, and make his own 

' Sussex Arch. Colls., V. iii„ and 28 ; Arch. Journal, V. 28 ; and Illustrated 
London News, 8th November, 1845. 

By Sir Charles Eobhouse, Bart. 219 

bed, and especially was he required to comb his hair, and to wash 
his face, hands and clothes, and lavatories, towels and troughs were 
set apart for these purposes. 

Children, including those of good families, were educated at the 
monastery, serving as choristers, and wearing the habit of the order. 
Charity to the poor, especially in Lent, was practised in profusion, 
and the remains of the bread and wine served in the refectory were 
given to poor travellers. 

Such were the main rules of the order; but if the Supplicatio 
Cluniacensium, exhibited before Edward III. in Parliament at 
Winchester, was not — as it may, perhaps, have been — a document 
made to order, these rules were at one time little observed. 

The domus, the supplication set forth, was ill-governed, as well 
in spiritualities as in temporalities. Where there should have been, 
thirty to forty monks there were not one-third of that number. 
Goods, that should have gone to sustain the monks, were wasted or 
exported. There were no Anglican archiepiscopal or episcopal visi- 
tations. No elections were held, and persons were made pastors 
who were at once unlearned and unthrifty. Any monk speaking of 
order or religion was banished one hundred leagues away. Parlia- 
ment had directed that the Prior of Lewes should receive professions 
and determine complaints, but some never professed. The aliens were 
preferred and spent everything, whilst the Anglicans wanted even 
decencies, were made subject to the aliens, and were sometimes forty 
years in the order before receiving any profits. 

This supplicatio was thus endorsed : — " That Abbots and Priors 
of the said Order under the patronage of the King in England, do 
quickly reform these abuses at their peril lest the King visit them 
in some severe manner." 

I have given this gravamen in detail, lest any reader should com- 
mit the uncommon error of believing any community of monks to 
be perfect ; but it seems to me that the gist of the gravamen lay in 
the last passage of it, and that it was not so much that the com- 
munities were corrupt, as that the Anglicans were jealous of the 
aliens, and had a shrewd suspicion that this jealousy, not un- 
lighteously, was shared by the monarch. 

VOL. XX. — NO. LIX. Q 

220 Some Account of the Parish of MonMon Farleigh. 

As a matter of fact enquiries were made more than once by the 
monarch as to the condition of our priory in relation to aliens, and 
as no fault was to be found with us we were left in peace, and the 
spectacle of the austerities, the charities, the hospitalities, the learn- 
ing, and the industry of the monks, leavened the lump of civilization 
of our parish for over four hundred years, much to our profit. 


Names of some of the Priors of Farley. 



Eiias de Turri 


Henry, resigned 


Main, in whose time there was 

a convent seal 


William, died 


Stephen, resigned 




John de Feschamps, Chamber- 

Iain of Lewes 


William Galsham 


Lawrence de Archenband 


William Preston, died 


Ludovic Brecknock, presented 

to Biddeston St. Peter's by 

Sir H. Long 


John Stone 


Ludovic Millen 

List of Rectors and Curates. 




N.B.— D. 


Dominus propter 

Walterus de Hanekyneton 

Rector of Al- 



personse Prioris 
de Farley 


Eex pro Priore de 

Eobert de Hakeway de Al- 


dyngton, p.m. 



Robertus Bere de Notynham 


Richard Honeymanger 


Prior de Farley 

Thomas Newshawe, per mut. 



John Horton, per resig. T. 

By Sir Charles Hohhouse, Bart. 


August 10 

Oct. 8 
Jan. 30 

Oct. 5 

May 27 

8 August 

25th Oct. 
24 Dec. 

9 August 
July 2 












Prior de Farley. 

Henry Brittaine 

The LadyCatherine 
by consent of 
Henry Brittaine, 
and by assign- 
ment of George 

The King 

The Common- 
wealth ? 
Seth Ward, Bishop 
of Salisbury 

Gilbert Burnet , 

Thomas Sherlock,. 

John Gilbert „ 
John Hume „ 
John Fisher „ 

Thomas Burgess,: 
Edward Denison , 
W. Hamilton , 

Galfrydus Lyncolne 

John Combe, per mut. 

Johannes de Yatte 

William Wyse, per resig. 

William Doke 

John Passelow, vice W. Doke 

Walterus Cove, per resig. 

John Papelewe, died 1460 

Nicholas Perigson 

John Mower 

Thomas Ley 

Eichard Todgyb, per resig 

John Tyvel 

Henry Goldeney, per mut. _ 

Lawrence Balfront, per resig. 

John Davis (22nd Rector) 

John Williams 

John Bragge 

Ludovicus Jones 

Richard Bridges 
John Allambrigge 
John Adams 

Jacob Harris, per resig. 

David Jenner 

Richard Medlicott 

Thomas Tattersal 

Thomas Sartaine, d. 1713 

"mors lucrum" 
A. Ford 
Richard White, d. 1735, tablet 
William Cheyne 

Richard Ford, per resig., d. 
1756, tablet 

W. Sparrow, d, 1780 

Peter Gunning 

William Holland 

M. Rowlandson, no Rector or 
Curate resident 

W. B. Cozens 

Edward Brown, d. 1863, tablet 

Alfred Earle 

Thomas Hammond Tooke 


222 Some Account of the Parish of Monhton Farleigh. 








John Eldei-ton 


Thomas Meade 



George Cozens 


Thomas Hopkins 


Joshua ShawCrosse 


Anthony Jones anc 
Thomas Street 



E. Holland 


John Skinner 



H. Monkhouse 



Eichard Budd 



George Streete 



George Streete 


A. Hamilton, A.H. 
Hemphill, and 

Maurice James 

„ [House) 


E. C. Taunton 

„ (lived at Cumberwell 


John Symons 


George Hicks 


Peter Gunning 
Henry Man-iott 



H. Dinnell 


F. D. Grove 


G. F. Bevan 
E. Powell 
W. H. White 



John Fletcher 



E. D. Slade 
Frederick Forde 



Walter Long 

M. Eowlandson 


C. S. Meech 

W. B. Cozens 


E. Eowlandson 


G. E. Turner 


JohnEobeii Powell, 

E. Brown 


M.A., of Jesus 


College, Oxford, 
ordained to the 
parish by Bishop 
Denison, left it 
on the death of 
became Pei"pet- 
nal Curate of St. 
Peter's, Marland, 
Great Torington, 
Devon, and is 
now Eector oi 
leigh, Devon. 

By Sir Charles Eobhouse, Bart. 

Taxatio Nicholas IV., 1291. 


6 8 


C t; ;». 

o 2 is 
■° P 

1 6 


5 6 8 

29 10 

Diocese. Spiritual : 

Lincoln. Pens : in eccl : de Wyvell 2£ 

Sarum. Portio in Wyvelesford 

„ in eccl : de Biscopestrewe 
Ecclesia de Cosham 6 8 

de Boxe 6 13 4 

„ de Chippeham 13 6 8 
de Slautreford 2 3 4 
deAlynton 2 3 4 

„ de Soppeworth 1 13 4 
de Chippeham 1 10 
de Slautreford 1 13 4 
Porcione de Soppeworth 
„ de Wockesley 
„ in vicar : de Chippeham 
Pencione de Edyngton, Avebury Deanery 
Wygom. Prior de Farley habet apud Holtby de 
Gloucester P redd : assiss : res marc et dimid : 
Hereford. Habet apud Parle de redd : assis : 

Temporal : 
Lincoln. Prior de Farle 

„ in decanat : de Graham et Framelund 

Sarum. Cheddentone 

„ Wrockeshale 

„ Broctone 

„ Cortyngetone 

« Lye 

„ Porcio in ecclesii de Cosham 
„ „ » de Edinton 

„ Clive Pypard 

„ Mershstone 

„ apud Brome in Swyndone 

„ Slautreford 

Sarum. Alinton 

„ Soppeworth 

„ De Clive Pipard, Avebury Deanery 

„ Marshtone, Deanei^ Creek 

„ Swyndone 

[N.B.— In the Valor 26 Henry VIII. the gross revenue was taken at £217 Os.^d. 
and the net income at £153 14«. '2,\d.'] 


3 6 8 

2 6 8 


13 12 

13 17 


15 13 



5 14 10 


4 8 




7 6 

5 13 



4 6 


4 6 


3 6 


83 17 10 

3 13 

2 16 




11 9 8 


152 19 8 

224 Some Account of the Parish of Monkton Farleigh. 

Valor Ecclesiasticus, temp. Henry VIII. Transcript of return, 

26 H. VIII. First Fruits Office. 
Prioratus de Farlegh. Ludovico nunc Priore — ibidem val' — vizt p. a. 






In redd : 

Inp quis 

pore decimar' 




et firm' 


recept in 

dicis vill' 






22 19 








Bydeston cum 






















Wilsford and 

Manyngeford 3 



























70 12 111 






















juxta Broughton 










Lye juxta 










12 13 















lands of Holly 

and Elm 


Navebye and 




Divers Pla 














Of this 14 2 

2 in 


"By Sir Charles Hohhouse, Bart. 225 

Spirltualia annuae Porci' decimar' 43 

annuEB Pensiones 12 11 8 

Temporalia. Wiltes 161 6 8^ = 217 4|^ 
De quibus in : to : deductions ^3 6 2 

Clear p.a. -153 14 2| 
Inde per decima 15 7 5f 
* De quibus Deduct' et Alloc' jux' forma Statuti inde edit' viz 
Reddit' Eesolut' For land in Sheldon p' a' viz to Walter 
Hungerford Knight 17/ and to the Lord 
of Oodford 6/8 13 8 

To the Earl of Arundell for lands in Gorton 3 4 
To the Abbot of Keynsham for lands in 

Perneborough 10 

To the Trustee of Eaton College by " feod' 

firm'" 38 9 

To the Viscount of Wntes for cert' redd' p' a' 15 
To the Abbess of Shafton' for lands in 

ComerweU 3 4=40 16 4 

Pens' Solut' Archdeacon of Wilts for the Church of 

Chippenham 5 9^ 
Boxe 5 9| 
" „ Slaugtonford 5 9^ 

Bideston 5 9| 
Annua Penc' Solut' Priori de Lewys 13 4 

Elemos Distributed to the poor on the days of the 

Cjfinse Domini et Paschenes on the anni- 
versary of Humphrey de le Bound, fun- 
dator huj' priorat' 2 

Distributed to the poor 4 days in the year 
on the foundation and gift of Barthei 
Bygote p' a' ^ ^ ^^ 4 

Feod' To Henry Long, Miles, the Chief Capitlis 

of the said Priory senli 2 

Thomas Moumford subsenH 2 

William Burton, Auditor 2 

Eichard son of Heniy Receptor 16 8 

John Parsons, Collector of the Dues of 

Haversham,FerneburghandTymesbrugh 2 
John Usher, Collector of the Dues of Lye, 

Corton and Bishoppstrowe 2 

Richard, son of Henry, BaUly of the Liber- 
ties of Farlegh 16 8 
Thomas Wilkes, Collector Chippenham 16 8 
Thomas Young, Collector of the Manors of 

Marsheton, Brome and Thornhill 1 6 8=19 16 6 

Total 63 6 2 
and so remains clear p' ann' 153 14 2^ 

Inde per decima 15 7 5j 

226 Some Account of the Parish of Monkton Farleigh. 


Priory Endowments. 

Name of Manor. 

Parley, Wilts. 

Bishopstrowe, Wilts. 

Date of 



Wivelisford Wilts. 

Wocheseya, Wilts with 

[Oaksey, Malmesbui-y] 


Heddington, Calne, 

Name of Donor. 

Particulars of Gift. 

Humphrey Bo- 
bun 11. 

H. Bohun III., 
Dapifer in 5th 
of Stephen 
Margery, his 
wife, and Ma 
tildade Bohun, 
his mother 
The said H. de 
B. styled Fun- 
dator ejus loci 
in charter of 
Henry III. 

Humphrey Bo 
bun III. and 
Margery, his 

The whole manor, with the 
park and every other thing 
belonging to the same 
village, including after- 
wards the then hamlet of 
South Wraxhall. Brictrio 
held at Domesday. 

The Church and all belong- 
ing to it — one hide of land 
in the village, pasturage 
for one hundred cattle (the 
same withdrawn 1137), and 
a camcate of oxen. The 
Prior presented to the 
Church 1304 to 1532. 
Edward of Salisbury held 
at Domesday. 

The Church of — afterwards 
changed to a tenth of the 
demesne here and in Man- 
ningeford, which see. 

The Church of, and a tenth 
of the wild colts [Pullo- 
rum], Cherynton with- 
drawn 1137. Brictric (and 
his father before him) held 
at Domesday, 

10 solidi of the Church. 
Brictric (and his father 
before him) held Domes- 
day. Edward of Salisbury 
bequeathed it to his dau- 
ghter Maud, or Matilda, 
wife of Humphrey de Bo- 
hun II. 

The Church and the whole 
tenth of the demesne as 
well of fruits and cattle 
and every other thing, with 
the house and virgultus 
which belonged to Simon 
the Clerk. 14 H. VII. 
Prior and convent sold 
this. Edward of Salisbury 
held at Domesday. 

By Sir Charles Hobhouse, Bart. 


Name of Manor. 

Date of 

Walcton. [Whaddon, 
near Melksham, 
Wilts ?] 

Stavretone, Wilts 

Strattone, Wilts [Strat- 
ton St. Margaret; 

Monketon inBroughton, 

Beta. [The Beries, 
Westbury, Wilts.] 

Thomehill, near Cliiis- 
tian Malford, Wilts. 

Hanum, [afterwards 
called the Grange,] 

Tymbresberia, Somerset 

Plumberea [Pomeroy]. 
Winkfield, WUts. 

Name of Donor. 



and Ilbert de 

and Osmund 

and Eobei-t 

Particulars of Gift. 

styled now Earl 
of Hereford & 
Essex & Con 
stable of Eng 

One half the Church belong- 
ing to their Feud. Aluric 
of Melksham held at 

One tenth of the Demesne 
with all things appertain- 
ing. Brictric held at Do- 
mesday, E. of Salisbury 
bequeathed it to his daugh- 
ter, Maud. 

One tenth of the wild colts 
[exchanged for Oaksey, 
1137]. The mill which 
Eobert de Carentoem gave 
and 3 solidata of land, the 
gift of Humphrey deSancto 
Vigore [witness to the 
grant]. Nigel the Physi- 
cia held at D. 
One mark of silver. 
The manor, free of all service 
due to the Bohuns, but ex- 
cepting service due to the 
King. Saward held at 

The land, free of all service 
due to the Bohuns. Os- 
mund the King's sei^vant 
held at Domesday. 

The land, first of all fi-ee, 
but afterwards subject to 
service to King Henry and 
the Bohuns. The donor a 
witness to the grant. 

The gift of the land, sold by 
Hugode Chaldefelde and 
Leolselina, his mother, to 
the Priory, confirmed free 
of everything save 3 of a 
feud of one soldier. 

One tenth of. The gift of 
Ganf ridus Dapifer, witness 
to the grant, confirmed and 
the mill which William, 
son of Ganfird, gave. 

Osmund held at Domesday. 

exchanged for Horning- 

228 Some Account of the Parish of Monkton Farleigh. 

Name of Manor. 

Glutton, Somerset. 

Framberga, Somerset 

Hechesingtona, Wilts 

Bydeston cumHartham, 


Duberche, Somerset. 
Denelyke Wake juxta, 

Box, Wilts. 

Elmore et Cemeia [El- 
more and Cerney 
Wike, Gloucester P 

Homingsham, Wilts. 

Nova YiUa. 

La Gore, Manynford, 

Date of 

Name of Donor. 


and Ilbei-t de 

and the 

and Bartholo- 
mew Bygot, 
witness to 


Humphrey Bo 
hun the III. 

Particulars of Gift. 

One tenth of. With one 
man's service rendering 
6 solidi and the Church of. 

The Church of — after the 
death of Harold Presbyter, 
and 15 solidata of land, the 
gift of WiUiam of Gran- 
ville. Witness. 

10 solidi of land, the gift of 
Ilbei-t, and 5 ,, „ „ of 
Simon the Clerk. Edward 
of Salisbury held at Domes- 

5 acres, the gift of Archard, 
and \ the 10th of, and the 
Rectory of, held by H. de 
risle and from him passing 
by marriage to the D's. 

The mill of. The gift of 
Eudolf Wake. Confirmed. 

The mill which B. B. gave, 
and the service of Hubert 
de Wadeswick [now Wads- 
wick Farm] and his land 
rendering 5 solidi. Con- 
firmed H. III., A.D. 1227. 
The tythes and advowson 
of the Church? Edward 
of S. held Domesday. 

The land of, rendering 
a mark of silver. 


One tenth of. In lieu of 
Berlochestria and 1 virgate 
of land, the gift of Adale- 
Imus, son of Ganfridus, 

The land of, and appurte- 
nances, formerly held by 
Philip, son of Edwin, and 
given by Galfrid, son of 

The land of in the Manor of 
Maningford, iu la. Wite. 

By Sir Charles Eobhouse, Bart. 


Name of Manor. 

Maningford, Wilts 

Chippenham, Wilts 

Date of 

Name of Donor. 


Henry III. 

Particulars of Gift. 

Merston, Wilts [in 
High worth]. 

Ruda [Rowde] Wilts. 

Penlev and Westbury, ' 

Lya [Westbury Ley] 


Bratton, Wilts. 

Buthoria [or Birthona] 

Gerva, Eedley, and Her- 
linghame, Gloucester, 

Grosmunt, Gloucester. 

and Empress 

and Eadulf de 

One tenth of the demesne 
and its appurtenances — 
save 30 solidi to the Hos- 
pital of St. Nicholas of 
Sarum to conclude the 
composition between the 
Dean and Chapter of Sa- 
rum, the Brothers of the 
Hospital, and the De 

The Church and tenths, 
lands, meadows, chapelries, 
pastures, and all appurte- 
nances, a Pannagium or 
larder, money for the keep 
of pigs in the King's For- 
est, and one cart-load of 
dead wood every year from 
the said forest. 

Same as above, save the 
Pannagium and dead wood, 
described as part of Wurda. 

1 hide of land called Foran- 
gra [Foxhanger] given by 
"Domina Imperatrix ma- 
ter Henrici Regis avi nos- 

\ a hide of land. Exchanged 
for a water miU with Wal- 
ter de Paveley, 7 and 14 
Ed. II., 1314—21, and 40 
acres of faggots [assartis] 
in the forest, made in Hav- 

One half the village and a 

mansion, i.e., at Plaistude. 

Thereafter the vicarage 

paid 13/4 a year to the 

Prior and Convent. 
The mill — just as Aibricus 

left it. 
\ a hide which Roger Cocus 

1 virgate of land called 


^ the fisheries, Arlingham, 
near Futherne, on the Sev- 
ern [Jackson], and King 
John paid 22/- a year for 
Gerva. Hardy's Calendar 
of Close RoUs, 1, 285. 

The Hermitage. 

230 Some Account of the Parish of Monkton Farleigh. 

Name of Manor. 


Lym, Lynley, juxta 

Rowde, Wilts. 
Chinctiira [Gloucester ?] 
Pridi [Somerset ?] 
Clifton, Gloucester. 

Caversfield, Bucks. 
Cudford, Cornwall. 
Melksham, Wilts. 

Sopworth, „ 
[near Badminton]. 

Alinton, Box, Wilts. 

SlaugMerford, Wilts. 

Brome, Swindon, Wilts 
Navely [Namby] „ 
Monketon juxta Chip- 
penham, Wilts. 
North Wraxhall „ 
Leigh, Woolley, Holt, 
and Winsley, Wilts. 

Date of 

Name of Donor. 

Particulars of Gift. 

Uncertain EogerdeNunant- 






Henry III. 

H. de B. 

Daughter of Sir 
J.Tropenell, of 

Exchanged with 
the nuns of 
Martigny in 
the Valois. 

Matilda the Em- 

Uncertain Martin a Chap- 

Dulton [Wilts?] 
Langley „ 


Eichard de An- 
asya [Dancey] 

Simon Pater. 

The Hermitage, two rustics, 
Almetus and Alwardus, 
and theirlands and 3 crofts, 
the gifts of William, son of 
John de Tilli and his wife 

1 hide of laud which Geri 
the Presbyter held. 

f a virgate of land. 

Land and its pasture. 

Lands. The gift of Richard, 
son of Odon, confirmed. 


Lands in. 

Two acres in the manor, 
value 12"'. 

Court House and 180 acres 
of land and advowson of 
the living, to which the 
Prior presented up to 1535 

Manor of. Given by Ste- 
phen and others to the 
nuns. Escheated 26 Ed. 
I., 1293, and afterwards re- 
stored to the Priory, and 
by it held up to the Disso- 

Manor, rectorial tithes, ad- 
vowson and chapelries. 


The Church and tithes 

Two hides and other lands, 
the advowson of Berlegh 
Chapel, lardar money, a 
mounchiary, viz., one horse 
with his harness and bridle, 
originally held freely of 
William de I'lsle by the 
service of one whole 
knight's fee and suite of 
court and rent. 

I virgate of land. 
Lands and tenements with 

RD I., 

A.D. ] 















Fowl 1" 

1 8 

2 4 


2 4 


8 7 





2 1 3 ' 1 1 

Messuages and 

cnrtilafjes. paid in 
money or kind. 

e 8. d. 









2 16 8 




2 16 8 1 2 1 

N.B. — The figures ai-e not always correct in the 

original. The totals and some of the arrangement are 

mine. The jurors at Monkton Farleigh were John de 

Greenhull, William at Walte (Atworth), Stephen at 

Slade (Sladesbrook), Roger de Burlegh {?), John de 

Morle, W. Paris, Walter Seluman, Robert and Simon 

le Jovene (Young), John de Wolvele Hugo-Cock and 

Henry le Frie — most of the names still known to 


ir regis 

ers an 

d 1 





Farm Valuation of the Piuoiiy of Monkton Farleigh, tempore 22nd Edward I., A.D. 129-1. 

Name of the M.inor. 

Curia with 



& Curtilage. 

Libere Teaentium. 

Placitn et 
per quiB 
et nundinia. 
£ s d 




labor, lefitiv 

aiarii and their 
jls excluded. 






£ s. 













Farleg Motiachorum 








1 2 
1 2 






3 4 

1 8 
3 13 



1 2 

762 at 3'! 
2001 „ 2" 
124 ,,3" 
208,^ „ 2' 
45i „ 3" 
178 „4i 
121 „ 2'' 

9 13 

1 13 

2 7 

1 14 


2 19 

1 10 







3 13 


1 1 

1 1 





2 10 7 



Fowl H 

1 8 

2 4 
2 4 


Lye Westbury 

2 2 

34 „ 6' 







3 12 2 

8 7 

Mouteton in Brouton 



1 2 

6 8 


2 5 

1 2 

142; ,,6' 
224 „ 6" 

4 IS 




1 15 


1 16 
6 14 1 

2 4 


10 14 


2 4 


33 1 



11 « 

n 17 

1(> 19 10 


2 1 3 

n 1 n 

Name of the Maiior. 



Abb : ibidem 



uiira de 



£ B. d. 

MesBuases and 
curtiUges. p.iid in 
money or kind. 



£ . d. 


£ 8. d. 

de nalivia. 


t 8. d. 

Failegh Monactoi-um 
Boxe. Bar: Bygot? 

., AlintoD 

Lye Westbui-y 
Mouketon Broughton 

Thornhill. Sybil's and 1 
virgate & autumn work 

Bi-ome. Swindon 

Eobert de 'Waggon 
3 4 

10 3 



Holding in 

1 days n 


4 8 2 

15 9 

common & 
ork each. 

1 2 10 





2 tenants 

for 1 

7 6 1 

1 10 

32 6' 




2 16 8 


1 13 7 


5 S 11 

1 2,0 ,r, 

2 3 


19 10 1 


1 14 



2 16 8 2 1 

Name of Miinor. 



Lye Westbury 

1 14 10 


Total valuation £151 15s. lOi/. 

Total amo 

unt and value c 

f lands. 


33 1 8 
11 8 
2 3 
1 14 



48 6 8= 


Total nu 

ml»er and Taloe of 


20 10 14 4 
47 16 19 10 
35 5 8 11 
5 19 10 1 

113=52 13 2 

X.B. — The figures are rot always correct in the 
original. The totals and some of the arrangement are 
mine. The jurors at Monkton Farleigli were John de 
Greenhull, "William at Walte (Atworth). Stephen at 
Slade (Sladcsbrook). Roger de Burlegh (?), John de 
Morle, W. Paris, Walter Seluman, Robert and Simon 
le Jovene (Young), John de Wolvele Hugo-Cock and 
Henry le Frie — most of the names still known to 
our registers and neighbourhood. 




„ Eco 
Lye and 
Navely : 
Divers ] 
H. Long 
T. Mouri 
W. Bult 
R. at Hi 


Valuation by the Jurors of the Income of the Priory of Monkton Farleigh, A.D. 1294 

AND Return, 1535. 



Yearly rental. 







Farlegh ") 

£ s. d. 

£ 8. 





£ s. 


£ B. 


27 13 



1 6 


29 1 6 

Woxehall, Ham' [ 

24 11 8 



Thornhull J 

25 15 6 

12 16 


63 6 


76 2 10 


5 19 9 

2 2 



3 2 8 

„ Eoclesiam 





7 7 2 

18 12 


20 12 


8 14 2 


1 15 10 

., Ecclesiam 





3 15 10 




Lye and Bromerfelde juxta Westbury 

18 3 10 

11 9 



13 9 9 

Broughton Monk : 

11 9 3 

12 7 


12 7 4 


6 14 1 

7 7 


7 7 8 






4 3 

Haversham, Holly and Elm, Gloucester 

7 10 

7 10 

Navely and Welby Lincoln 

8 8 


8 8 8 

Divers Places 



Bydeston cum Hartham 



6 2 







2 10 










Wilsford and Maningford 

3 6 



4 6 8 







Tyinesbrugh with Hanham and Farnboro' 



2 18 

H. Long (Steward) 

T. Mounford, under do. 



W. Bulton, auditor 



E. at Harnyngsham 


1 6 


16 8 

158 7 1 

186 10 



12 11 




318 3 

Deduct Feuds 

78 2 

210 2 10 

entatlon Office. Reddit' et Servic' Manorium. 


£ 3. d. 



Exitus Ac 
pvctio callle.l 

£ s, d. 

Sale of 

Sale of 

£ R. d. I £ "■ d- 

Per quis' 
con' fines 
& heriots. 

£ B. d. 


13 4 



69 19 8 

10 4 4 15 

10 11 8 

35 13 4 
5 6 

41 18 10 

69 19 8 

10 4 4 15 

10 11 8 

69 19 8 llO 4 4 1 1 5 |l0 11 8 

296 2 1 


CoMPUTOS PRiOBiTrs DE Fabmgh, teiiip., John Stone, Anno 17 Regis H. VIII. Abstract of Roll in the Augmentation Office. Reddit' et Servic' Manorium. 

Wiltcs Com ; 
MonketoD in Brougbton 




Holly ct Elmore 


Lvo, Wustbury 


WillL't '-i Namby, Lincoln 


Ilava. Gloucester 
Bathe. Somerset 
Foxanger. Eowde 



Lynley, Kowde 

Boxe et Ryddelow 




IliHi'lickwyke Bridgwater 









13 6 

16 14 1 6 8 

13 ' 

6 13 4 i 1 4 10 1 10 0,0 3 4 

6 13 4 1 4 10 I 1 10 n 3 4 

2 13 4 

4 35 13 4 
4 6 5 6 

14 8 41 18 10 

60 19 8 10 4 4 1 



























APPENDIX.— D. 4 (Continued). 

Name of the Manor, 


Terris ct 


Water MUl. 

Libere et 



£ 6. d. 

£ 8. d. 

£ is. d. 

£ s. d. 

£ 8. d. 

£ s. d. 

£ s fi. 

Powletsbere Somerset 

1 2 



La ffordis 







Prior de 





Somerford magna 


HentoQ St. Georgii 








Newhalys in Cly.ste 


Tedenham Wallia 




Shepton Berenger 

6 8 








6 8 




6 8 





1 6 





Willesford et Mannyngeford 

3 6 8 
de Abbate 


13 4 

de Rector 




de Capell 

1 2 

2 13 10 

3 8 


6 8 

6 5 6 

8 4 

ract Roll 28, H. VIII. 


I. d. 

£ B. d. 

£ B, d. 


& 8. d. 

2 16 





3 6 

13 11 13 4 

15 7 

13 4 

1 18 4 

20 2 

6 8 

41 6 

135 19 6 


Computus Ministhoucm Domini 

Regis temp., Henry VIII. 

Abstract Roll 28, 


Name of the Manor, 



Liberc or 

Per quis' 







£ •• d. 

£ «. d. 

£ s. d. 

£ e. a. 

£ I. d. 

£ .. d. 

£ I. d. 

£ s. d. 

£ «. d. 

£ s. d. 

Wraxhall cum Box 


3 8 

1 3 

All in get on 

6 13 4 


4 10 4 

10 10 


13 5 8 

2 18 9 


2 16 


19 4 

4 16 


1 2 

1 11 


4 2 8 

Holly and Elmore 

2 5 7 

Lye, Westbury 

3 6 8 

4 9 9 

4 3 8 




6 8 

WiUet & Namby 

8 15 9 

1 17 1 




5 4 

Foxanger, Rowde 


Tymme burgh. 




12 8 




Boxe & Rydelaw 


1 5 

11 13 4 


1 13 4 








Hcnton St. George 


Over Wroughton 







Wilsturd, &c. 

3 6 8 


3 4 

20 2 



1 8 1 


9 6 




6 8 


13 4 



6 8 



Piunbrey Wyntefield 



13 4 


Stratton le Fosse 




35 19 6 

37 16 9 

12 4 11 1 28 10 4 

3 11 4 

1 2 

1 U 

3 3 

5 7 8 

1 IH 4 

41 6 

22nb Edwaed I., OR A.D. 1294. 

£ s. d. 

1 15 


3 16 

5 at 2/ 



100 at 6'^ 

16 at 6"> 


£ s. d. 

2 10 


2 18 

40 at 6^ 

11 at 4* 



3 8 

1 3 


59 at 3/ 

20 2/8 


6 2/8 
17 at 3/ 
21^ acres 
at 4/ 

8 17 

1 1 

2 13 4 
5 4 

5 4 


100 at 1/4 

12 at 1/4 

5 and 40 


6 13 4 



13 4 



£ s. d. 


8| acres 

2 6 2 


3 7 8 

13 4 




18 16 8 


14 3 8 


3 3 2 8 10 

aiths &c. 

( 26 13 4 

£34 13 4 

N.B.— The Bona and 
Catalla of Lye-Westbury 
were " set forth by the 
Cyrographum who lives 
near the Magistrate K. 
de Abyndon." 


List of Bon^e et Catalle oe Live and Dead Stock of the Pkioey, as valued by the 

22nd Edwakd I., OR A.D. 129-1. 



£ s. d. 


£ I. d. 



£ ■. d. 


£ .. d. 


£ a. d. 


£ a. d. 


£ .. d. 


£ «. d. 


63 at 6/8 


16 at 5/ 


1 at 5/ 


11 at 3/ 

1 13 

9 at 1/ 


7 at 3/ 

1 15 

6 at 2/ 


100 at 6' 

2 10 




6 6 8 









2 16 



6 at 5/ 

1 10 

9 at 1/ 


1 at 3/ 




Box, Alynton Hamlet 






13 at 5/ . 

3 15 



2 at 2/ 


Lye, Westbuiy 

9 at 6/8 


2 at 10/ 


2 at 3/ 


1 at 4/ 


Monketon, Broughton 

17 „ 

5 13 4 

7 at 5/ 

1 15 

1 at 6/8 

6 8 

7 at 2/6 

17 6 

7 at IV 

5 10 

1 ate/ 



25 at 9/ 

11 6 

4 at 3/ 


2 at 8' 

1 4 

2 at 9/ 


16 at 6' 


11 at 4^ 

3 8 


64, 13 4 


11 5 


16 8 


4 18 6 


1 9 2 


3 16 




2 18 


1 3 8 



£ s. d. 


£ K. d. 


£ 8. d. 







£ 1. d. 






36 at 6' 
21 at S" 


30 ek 1/ 
39 at 1/6 

1 10 

2 18 6 


3 8 4 
1 10 

1 at 3/ 
1 at 2/8 
1 at lO' 



6 at 6/8 



69 at 5/ 




17 5 
2 10 
7 10 
1 15 

59 at 3/ 

20 2/8 

2 „ 

8 17 

1 1 

2 13 


100 at 1/4 
15 „ 

6 13 4 


13 4 

3 7 8 
13 1 

Alviitim Hamlet 


1 at 3/ 




Lye, Westbui-y 
Monketon, Broughtou 

17 at 8* 

9 11 

2 at 10" 

1 at 1/6 

2 at 2/ 





15 at 5/ 
505 at „ 
42 at 3/0 or 
70 acres 

3 16 
12 12 
10 10 


6 2/8 

17 at 3/ 

21 J aeres 

at 4/ 

5 4 

12 at 1/4 
5 and 40 


8i acres 

2 6 2 




1 4 


4 18 5 


1 18 4 





3 6 



55 17 



IS 10 

8 172 

It 3 s 


a 3 2 1 S 1 1 

Total amount life stock 629 

dead „ Carts 10 
Ploughs 12 
Wheat 223 quarters 
Barley 113 
Oats 172 

Tenths and Vessels 

Name of Manor. 


Tenths 4e, 

Box and Alynton 
Lye Westbuiy 

Value 6 6 6 
3 6 

Value 26 13 4 


£34 13 4 

N.B.— The Bona and 
Catalla of Lye-Westbury 
were " net forth by the 
Cyrographum who lives 
near the Magistral* R. 
de Ahyndon." 

By Sir Charles HoMouse, Bart. 


N.B. — My authorities for the above are, Dugdale^s Monasticon 
and Baronage, Jones's Domesday, Leland's Collectanea, Hoare's S. 
Wilts, Tanner's Notitla Monastlca, Abbreviatio Placitorum, Hundred 
RoU of Wilts, 39 H. III., Jackson's Aubrey, p. 74 and 117. 


Population and Professions, 1881. 





























1— 1 































































First appearance of 
the Name in 
the Parish. 


Quarry man 


Tenant Farmer 











Day Laborer 



Farm Laborer 








Farm Laborer 


232 Some Account of the Parish of MonMon Farleigh. 



First appearance of 
the Name in 
the Parish. 








Gentleman Farmer 


Life Holder 



Quarry man 







Farm Laborer 






Farm Laborer 



Baker, &c. 





Farm Laborer 




Gentleman Farmer 



Farm Laborer 








Farm Laborer 







Farm Laborer 


Tenant Farmer 


Farm Laborer 




Farm Laborer 







Farm Laborer 




Day Laborer 


By Sir Charles Hobhouse, Bart. 




i'irst appearance o£ 
the Name in 
the Parish. 


Farm Laborer 



On the Club 


Quarry man 






Farm Laborer 


Day Laborer 



Farm Laborer 








Farm Laborer 



Gentleman Farmer 









Innkeeper^ &c. 






Farm Laborer 














Gamekeeper, &c. 



Names of Places. 

Names of Places. 

Tithe Map. 


Acre's Well 
Angel Leaze 


A family of the name, 1586^ 

234 Some Account of the Parish of MonJdon Farleigh. 

Names of Places. 

Tithe Map. 


Baker's Tyning 


A family, 1573 to 1756. 

Bassett's Mead 


A family, 1665 to 1681. 



Broadstone Tyning 


Cod Mead 


Calcord, Upper and 



Chalk Lease 


Pecularity of soil. 

Cold Harbour 


CoUett's Tyning 


A family from 1651 to present 

Common, in little 


Part of common lands. 

Conigree, the 

The Coney-acre, formerly rabbit 

Cottles Down 


A family, 1656 to the present day 

Covin's Close 


Cow Leaze, Lower 


Cox^s and Cox^s Or- 


Name occurs 1591. 


White Cross Mead 


Culver Hay 


Culverhouse occurs 1600. 

Dyer's Ground 


Dapper's Ground and 



Dry Leaze 


Quality of soil. 

Duchess Clump 

Farley Clump, planted by Anna 
Maria, Duchess of Somerset, 
c. 1799. 

Enclosure from Waste 


Made in Wade Browne's time. 

Follett's Wood 


Grass Folletts 


Upper Folletts 


By Sir Charles Hobhouse, Bart. 


Names of Places. 

Tithe Map. 


Green Meare 


Gibbon's Piece 


A family, 1701 to 1802. 

Hancock's Piece 

/- 223 

A life-bolder in a cottage, 1777- 

Haye's Mead, Great 

\ 182 

and Middle Hayes. 

^ 222 

Hay Corner 


Holly Pits, Upper 

r 238 

Hooper's Close 


Name occurs, 1615-Si3 and 83. 

Holly Hill Ground and 

Holly Stone Tyning 


Innox and Inwoods 


King's Tyning, Piece, 

37 and 

A family, 1621-97. 

and Little Mead. 


Long's Tyninge and 

234,6 and 

Several families, 1535 to 1842. 


268, 9. 

Links, Upper and Lane 


Mary's Croft 


St. Mary Magdalene's Priory. 

Mill Hill 


Had we a mill ? 

The Mountains 


Ox's Tyning 




Given by the Quakers amongst 



US : 

Plock Pile Wood 


Pond Piece 


Adjoins the Priory Fish-Pond. 

Poor Tynings 


Raven's Tyning and 


A family, 1688-1789. 


Rook's Closes 

50 and 61 

236 Some Account of the Parish of Monkton Farleigh. 

Names of Places. 

Tithe Map. 




1 20-29- 
1^ 55-56. 

Sands, Upper & Lower 


Quality of the soil. 

Shepherd's Leaze 


A family, 1775 to 81, or because 

Shamble Pits 
S lade's Leazes 


a sheep slate. 
By the side of the Roman Road. 

Stallard's Close 



Name occurs, 1700. 

Stile Croft 


Sweep's Coppice 
Taylor's Grove and 


Several families, 1719 to present 

Week's Horn 



Willock's Wood 


Willow Beds 

294 & 96 

Now quarries. 

Withy Bed 


Is still a withy bed. 

p. 28, last line, for " Wilton " read " Ambresbury." 
„ 29, line 3, for " Ambresbury " read " Wilton." 
„ 38, line 15, for 1787 read 1777. 

*:^* The Committee desires to express its obligations to the Rev. 
J. Bliss for the gift of the illustrations of the south doorway 
and chancel arch, in Manningford Bruce Church, page 180. 

H. F. BULL, Printer and Publisher, 4, Saint John Street, Devizes. 



IVith a Key to the British and Roman Antiquities 
occurring there* 


Rector of Yatesbitri/, and Hon. Secretary of the Wiltshire Arch(Bological 
and Natural History Society. 

THIS work, tlie materials of which have been accumulating for twenty-five 
j-eavs, is the result of innumerable rides and rambles over the Downs of 
North Wilts ; and deals with one of the most important archajological Districts 
in Europe. It will be published and issued to subscribers by the Marlborough 
College Natural History Society, and it will consist of two parts : — 

Fii-st. — The Great Map — 78 inches by 48 inches, on the scale of 6 linear 
inches, or 36 square inches, to the mile ; it comprises 100 square miles round 
Abury, and includes the great plateau of the Downs of North Wilts, extending 
from Oliver's Camp, on Eoundway Hill, on the west, to Mildenhall on the east ; 
and from Broad Hinton on the north, to the Pewsey Vale on the south. The 
district thus mapped measures 13 miles from west to east, and 8 miles from north 
to south. Every square mile, marked off with faint lines, lettered with a capital 
letter and numbered, will show the Barrows, Camps, Roads, Dykes, Enclosures, 
Cromlechs, Circles, and other British and Roman Stone- and Eaiih-works of that 
district ; every such relic, being lettered with a small letter in its own square, is 
readily found and easily referred to. The Map will be printed in six colours- 
viz., the Antiquities in red, the Roads in brown, the Lanes and Down Tracks in 
green, the Sarsen Stones in yellow, and the Streams and Ponds in blue. 

Second.— The Key to the Great Map, — which is by far the most important 
part of the work and will form a general " Guide to the British and Roman An- 
tiquities of North Wilts," — will be a volume of large quarto size, and will contain 
the whole of the large Map in fifteen sections, measuring 18 inches by 12, and 
four su-,)plementary sections, each measuring 6 inches by 12. The Letterpress 
will contain some account of each of the Antiquities, with references to and 
extracts from the best authorities, as well as figures of various Urns and other 
objects found in the Barrows, views of the Cromlechs, plans of the Cam];s. &c. 
An Index Map, on the scale of 1 inch to the mile, coloured, numbered, lettered, 
and divided like the Great Map, will accompany the volume ; and tlie whole will 
be a general account of the Antiquities of North Wilts, inasmuch as the district 
thus delineated embraces nearly all the remains of earliest times which eNi-^' '•> 
the northern portion of the County. 

Sub.^cribers' names and addresses (a list of which will be published with tin 
Index) will ba received by the Rev. T. A. Pkeston, The Green, Marlhorouijh 
The cost of the Large Map and Key complete will be, to Subscribers, One Guinea. 
Any copies which remain (after all the Subscribers have been served) will be 
offered to the public at an advanced price, viz., for the sheets of the Great Map 





Bath R. E. Peach, Bridge Street. 

Bradford-on-Avon. G. J. Farrington, Old Market Place. 

Bristol James Fawn & Son., 18, Queen's Road. 

„ C. T. Jefferies & Sons, Redcliffe Street. 

Calne A. Heath & Son, Marketplace. 

Chippenham R. F, Houlston, High Street. 

Cirencester Keyworth & Everard, Stamp Office. 

Devizes H. F. Bull, St. John Street. 

Marlborough E. & R. A. Lucy, Post Office. 

Melhsham A. Cochrane, Bank Street. 

Oxford Jas. Parker & Co., Broad St. 

Salisbury Brown & Co., Canal. 

Warminster B, W. Coates, Market Place. 


No. LX. 

NOVEMBER, 1882. ^^^.^rrr-^yoL. XX. 



IrrjiKDlngiral ml Jiateral listnq 


Puilt^i)$ir urUssx l^t Bixectian 


A.D. 1853. 

Peinted and Sold pob the Society by H. F. Bxtll, Saikt John Stbeet. 

Price 5s. Qd. — Members Grafts. 


Members wlio have not paid tlieir Subscriptions to the Society for 
the current year, are requested to remit the same forthwith to 
the Financial Secretary, Mr. William Nott, 1 5, High Street, 
Devizes, to whom also all communications as to the supply 
of Magazines should be addressed, and of whom most of the 
back Numbers may be had. 

The Numbers of this Magazine will not be delivered, as issued, 
to Members who are in arrear of their Annual Subscriptions, 
and who on being applied to for payment of such arrears, have 
taken no notice of the application. 

All other communications to be addressed to the Honorary Secre- 
taries : the Rev. A. C. Smith, Yatesbury Rectory, Calne; 
and H. E. Medlicott, Esq., Sandfield, Potterne, Devizes. 

The Rev. A. C. Smith will be much obliged to observers of birds 
in all parts of the county, to forward to him notices of rare 
occurrences, early arrivals of migrants, or any remarkable facts 
connected with birds, which may come under their notice. 

To he published hj the Wiltshire Arehaologieal and Natural History 
Society, by Subscription. 



Farther particulars will shortly he sent by circular to Members of 
the Society. 

The Author will be glad if any who could assist him with a list of plants 
in their several localities would kindly communicate with him. Early information 
is particularly desired. Address — Rev. T. A. PiiESTON, The Green, Marl- 


Irrljipnlngiral ml Haturnl listnrq 


No. LX. NOVEMBER, 1883. Vol. XX. 



" Letter fbom the Author of ' Nenia Britannica ' to Arch- 
deacon CoxE, ON THE Original Design of Stonehenge and 
THE Neighbouring Barrows " : Communicated by H. J. F. 
Swayne, Esq 237 

Edingdon Monastery : By the Rev. Canon J. E. Jackson, F.S.A. ... 241 

A Stroll through Bradford-on-aton : By Canon W. H. Jones, 

M.A., F.S.A., Vicar 306 

Extracts from the Records of the Wiltshire Quarter Ses- 
sions : Communicated by R. W. Merriman, Clerk of the Peace 322 

Description of a Barrow recently Opened on Overton Hill : 

By C. Ponting, Esq 342 

The Opening of a Barrow on Overton Hill 345 

Extracts from the Register in Christian Malfoed Church 347 


Edingdon Church, Wilts (south side) 241 

Edingdon Church, Wilts (west end) 295 

Facsimile of an entry by the Clerk of the Peace, 1579 340 

H. F, Bull, 4, Saint John Steeet. 




*'^dkx from i\t ^utljor of 'Ip^ma ^ritaimia' 
to ^rcljkiicoit €jnt, u tlje ©riguml J^^ijii of 
cStoitcIjcuKe u\ % |teigPomiitg §aiTote/' 

Communicated by H. J. F. Swayne, Esq. 

I^HE Kev. James Douglas, the author of the ^^NeniaBritannicaj" 
^i never seems to have given his ideas upon Stonehenge to the 
world. The following copy of a letter of his to Archdeacon Coxe 
may therefore be interesting. Mr. Douglas — though what people 
in these days would call prsescientific — was the precursor of the 
modern school of archaeology, which so wisely depends upon the 

H. J. F. S. 

" Martin, in his ' Religion des Gavils,' says that stone monuments are more 
certain guides than historians, and he says right. I place this remark at the 
head of your query. Josephus mentions the earliest stone pillars, as erected by 
Seth, which he says were to be seen in the time of Vespasian ; but this is doubted 
by Stillingfleet (Origines Sacrte, Lib. I., cap. 2). In I. Samuel, vi., 18, a stone is 
mentioned by the name of Abel, but which, from the marginal reference of the 
Bible, should be read Ahen, a stone made a boundary for the country of the 
Philistines, ' whereon they set down the ark of the Lord in the field of Joshua,' 
which stone, according to Holy Writ, appears to have been the identical stone 
which Joshua raised as a religious memorial, and to which he called the tribes 
Sichem, in imitation of the one erected by Jacob at Bethel (Joshua, xxiv., 26). 
These were the earliest stones we read of as simple though magnificent memorials 
of the one and only true God ; but afterwards iinder various similitudes perverted 
by Gentile superstition, and therefore forbidden by the law (Levit., xxvi., 1), 
VOL. XX. — NO. LX. R 

238 Letter from the Author of " Nenia Britannic a" 

called in the Hebrew a pillar, or by the Septuagint Mascoithim. Clemens of 
Alexandria, Lib. I., says they were common to all the Eastern nations. The 
Brahmins worshipped the Deity nnder this similitude (De la Wulf) ; Jupiter 
Ammon nnder the similitude of a conic stone (Quintus Curtius) ; Apollo nnder 
a stone lite a pyramid (Pausanias, Lib. I.). The Jews erected stones on every high 
hill and under every green tree (II. Kings, xvii., 10). It is certain that rude 
stone worship prevailed over all Syria, Egypt, and Greece, and we must not 
wonder that in Britain (where there can be no doubt an Eastern people resorted, 
particularly the Phoenicians) that single stone worship was introduced. From 
this previous consideration, I ventured to pronounce the single oheliscal conic 
stone detached from the temple of Stonehenge as one of the similar order to 
which both sacred and profane history refer, and were I permitted to hazard an 
opinion in this delicate fastidious age, I should not scruple to assert by many 
convincing analogies that Stonehenge was erected as a temple to the Deity per- 
sonified or typified by this conic stone, which, by its form — not contaminated by 
the tool — is in every respect absolutely dissimilar to any of those appropriated to 
the temple. The pyramidal shape is another reason why it challenges the des- 
cription which may justly incline me to believe it of secondary origin to the 
single Bethel, and therefore applicable to the Canaanitic order, or worship of 
fire, and more avowedly so, as it is placed to the east or sunrise in the front of the 
adytum of the temple, unquestionably so proved by the five trilithons, which 
form a parabola to the opening before the altar and exactly opening to the eastern 
position of the stone. You cannot now be surprised that I should deem the 
temple of Mithraic import, and of secondary origin to the Bethel, I mean of a 
later period ; if Pellettier is right in his Histoi-y of the Celts, making them 
one and the same people with the Persians, Syrians, and Phoenicians, their 
language, customs, and religion being similar. Though History has not justified 
the fact, yet I think by the most convincing cognition we may be enabled to 
trace the Eastern colouring into this island, to whom most of our open and un- 
hewn stone temples or circles may be with the greatest colour of truth ascribed. 
If the consequitive arrangement of this argument may have weight, then a clear 
discrimination may be applied to the sej)ulchres surrounding the temple. Those 
in which the entire skeletons are found may fairly be attributed to the Patri- 
archal or first order of Sethel worsfaj) ; and those in which urns are found 
with ashes to the Canaanitic or Mithraic order, the worshippers of fire, Bel, or 
Baal. Thus, my dear Sir, by the favor of a quiet and calm inspection of Stone- 
henge in your company, unprejudiced by any wishes on the subject, I have briefly 
transcribed a few notes to justify my opinion on the history of your celebrated 
Temple ; being happy to find that this extremely curious and most antient sti-ucture 
has engaged the attention of gentlemen more able than myself to expand on the 
subject, and who have a more ready access to those materials which I am not in 
possession of. It is an absurd idea that Mithraic worship was always accompanied 
with fire-sacrifice ; and if I am right this will accoimt for the few vestiges of 
Charb discovered on breaking the ground near the temple. I ttink it not 
probable that the interior circle of single granatic stones was a subsequent 
erection. Both our observations, I think, agreed on this particular. They were 
used for the libations of oU, and chosen as a harder stone to prevent absoi"ption. 
They could not have been conveniently introduced through the trilithons if of 

to Arc7uIeaco7i Coxe. 239 

snbsequent date. It is certainly a remarkable coincidence that the Phoenicians, 
as a in-ototype of the sun, erected one stone, big at the bottom and the point conic, 
like the single stone at our famous temple (Hei'odian, lib. 5). I cannot help 
setting off again. Some regard ought to to be paid to the incumbent stone within 
the outward circle of the trench, wiiich certainly has the appearance of an altar 
stone originally so laid, but if once erect there can be no doubt of its having beeu 
methodically and intentionally thrown down. It ought to be raised on the north 
side, as the ground is best fitting for it, and supported by two or three shores, 
for the inspection of the ground under it, which might possibly attest a very 
antient sepulchre ; a purpose for which several cogent reasons might be in- 
ferred. Whatever Stukeley may say, there were never more than three stones 
within the outward circle. I examined the ground minutely ; their intention is 
manifest with a very trifling variation. The two that are standing point north 
and south : consequently the eastern position was easily perceived where the 
obeliscal stone was placed, and which are, of course, indicatoiy of the original 
purpose of the temple, The fine large tumulus near the temple ought to be ex- 
ploi'ed. I should like to be present : the apex seems to have beeu a little dug 
into, but the primary interment, I am confident, has never been discovered. I 
remarked two small flattish tumuli within the outward circle, one to the south, 
the other north-east ; they seem to have been explored. I think there may be 
some reason to call the trilithons the British Lechlawors (Giraldus Cambrensis, 
Lib. II., 1). If Heraldus employed his whole army and many cattle to transport 
one stone, was it not possible for the people who raised Stonehenge to do the 
same P But I confess that Wormius ought to be read with much caution and 
doubt. These Northern writers have most of their knowledge fi-om the Scaldio 
bards of the tenth century, and they lied a little : say twelfth century also. Is 
it possible the detached stones called the Grey Wethers or Sarsen stones could 
have been transported to the spot where they now lay P if so, is there any similar 
stratum in the neighbourhood ? Is it also possible that these stones might have 
once formed a Templar erection P I have never seen them, and cannot therefore 
form a judgment. Bethel was converted into a place of worship on account of 
Jacob's Pillars. 'But prophecy not again any more at Bethel ; for it is the 
King's Chapel, and it is the King's Court ' (Amos, vii., 13). Compare the strict 
analogy of this place of worship with the obeliscal stone and temple of Stonehenge. 
Also Gilgal, where Joshua erected pillars on his passage over Jordan (I. Sam., 
vii., 6) ; Gilead, Gallied, or Mizpah, the same (see Judges and Hosea). Affairs 
of the nation were also transacted at these places, held sacred to all covenants. 
Hence deemed places of convocation. My best compliments and kind regards to 
Mr. Kennington,* and tell him I consider the conic relic covered with gold, formed, 
with the breast-plate, the lodain Morain and other gold ornaments as sacred to 
the memory of Mithras. It is the mystic Btelizle mentioned by Sanchoniathon 
consecrated to the sun, and used by the priest or priestess in the ceremonies of 
fire-worship, to Bel or Baal. The brass dagger with gold studds is exactly the 
shape of the instrument on an entablature (if my memory serves me right) found 
at Persepolis in the hand of a Mithraic priest offering the bull to Mitkra. The 

• Evidently phonetic epeUing of the name of Mr. Cunuington, 

240 Letter from the Author of " Nen'ia Britannica." 

barrow where these relics were found being an urn-deposit, may fairly apply to 
an almost coeval date with the temple, and I venture to say this reason by 
analogy may be sanctioned by this remark, that in all the earliest specimens of 
fire-worship no animal form whatever is seen on any relics of coeval date with 
these very antient remains of Stonehenge. The ruins of Persepolis ai"e of much 
posterior antiquity ; and if any credit can be given to fair unprejudiced enquiry 
into the very interesting monument of Stonehenge, I should not hesitate declaring, 
in the face of that ridicule too often attached by levity to these abstrase 
enquiries, that the gold rehc in question may be honestly applied as the para- 
phernalia of a 'priest or priestess of the Mithraic order. The names of 
some of our British kings imply their connection with the priesthood. 
Belinus, for example, and I believe Ctesar or Dio, I forget where, speaks 
of Deoratucus as one also ; and as the ban-ows surrounding Stonehenge must 
have a reference or connection to that very antient and interesting pile, and which 
can by no means be applied to promiscuous interment of a people, who have 
perished by the common course of mortality, they ought, therefore, to be con- 
sidered as of a peculiar and distinct order. I am still on the Mithraic gold relic. 
It certainly belonged to a priestess or prophetess, to whom the study of future 
events was allotted. ' Euphages vero scrutantes, seriem et sublimia naturae pandere 
conabantur' (Ammianus Marcellinus). Also Diodorus Siculus mentions them. 
Strabo also. See Tacitus on the Custom of the German Nations. Genana, a 
Celtic virgin, was worshipped as a goddess next in rank or honour to their cele- 
brated Valeda. I should be obliged to Mr. Tinney for his reference from Diodorus 
Siculus to the temple in the Western Islands. I have him not, though I once 
had, as also Stukeley's Avebury and Stonehenge which I parted with to White, 
thinking that I had no farther use for him, which I now lament, wishing to 
compare notes. It was a great pity this antiquary, who had a famous mind for 
research, did not confine himself more to analogy and the spade than excursions 
of fancy. I think D'Hankeville ' Sur les Arts and les Sciences ' is the hest book 
to be consulted for the Mithraic Bull, where the coincidence will be found between 
these types of creation in the antient mythology of all the nations of the East. 
I cannot further expand for the present ; Maurice will also produce a good col- 
lection on the subject. Does Sir Eichard Hoare mean to go farther than the 
description of Stonehenge ? if not, I will take it up in a brochure with a few 
engravings which I have ; had I visited the spot a few years ago, I should have 
found great help for my ' Nsenia,' which I should have arranged in a difEerent 


By the Rev. Canon J. E. Jackson, F.S.A. 

SEVERAL short notices of Edingdon ' have already, from 
jM time to time, appeared in print, but the grand old Church, 
so well known to architects as " the earliest authenticated example 
of the Transition from the Decorated to the Perpendicular Style, 
and as such the more valuable from its date being known," ^ deserves 
— what it has not yet obtained — a volume to itself, and one that 
should be rich in illustration. In the meanwhile, the following 
paper pretends only to make a little contribution of some details re- 
lating principally to the Monastic establishment connected with the 
Church, which have not yet been published, and are culled chiefly 
from the well-preserved register of Edingdon, forming Lansdowne 
MS., No, 442, in the British Museum. ^ 

The earliest fact in the history of this place is that when King 
Edgar in A.D. 968 founded Romsey Abbey, in Hampshire, he be- 
stowed " Edyngdon " upon " the Holy Church of God at Romesey 
for the use of the Nuns dwelling there. ■'^ It is not now quite clear 

' The name is spelled Eding«?o» (or Edyngdon), almost invariably in the oldest 
records, and not Eding^oM. 

2 J. H. Parker. 

* The register is very fairly written on vellum, in the fourteenth and fifteenth 
centuries, 458 pages, the rubric headings very bright. It contains a great number 
of documents and title deeds of the various estates of the monastery, many of 
which also relate to the Abbey of Eomsey, Hants. An alphabetical list of the con- 
tents is printed in Dugdale's New Monasticon, vol. vi., p. 535 : where also are 
given all the references to be found in Tanner's Notitia Monastica, and to the 
Public Records. In the Record Ofiice are documents of the reigns from Edward 
II. to Henry VIII. Of the latter, a rental of Edingdon and Tynhide, 3 Henry 
VIII., of Coleshill, 11 Hen. VIII., fragments of steward's accounts of Coleshill, and 
leaves from a manor court book of Edingdon, 1 to 8 Hen. VIII. Other general 
descriptions of Edingdon are to be found in Britton's Beauties of Wilts, vol. iii., 
p. 363 : The Gentleman's Magazine, a paper by the late J. G. Nichols, with print of 
the remains of the monastei-y : and another by the late Rev. Arthur Fane, Vicar 
of Warminster, in Wilts Archceological Magazine, vol. iii., 1. 

242 Edingdon Monastery. 

how much the gift exactly comprised. The parish includes Edington 
proper and the tithings of Tynhide [vulgb Tinhead), Baynton, and 
West Coulston. The King^s gift probably carried almost the whole : 
because in the Domesday Survey we find that, with the exception 
of one small estate then held by one Hervey, of Wilton, under the 
Crown, two-thirds of the rest of Edingdon stood in the Abbesses own 
name, and the remaining one-third in the names of military men 
who held under her. Some one now resident in that district, familiar 
with local names, may perhaps be able to identify the extent of 
Edgar's gift, from the " boundary marks of Edyndon," as specified 
in the King's charter : — 

" From jVIilbourne springs to the Ford : to Lechmere : to Cram-mere : to 
Worseles-down : along Milbourne to Eodenditcli : to Rendburne : to Herway : 
to Moderan-cumbe : to Inman-dene [or dune] : to Rede-ston : to Bedelus-birge : 
to Ageles-ham : to Lustborn : to Hillyng-estrowe : to Hize-don : to Ruzebury : 
to Pudetan-stone : and so back to Milbourn springs." 

After the notice in the Domesday Survey, A.D. 1085, little or 
nothing is met with, until the Nonarum Inquisitio, A.D. 1341, 
In that return a principal land-owner under Romsey Abbey is a 
" John de Edyngdon " : and the abbess is called " Rector." 
The ancient ecclesiastical history of the place is three-fold. 

1. A Rectory Prebend. 

2. A Collegiate Church. 

3. A Monastery. 

1. — Edingdon, A Rectory Prebend of Romsey Abbey. 

Tor centuries the Abbess of Romsey had been patroness of the 
living, a Rectory : but the Rector, instead of being a resident 
parochial minister, was a Canon or " Prebendary of Edingdon," in 
the Church of Romsey, who left all local duties to be discharged by 
a vicar. In 1 338 the abbess nominated to the prebendal rectory for 
the last time : as, a few years afterwards, a great change in the 
Church affairs of Edingdon took place, through the interest of an 
eminent native of the place, William of Edingdon, appointed 
Bishop of Winchester in 1345 (19 Ed. III.). 

That he was born, about A.D. 1300, of a family who lived here 

Bp the Rev. Canon J. E. Jackson, F.S.A. 243 

is distinctly stated in his great Foundation deed : " de qua villa 
traxit originem" (from which place he derived his bii'th).^ There 
is a tradition that he began life only as a poor boy, and that having 
no surname, he adopted for one the name of his native parish. It 
was a very common custom, especially in that century, for ecclesiastics 
to be called after their birth-place. Out of the first hundred names 
in the " Wiltshire Institutions " (which is a transcript from the 
Diocesan registers of Salisbury), between the years 1397 — 1301, no 
less than eighty are designated, chiefly after Wiltshire towns or 
villages, as William de Lavington, Adam de Cumbe, Richard de 
Cannings, &c. It was also the case that established surnames were 
sometimes capriciously relinquished in favour of names descriptive 
of residence, as conveying a notion of greater importance.^ If 
William of Edingdon really had been the "poor boy '^ of the tradition, 
so much the more honour both to himself and the times in which he 
lived : and if he was an anonymous poor boy, what better could he 
do than barrow the name of his birth-place? But there is good 
reason for believing the tradition of his very humble origin to be 
inaccurate. One of the deeds in the Edingdon chartulary certainly 
mentions without any surname both his father and mother, " Roger 
and Avise," and "his brother John." But this brother John is 
shewn by the evidence of documents (as will appear presently) to 
have been a knight, and moreover, the very person mentioned 
above as a large landowner holding under Ramsey Abbey, in the 
Manor of Edingdon. This knight was succeeded in ISSJ by a 
son of the same Christian name, also a knight, and nephew to 
William, then Bishop. So that, instead of being a penniless 
lad, the Bishop seems to have begun life as the younger son in a 
good established family, whose name was the same as that of their 
parish. Further, it will be shewn, by the aid of documents, that a 
very large part of the estate with which, when Bishop, he endowed 
the Monastery, was the identical land held by his brother, the elder- 

* Dugdale, New Monasticon, vol. vi., 536. See infi-a, p. 252. 
^ Frost (History of Kingston on Hull, Co. York, p. 16, )iote) mentions one 
James, son of Adam and Agnes Helleward, who jpreferred to go thi'ough the 
world as " James de Kingston." 

244 Edingdon Monastery. 

Sir John, under Roinsey Abbey : which (by some arrangement) 
the Bishop ultimately obtained for the perpetual maintenance of a 
House of Religion } 

After education at Oxford, "William de Edyndon became Rector 
of Cottingham, and afterwards of Dallington, both in Co. North- 
ampton. The latter he exchanged in 1322 for the Rectory of 
Middleton Cheney, near Banbury.^ He was also Prebendary of 
Leighton Manor, Dioc. Lincoln : Dean of Westbury-on-Trym, Co. 
Gloucester : and (if it was not another person of the same name) 
he was also appointed by Alicia la Rous to the Chapelry of St. Ed- 
mund, Imber, and was a Prebendary of Netheravon, in the Church 

' We have also the names of others, no doubt his kindrtd. John de Edingdou, 
Prebendary of Romsey, and of Faringdon, A.D. 1351, and Thomas de Edingdon, 
Prebendary of Chute, A.D. 1350, both in the Church of " Sarisbury." (See Jones's 
Fasti Sarisb.) 

The armorial beaiings attributed to the bishop do not assist much in identifying 
any distinct family name : there being (according to Bedford's Blazon of Epis- 
copacy) no less than three different coats among which to chuse : — 

1. Lozengy [?] on a cross engrailed Jive cinquefoils. Seal, MS., Ashmole, 

2. Three bars icavy. Gatehouse at Esher palace, and MS., Brit. Mus. 
Add., 12443. 

3. Azure, two lioncels passant O., in a hordure A. Sari. MS. 6100, and 
MS., Brit. Mus. Add. 12443, fol, 130. 

Francis Thynne, the Herald, in a MS. at Longleat, draws this last coat, with 
a border Gules, and the lioncels passant gardant : impaled with the See of Win- 

The bishop's " secretum," or private seal, among the archives at Winchester,' is 
said to exhibit "a cross engrailed with five mullets pierced." 

In the Wilts Archceological Magazine, vol. i., p. 186, Note, it was stated by 
the present writer, in the notes upon Leland's Tour in Wilts, that there was some 
reason for believing William of Edyngdon's family name to have been Cheney ; 
principally on the authority of a manuscript in the Ashmolean Library : but 
upon subsequent inspection of that document this appeared to be incorrect. Of 
the coats of arms variously attributed to him (as just described) not one in any 
way resembles those of Cheney of Co. Wilts, which were, " A Fess lozengy, each 
charged with an escallop, as may be seen in Edingdon Church). But though not 
of their blood, it is clear from many circumstances that the Cheney family is to 
be reckoned among his jirincipal coadjutors and patrons. They resided at Brook 
House, in the parish of Westbury. 

- In 1329 (3 Ed. III.) John, son of Eoger Enok sold to William of Edingdon, 
Eector of the Church of IMiddleton juxta Bannebiri all his tenement in North- 
mead, and an acre lying by the road from Tenhide to Sweltenham (Edingdon 

By the Bev. Canon J. E. Jackson, F.S.A. 245 

of Salisbury. His patron seems to have been Adam de Orleton/ 
Bishop of Winchester, who in 1335 promoted him to the valuable 
Rectory of Cheriton/ in Hampshire (to which it was his own fortune 
afterwards to present a relative — John de Edindon — in 1347).' 

On the death of Bishop Adam de Orleton (William Devenish 
having been at first named as his successor, but set aside by the 
Pope), William de Edjaigdon was, by Royal favour, nominated to the 

' Adam de Orleton, Bishop, first of Hereford, then of Worcester, finally of 
Winchester, is su|jposed to have been, by a sermon preached at Oxford, instru- 
mental in Sealing the fate of King Edward II. He is also said to have been the 
author of the ambiguous Latin sentence, " Edwardum occidere nolite timers 
bonum est " : wliich, according to the way in which it is punctuated, either 
recommends or forbids the murder of that king. Some one (probably Thomas 
Fuller) translated it : — - 

" To shed King Edward's blood 
Refuse to fear I count it good." 

A comma after " refuse," dissuades from the murder : after " fear," recommends 

A similar mis-punctuation may, by the way, be mentioned, occurring in 
Villani's Hist, of Italy. One Proveuzano Salvani of Sienna was told by an 
enigmatical spirit, before an engagement : — " Thou shalt go fight conquer not die 
in the battle and thy head shall be highest in the camp." Putting a comma 
after "conquer," he read it: — " Thou shalt go, fight, conquer, not die," &c. ; but 
putting it after " not," he went, was killed, and his head cut ofE and carried 
through the camp (Gary's Dante, II., Notes, canto si.). 

2 In 14 Ed. III., A.D. 1340, " Wm. de Edindon, Parson of the Church of 
Cherytou purchased 4 messuages, 65 acres of arable and 29 of pasture in Westbury 
and Muleborne from Thos. Bracton (Add. MS., 24831, f. 14, and Hoare's West- 
bury, p. 79.) 

^ This John of Edingdon is most likely the same who was Master of St. Cross 
Hospital, near Winchester, 18th April, 1349, and Rector of Farnham, 1366, On 
30th June, 1368, he was cited to appear in the Bishop's Court on a complaint 
brought against him by the parishioners of Fernham, for having embezzled the 
materials purchased by his predecessor, Archdeacon Inge, for re-building the 
chancel of Fernham Chnrch. He was again cited (in March following, and once 
more on 6th November, 1369), for neglecting to proceed with the repairs : being 
charged also with having received from Bishop Edingdon the money bequeathed 
by Archdeacon Inge for that pui-pose. A John of Edingdon was installed. 
Prebendary of Chamberlain Wood, in the Church of St. Paul, 20th October, 1366, 
and Eector of Woodham Ferrers, in Essex, 26th April, 1393. They were probably 
all one and the same person, viz., the Archdeacon, who enjoyed this dignity iip- 
wards of thirty years, and died at length in 1397. (Manning and Bray, Hist 
of Sui-rey.) 

246 Edingdon Monastery. 

see o£ Winchester. The Papal bull confirming the appointment is 
dated at Avignon, 9th December, 1345.^ 

On Friday in Easter Week following he appears as Lord Treasurer 
of England amongst the grandees present in the Archbishop^s 
chamber at Lambeth, to receive the homage of Edward the Third^s 
son-in-law, John de Montford, Duke of Brittany.* When the King 
was projecting one of his expeditions to France, he appointed his 
son Lionel to be guardian of the realm ; Bishop Ediugdon and the 
other chief officers of State to be his advisers. The Treasurer's 
principal business was to raise money for the enterprise : a difficult 
operation, in which one of his predecessors — Archbishop Stratford — • 
had been very unsuccessful; the King's exti'avagance baffling the 
utmost exertions of his financiers. " During Bishop Edington's 
management of that office," says Fuller,^ " he caused new coins, 
unknown before, to be made, groats and half groats, both readier 
for change and fitter for charity. But the worst was [" imminuto 
nonnihil joondere"'\ the weight somewhat abated. If any say 
that this was an unepiscopal act, know he did it not as Bishop but 
as Lord Treasurer, the King, his master, having all the profit thereby. 
Yea, succeeding Princes following this pattern have subdiminished 
their coin ever since. Hence it is that our Nobility cannot maintain 
the port of their ancestors with the same revenues ; because so many 
pounds are not so many pounds, though the same in noise and 
number, not the same in intrinsical valuation." The diminution of 
weight whilst the value was increased was a plausible but dangerous 
experiment, which is said to have deranged the price of commodities 
for a long time afterwards. 

Bishop Edingdon, like his successor, Wykeham, whom he or- 
dained, was a great builder. An able judge in these matters pro- 
nounced that the Church at Middleton Cheney was built in his 
time, and a late rector of that parish, the Venerable Archdeacon 
Churton, used to please himself with thinking that the beautiful 
east window and curious porch of his Church were early specimens 

* Foedera, p. 64. 

3 Fcedera, p. 38. 

3 Worthies of Wilts. 

By the Rev. Canon J. E. Jackson, F.S.A. Si47 

of the ingenuity and taste of Bishop Edingdon. The Chapel of St. 
Stephen, Westminster, was re-built and made collegiate in 1347 by 
King Edward III., who probably availed himself of the Bishop's 
skill in constructing it, as he did so in framing a code of regulations 
for that establishment; Bishop Edingdon being named as " Conditor 
Statutorum ■" (compiler of the statutes) in the register of St. 
Stephen's, still extant.^ 

Contemporary with that Royal foundation in its renovated state, 
and not unlike it in form, was the Institution, by which the Bishop 
proceeded to connect his name and memory with his native village. 

2. — Edingdon, a College or Chantry of Priests under a 
Warden: for seven years, A.D. 1351 — 1358. 

The Bishop carried his first plan into execution in A.D. 1351. 
The parish being large and populous, and the Prebendary Rector 
of Edyngdon being generally absent, the Bishop's object was 
to make the property of the Church more directly and continually 
available in future, for the immediate benefit of the parish. Three 
priests were appointed to reside, and were endowed; one, as Custos 
or Warden, superior to the other two, who, as chaplains, were to 
serve a chantry for the special good of the founder's soul, and as 
curates, to minister generally to the parishioners. The number to 
be increased as additional endowment should be obtained. To carry 
out this plan the prebend was for the time filled up by a " Master 
John of Edyngdon, Clerk" (probably some near relative), and then 
(in 1351) leave was obtained from the Bishop of Sarum to appropriate 
the Church and advowson of the prebend with the Chapel of North 
Bradley annexed, and a messuage and 2 acres. Three more priests 
were then added, making a total of six. The warden was to con- 
tinue to hold the rank of Canon of Romsey. Master John of 
Edingdon then resigned, and Walter Scarlett was inducted as first 
Warden or Custos. The title adopted by the new establishment 
was the same as that of the parish Church : " The B. V. Mary, St. 
Katharine and All Saints." 

' Baker's Northamptonshire, i., 653. 

248 Edingdon Monastery. 

The whole scheme is set forth in a deed preserved in the chartulary 
of Edingdon. The Bishop of Winchester petitioned the Bishop of 
Sarum, who in turn addresses the Pope. Innocent VI. confirms 
the request, by a bull dated at Avignon, three years afterwards, 
10th May, 1354. 

After reciting the particulars just mentioned, the document goes 
on to say that the founder was to present during his life : after his 
death the Wardens were to be collated by the Bishop of Sarum, 
within two months after a vacancy : or in case of lapse, the pre- 
sentation to be by the Chapter of Sarum : in case of omission, by 
the Archbishop of Canterbury. Immediately after induction, the 
Custos to take corporal oath that he would continually reside at 
Edingdon and personally minister in the Church. Two chaplains 
to dwell with him, and to be maintained out of the revenue of a 
chantry to which they should be attached : each of them to have 
40«. a year beside a robe at Christmas, or a mark of silver instead. 
The Custos to have a stipend of 4 marks of silver and one robe, or 
20«. An inventory of goods to be taken every year and laid before 
the Founder during his life ; after his death, before the Diocesan. 
The Custos and two chaplains to live in a house provided for them 
in Edingdon. The rest of the priests in another, all within the same 
manse ; and to eat together. The Custos to find a competent clerk 
to wait upon the chaplains at mass and in their chambers : also to 
provide them with good surplices and amices trimmed with dark 
fur ('' honesta superpellicia et almicias nigris pellibus foderatas"), 
to be used in the Church at Edingdon during service, A former 
Prebendary, Gilbert de Middleton, oSicial of the Court of Canter- 
bury, and Archdeacon of Northampton, to be prayed for. Then 
follow long directions about the services, which were always to con- 
clude with " Anima Willielmi Fundatoris nostri et anima Johannis 
germani sui, et animse parentum et benefactorum eorum et nostrorum 
et omnium fidelium defunctorum per Dei misericordiam requies- 
cant in pace " (May the souls of William our Founder, and of John 
his brother, of his parents, of all benefactors to them and us, and of 
all the faithful deceased rest in peace). The sanje also to be said 
daily after grace at table. The Custos and chaplains not to have a 

By the Ttev. Canon J. E. Jackson, F.S.A. 249 

common seal. No one but the Gustos to introduce guests into the 
house. Any one who did so to pay 2>cl. sterling for every dinner, 
and 2(;?. for every other meal, the same to be stopped out of his 
allowance. All, and particularly the priests, to avoid excess in 
eating and drinking. All taverns to be avoided : and no visits to 
be made to any houses without leave of the Gustos. The Bishop 
of Sarum's Letters of Request to the Pope, containing these par- 
ticulars were signed by himself, by the Bishop of Winchester, 
John the Prior, and the Ghapter of Winchester, the Abbess and 
Convent of Romsey, John of Edyndon, Ganon of Romsey and Pre- 
bendary of Edyndon, and Walter Scarlett, Gustos of Edyndon, and 
were dated 2(Sth October, 1351. 

In the meantime, between this application to Rome and the 
granting of the Pope^s bull in 1354, the Bishop of Winchester con- 
ceived another and larger design : that of converting his Gollege or 
Ghantry into a Monastery, and building an entirely new Monastic 
Ghurch — the one still existing at Edingdon. 

In this, as well as in his selection of a particular Order of Religious 
men, he was chiefly encouraged, says Leland, by the Black Prince, 
who, having just returned from the winning of Galais and other 
exploits in France, had brought home with him pleasing recollections 
of a certain order of friars whom he had met with, called Bonhommes, 
otBoni-Homines. Of this order there was at that time only one house 
in England, viz., at Ashridge, in Buckinghamshire, Edingdon 
became the second : and besides these there never were any others.^ 

3. — The Monastery. 

In 1352 (26 Ed. III.) the first stone of the Monastery of Augus- 
tines called Bonhommes, was laid on the 3rd July.^ The building 
being likely to occupy some years there was at present no change 
in the chaplains; Bishop William meanwhile occupying himself 

' In the Journal of the Archaeological Association, vol. xxxvii., p. 73, it is 
stated that there was a third on College Green, Bristol, now the Mayor's Chapel. 
But there is no mention of this in Tanner's Notitia Monastica. 

^ Leland's Itinerary, vi., p. 48, quoting a book which he saw in Edingdon 
Monastery. See Wilts Arch, Mag., i., 189. 

250 Edingdon Monastery. 

in increasing his means of endowment. For this he appears to 
have made very great exertions : not only by large purchases of 
his own^ but by obtaining assistance from the piously-disposed in 
the neighbourhood. The first step was to enlarge the site, by 
obtaining out of the Abbess of Eorasey's land an addition to the 
churchyard. This deed is given in Madox's Formulare, p. 165 : — 

" July 1352 [26 Ed. III.]. 

"Indenture between the Abbess of Romseye of the one part, and Walter 
Scarlet, Warden of the Chantry in the Prebendal Church of Edyudon newly 
founded by William of Edj-ndon, Bishop of Winchester, and the Chaplains of 
the said Chantry, of the other part : Witnesseth that the Abbess hath given to the 
said Warden, &c., half an acre and 10 perch of ai'able contiguous to the Church 
of Edyndon ; and 1^ acre and 24 perch of meadow contiguous to the Manse or 
Close of the Warden, for its enlargement, in Free Alms, in exchange for Half an 
acre and 10 perch and 1^ acre and 24 perch of meadow in Edj'ndon. Dated at 
Eomeseye in the Chapter House of the Abbess and Convent, Monday before the 
Feast of St. Peter ad Vincula. 26 Edw. III." 

The Eectory of Buckland, near Faringdon, with the Chapel of 
Burcote, annexed. This was purchased by Bishop William of 
Edingdon from Sir Thomas Besils, and then given to the house.' 
Out of this the priory paid 40*. a j^ear to the crown on account of 
the dissolved Priory of Wallingford. At the Dissolution it was 
annexed to the see of Bristol. One of the Buckland deeds in Eding- 
don chartulary, dated Southwerk, 18th June, 1353, states that "the 
number of chaplains being originally three, the Bishop intended to 
add three more as soon as the profits of the Church of Edingdon 
should be received [this had been done] ; and three more as soon 
as those of Buckland Church."" It had now become nine. 

1352. CoTERiDGE. Here and at Southwick, 40*. in rent of land 
that had belonged to the Cheney family, passed into the hands of 
John de Edingdon, Kt., and through him to the bishop's foundation: 
and at the same time the mills at Sweltenham (or Swetnam) . 

A.D. 1354. Edingdon Prebendal Rectory. The appropriation 
of this, lately granted to the bishop for his chantry, was now con- 
firmed to him for his monastery. He reserved to himself for life 
the right of appointing the superior or Rector of the new priory, as 

' Dr. Eawlinson's Collections : quoted in Lysons's Berks, p. 253. 

By the Rev. Canon J. E. Jackson, F.S.A. 251 

well as of nominating to any Churches or Chapels belonging to it. 
After his death the patronage to be exercised by the Bonhommes 
themselves. In 13G5, after the Founder's death, the appropriation 
and possession of Edingdon Prebend was contested by one Thomas 
Duncklentj clerk. Rector of Tredyngton, Cornwall : but ineffectually 
(Eding. Cartulary). 

North Bradley. The Church of St. Nicholas of North Bradley 
having been heretofore annexed to Ediugdon Prebend, its land and 
tithes became henceforth impropriate to the house of Bonhommes. 
The Rector of Edingdon Bonhommes continued to present to the 
Chapelry or Vicarage of North Bradley from about 1351 to 1543, 
when the Crown became patron by seizure. In 1545 John Owen, 
Esq., then lord of the manor of South wick (in North Bradley), was 
patron, probably only for the turn. In 1562, and since, Winchester 

Some years ago there was still to be seen on glass in the east 
window of North Bradley Church, the arms, A cross charged with 
five roses, for the coat of Edingdon Monastery : the same as appears 
in stone on Bishop Edingdon's work in Winchester Cathedral. There 
was also at Bradley the name of " Thomas Elme,'^ Rector of Eding- 
don Monastery, 1433 — 1450, in one of the south aisle windows: 
showing perhaps the date either of the re-building or embellishment 
of that Church. 

Some land at Ditchridge, near Box, was given, probably by the 
bishop''s patrons, the Cheney family. 

1354. Steeple, i.e., Staple, or Market, or East Lavington. 
About this time Bishop William impropriated the Advowson, with 
the Chapel of Gore, dependent upon it, to his monastery, which 
continued to present to it till the Dissolution. One of the deeds in 
the chartulary states that in 1368 (42 Ed. III.) the Bonhommes of 
Edingdon purchased the Manor from Robert Forestall. They held 
it of the Crown in capHe, charged with 20^. a year to Devizes Castle, 

' The Crown had taken North Bradley fi-om the college, by exchange for Enf ord, 
in 1544 : but by another exchange, in 1 Edward VI., it was again restored to 
the college. North Bradley Church was charged with the payment of 12*. a year 
to the Vicar of Steeple Ashton. 

252 Edingdon Monasieri/. 

bs. a year to the Preceptoiy of Hospitallers at Ansty, in South 
Wilts, and £9 65. ?)d. a year to the Chapel of St. Katharine, of 
Wanborough, Co. Wilts, to which the monastery presented. After 
the Dissolution the payment last mentioned was made to Magdalen 
College, Oxford. The Bonhommes had the whole Rectory of Market 
Lavington, including Easterton. After the Dissolution the Rectory 
of Market Lavington proper and the presentation to the vicarage 
were given to Christ Church College, Oxford. The Easterton tithes 
were shared by many owners. 

From the same Robert Forestall the bishop purchased some land 
at Coulston and Seend (I. p. M., 41 Edw. III.). 

1358. March 29th. The consent of the Bishop and Dean and 
Chapter of Sarum to the Commutation into a Monastery is embodied 
in a Latin charter of Foundation (printed in the New Monasticon^ 
vol. vi.), of which the following is a translation : — 
" 1358. 29 March. 

" To all, &c., Robert L^y^iH] by Divine permission, Bishop of Salisbury, 
greeting in the Saviour of all. 

"Under the holy sanction both of tlie law of the land and of the rales of the Church 
Religious foundations, though in their origin wise and wholesome, and formed 
after much wakeful consideration, have been sometimes changed with a view to 
improvement. And whereas some years ago the Reverend Father in Christ, 
William, by the grace of God, Bishop of Winchester, thoughtful of his own 
salvation, and desirous to make a blessed exchange of things earthly and transitory 
for things heavenly and eternal, founded in the Pai'ish Church of Edingdon, in 
the diocese of Sarum, the village whence he derived his birth, a perpetual chantry 
of certain secular chaplains, for the health of his own soul, those of his pai'ents 
and others of the faith, for the praise and worship of God, and in honour of the 
Blessed Vii-gin Mary, St. Katharine and All Saints, under which title the said 
Church had been dedicated : and did further endow the same sufficiently for 
maintenance of the said chaplains and other things necessary for the said chantry. 

" But afterwards carefully reflecting that though whilst leading a secular life, 
men might, under Divine grace, very well discharge their duties, blot out sins 
and render a good account of the talent entrusted to them ; still, they have more 
undisturbed leisure for these duties, when, despising honours, and withdrawn 
from those worldly distractions that disturb contemplation, they prefer to seek a 
heavenly country by submitting their own will to the power of another, to live 
according to the observances of holy rule and to serve the Lord continually. He 
[the said William] has long since desired aud still earnestly desires that the 
chantry and secular society [" ecclesia "] united with it may be elevated into a 
Religious House : wherein may be settled in (as it is hoped) the per]:>etual service 
of God and his most blessed Virgin Mother, Brethren of the Order of St. Au- 
gustine, commonly called Boni Homines, by whom as by vigilant husbandmen, a 

By the Bev. Canon J. E. Jackson, F.S.A. 253 

gai'den of healthful plants may be watered and, by the help of the Lord, produce 
rich and ripe fruits, flourisliing in the House of God. We, therefore, approving 
this pious intention, with consent of our Chapter of Sarisbury and all concerned, 
decree that the said chantry and secular Church shall be elevated into a House of 
Religion, &c." 

1358 (32 Ed. III.) . 5th April. The Warden and secular chantry 
priests still held their places, as in this year Walter of Sevenhampton 
was appointed Warden by Bishop Edingdon. He was probably soon 
pensioned off, or may have taken the office only pro temp., having 
declared not to become a monk : for ten months afterwards the 
bishop's arrangement for the new monastery was so far completed 
as to admit of the 

First Tonsure of the Brethren, 16th September, 1358. The 
meaning of the cei'emony was, that instead of being secular chap- 
lains, unfettered by monastic rule and vow, they now became 
subject to both. 

The "Dean'' (says Leland, meaning the Warden), Walter of 
Sevenhampton, was the only one who declined to become a Bon- 
horame. The title of Warden was now dropped, and the superiors 
of the new monastery became " Rectors." The first was John of 
Ailesbury, a brother from the house at Ashridge, Co. Bucks. His 
license to assume the Rectorship of Edingdon had been granted by 
the Bishop of Lincoln in December, 1357. A second license was 
necessary from the Rector and Convent of Ashridge to enable him 
to leave that society. He was instituted to Edingdon Monastery by 
deed of Robert Wyvill, Bishop of Sarum, dated Maiden Bradley, 
12th April, and was inducted 14th April 1358. 

Thomas Fuller has (as usual) some facetious remarks upon the 
class of Augustines who were called bj- the peculiar name of Bon- 
hommes. "The Boushommes or Good-men, being also Eremites, 
were brought over into England by Richard, Earl of Cornwall, in the 
reign of King Henry III., his brother : so styled (not exclusively 
of other orders) but eminently because of their signal goodness. 
Otherwise the conceit of the epigrammatist [John Owen], admiring 
that amongst so many Popes there should be but five Pious, lies 
as strongly here; that amongst so many orders of Fryers there should 

VOL. XX. NO. LX. s 

254 Edingdon Monastery. 

be but one of Good-men These Bonshommes tho' begging 

Fryars [tbe poorest of orders] , and eremites, the most sequestered of 
begging Fryars, had two (and I believe no more) convents in England, 
absolutely the richest in all the land (monks only excepted), the one 
at Ashridge in Bucks (now the mansion of the truly Honble. the 
Earl of Bridgewater, where I am informed more of a monastery is 
visible this day then in any other House of England. It was valued 
at the Dissolution at £447 8«. &\d. The other at Edington in 
Wiltshire (now [1662] known for the hospitality of the Lady 
Beauchampe dwelling therein), valued when dissolved at £521 12*. 
It seems that these Fryars tho' pretending to have nothing, nee in 
propria nee in communi, would not cast their caps (I should say 
their cowls) at rich revenues if bestowed upon them, but contentedly 
(not to say cheerfully) embrace the same/' ' 

The Rector was by custom entitled to sit in the Convocation of 
the Province of Canterbury.^ 

A deed in the chartulary, headed " Transmutatio Cantariae de 
Edyndon,'' gives the full scheme of the Bishop's Foundation. The 
following is the substance of the more important part. It runs in 
the name of Robert (Wyvill), Bishop of Sarum, and is dated at 
Salisbury, 29th March, 1358: — The oflBce to be said according to 
the Use of Sarum, daily and nightly. The brethren to attend the 
Chapter House every day ; thence to mass. Then follow details of 
the services, striking [pulsatio) of bells, &c. All to attend, unless 
occupied out of doors. During a vacancy of the Rector, the house 
to be governed by a deputy called the Cor-rector. The qualifications 
for becoming a brother of the house are that the candidate shall be 

1 Fuller's Church History, Bk. vi., sect, i., art 24, 25. As the title of a sect 
of grave religious men, this French name of course could not he intended to 
convey the modern meaning of the French word, "easy good-natured men," 
hut that of "doers of good works." There was an Oriental order of monks, 
on Mount Sinai and elsewhere, called Caloyers, or Kalories, a name of similar 
kind, which some have fancied to he derived from, and to he a corruption of, 
the Greek KaXXt'epyoi, operum bonorum artifices (doers of good works). (See 
Pegge's Anonymiana, cent, xii., 93). 

In Todd's History of Ashridge is an account of the peculiarities of the Order of 

2 Body's Hist, of EngUsh Councils, 1701, p. 6. 

Bi/ the Bcv. Canon J. E. Jackson, F.S.A. 255 

of good character, competently learned, under no kind of bondage 
of debt or service, unmarried, and suffering from no incurable malady. 
When they desire admittance, and it has been granted, they are to 
be introduced into the Chapter, and on being asked what their object 
is ("quid petant? "), they are to prostrate themselves on the ground 
and reply " The mercy of God and truth/' The Rector is then to 
say, " Rise," and he is to explain to them the rigorous observances 
required of Religious men. On answering that they are ready to 
keep these, they are further to be asked, whether any of the im- 
pediments before-mentioned exist ? If there is none, a year of 
probation is to be assigned. They are to assume the dress : when 
dressed to be taken into the choir, " Veui Creator " to be chanted, 
they being prostrate before the altar. Then " Kyrie Eleison," 
" Salvos fac servos," " Dominus vobiseura," &c. When the year of 
probation is over, they are to be asked whether they will live ac- 
cording to the rule of St. Augustine and the institutions of the 
house? If so, their profession to be made in this manner : — I, A.B., 
vow and make profession, and promise obedience to God, the B. V. 
Mary, and to thee, CD., Rector of Edyndon, according to the rule 
of Augustine and the institutions of the Boni Homines of this place : 
and I will be obedient to thee and thy successors, even to death.^' 
Whilst saying these words, the candidate is to hold his hands between 
the Rector's. Then the dress, at least the tunic and scapular, to be 
consecrated after the following form : *' O God, who didst vouchsafe 
to take upon Thee the garb of our mortal nature, grant we beseech 
thee that these garments appointed for our use by our Holy Fathers 
in token of holiness and innocence, may by our hands be so blessed, 
that he who wears them may be meet to behold Thee, through Jesus 
Christ our Lord. Amen." Twice a year the Rector to produce his ac- 
counts before the four senior brethren. In theChurch duringchanting, 
in the dormitory during sleeping, and in the refectory during eating, 
silence to be observed. The brethren to avoid disputation. At all 
times, especially in conversing with the scholars,' to use the languao-e 

' No account has been met with of the " Scholars," but it would seem from the 
phrase that young people of the parish, or perhaps boarders from a distance, did 
come to the Monastery for instruction. 

8 % 

256 Edingdon Monastery. 

of modesty. The Rector to be vigilant over the flock committed to his 
care: the brethren not to be vagabond and idle, but diligently occupied 
in good works. From Easter to the Feast of the Exaltation of the 
Holy Cross {14th Sept. )ja short sleep to be allowed after dinner. After 
the sleep, regular chanting, except on fast days. Then in chapter 
everyone to confess any open irregularity and do voluntary penance. 
If he neglect, the Cor-rector to punish him. After the punishment, 
prayers for benefactors and the departed : then certain special prayers 
for the founder, the King, the Bishop of Winchester, the Bishop of 
Sarum, John de Edyndon, the founder's brother : also for Adam de 
Orleton, late Bishop of Winchester, and Gilbert de Middleton,' 
Archdeacon of Northampton. When a brother dies the chapter 
bell to be struck [pulseiur] : the brethren to go to the infirmary and 
minister to any sick : the body to be washed and wrapped in its 
habit : then to be watched by half the quire before matins, and the 
other half after matins. The funeral on the following day. When 
the founder dies, his Obit and that of his father, mother, and brother 
to be observed with all due solemnity. 

The number of brethren, clerks, and priests in the house to be as 
many as the revenues will support without difficulty. No corrodies 
to be charged upon the monastery. All the brethren to wear grey 
tunics (tunicas griseas) with scapulars of the same shorter than the 
tunic, and with hoods of competent size. Also to have cloaks of 
the same colour down to their feet. The Rector and brethren to 
have decent large round capes of grey when they go any distance : 

' He had been Prebendary Rector before the change to Warden and Chantry. 
The place from which he took his surname was probably Middleton Cheney, near 
Banbury, Co. Oxon : with which the AVestbury families of Pavelej' and Cheney 
were connected. In the Calendar of Patent Rolls, is a notice of his being in 
danger of deprivation of his estates as a rebel ; and he had a good deal to lose: 
for in " Fasti Eccles. Sarisb. " Canon W. H. Jones says " Gilbert of Mid- 
dleton was well endowed with prebends, holding them, at one and the same 
time, at St. Paul's, Lincoln, Sarum, Chichester, and Hereford. In 1312 he was 
' Firmarius ' of the Church of Bradford (on Avon), under the Abbess of Shaston. 
In 1321 the King granted him that he should not be disturbed in any of his 
benefices." Well-endowed Prebendaries not being generally of a turbulent or 
rebellious temperament, one is curious to kaow something more of the disloyal 
doings of this singular plural man. 

By the Rev. Canon J. E. Jackson, F.S.A. 257 

to wear linen next the body, except on the nether limbs : all to sleep 
in garments of wool or hemp (laneA, seu starainea). Besides the 
number of brethren above-mentioned, to be two secular priests to 
wait upon the parishioners of the Church in the nave and to look 
after them in distributing sacramentals, &c. " The founder's will 
and mine " (the Bishop of Salisbury's) " is, that the Rector have a 
confessor, a discreet and proper person to be approved by the con- 
vent." The brethren to confess twice every year to the Rector. 

Signed and sealed by the Bishop of Salisbury and the Bishop of 
Winchester, the founder. 

1359. 20th September. King Edward HI. granted a eharteri 
confirming the privileges of the monastery. This document begins 
by an acknowledgment of Bishop Edingdon's long and indefatigable 
labours, and his wisdom and faithfulness in administering the afiairs 
of the whole kingdom. It is dated at Leedes Castle, in Kent, and 
witnessed by Simon (Islip), Archbishop of Canterbury, W. Wynton 
(the founder). Chancellor, John (de Shepey), Bishop of Rochester, 
Treasurer; Henry, Duke of Lancaster, William de Bohun, Earl of 
Northampton, Ralph Mortimer, Earl of March, Henry de Percy, 
John de Grey de Codnore, and Guido de Bryan, Seneschal of the 

The same year was granted a license from the Crown to erenellate 
(embattle) the manse of Edingdon Priory, and enclose it with a 
wall of lime and mortar, on petition of the founder : also to enlarge 
the house and cemeterj^ : and to have a way between the house and 
the church. An agreement about this, made between the Abbess 
of Romsey and the Rector of Edingdon Monastery, is signed by 
John de Edingdon, Sen., and John de Edingdon, Jun., the bishop's 
brother and nephew. 

1361. The Priory Church was finished, and consecrated by 
Robert Wyvile, Bishop of Sarum. The day is not named. Leland 
(referring to the book he saw at Edingdon), says (but erroneously) 
that the saints to whom it was dedicated were St. James the Apostle, 
St. Katharine, and All Saints. 

> Harl. MS, 927, and Lans. MS. 442. 

258 Edingdon Monastery. 

The next purchases made by the founder were from Edmund de 
la Beche, Archdeacon of Berks: viz., Alvercote manor, near Burford, 
on which was a charge of 8*. a year to the Earl of Shrewsbury's 
manor of Bampton : Alwaldesbury, from Sir William de Goatacre, 
Kt. : and Westwell (one hundred acres) from John Laundells, 
subject to 20*. a year to the Prior of St. John of Quenington or 
Queenhampton, a preceptory of Knights Hospitallers in Gloucester- 
shire (Val. Eccl. II., 142). 

1361. Sir John de Edingdon, Senior, (Knight) died. The Rector 
and brethren by arrangement succeeded to the lands which he held 
under Romsey Abbey, at Edingdon, Tynhide, Bratton, Coteridge, 
MiLBOURNE, Stoke, and Earlstoke. The Abbess, Isabel Camoys, 
and the Convent of Romsey, granted license to Sir John de Eding- 
don, Junior, Knight, to release them to the monastery, which he did 
in this form : — " I John of Edyndon, Kt., at the request of William 
Bishop of Winton, my uncle, and for the health of the soul of my 
father, have given to John, Rector of Edyngdon, and the convent, 
all my lands in Edyngdon [&c.], to have and to hold for ever in free 
alms.'^ Witnesses, William Fitzwaryn, Philip Fitzwaryu, Knights, 
Nicholas Bouham, John de Roches, Thomas Gore, and others. 
Dated at Edyngdon, 20th February, 36 Ed. III. (Ed. Regis- 

The lands in Edingdon parish thus derived from the founder's 
brother, and belonging thenceforth to the Rector and brethren, were 
for a long time called Edingdon Rectory Lands, to distinguish them 
from such portion of the parish as the Abbess of Romsey continued 
to hold till the Dissolution, and which were called Edingdon Rom- 
sey's. The monastery paid to the Abbess a chief rent of £3 6*. '6d. 
per annum. 

1361. Bishop Edingdon held for the monastery five virgates of 
land at Buckland and Canfield, and Coleshill Manor, all in 
Berks : also lands at Bratton, Highworth, and Esthorp. Re- 
mainder to himself (I. p. M.). 

1361. A patent was granted for the manor and advowson of 
ToRJiARTON, Co. Gloucestershire, purchased by the founder from Sir 
John Philibertj Kt., and for a rent of fourteen marks of silver out 

By the Rev. Canon J. E. Jackson, F.S.A. 259 

of the manor of Kingston Deverel, Co. Wilts, given by John Husee, 
brother and heir of Sir Roger Husee, Kt.' 

Tormarton was subject to 2*. a year to the Prior of Eynsham. 
In 6 H. IV. Sir Thomas Hungerford held some rents there, be- 
longing to Edyndon (I. p. M.). 

1361. John Laundels held for the Rector of Edingdon, Kbny- 
COTE and MuNSTER manors, in Oxon. Remainder to himself (I. p. 

1361. Bishop Edingdon is nominated by the King guardian of 
Joan, eo-heiress of John Pavely, lord of the manor of Westbury 
and of the hamlet of Hefding hill (Bratton).- She afterwards 
married Sir Ralph Cheney, whose name is given to the mortuary 
chapel now standing between the nave and south aisle of Edingdon 

A license from the Crown, dated Westminster, 6th May, was 
granted to enable the monastery to conduct water to the Prior's 
house from a rivulet in the middle of Edingdon village. The same 
for the Abbess of Romsey to a house belonging to her.^ 

1362. 36 Ed. III. The Abbess of Romsey gave the Rector and 
brethren two messuages and one virgate of land, &c., in Edingdon, 
in exchange for others in the same vill (Inq. a.q.d.) . 

1362. West Ilsley. Co. Berks. Some land here called " Pen- 
ley's" held under the Duchy of Lancaster, was given to the monas- 
tery by Sir Richard Penley, who was afterwards buried at Edingdon.* 

• Edingdon Register. The name of " Hussey Deverel " still survives for some 
part of the parish of Kingston Deverel. 

- See this in R. C. Hoare's Hundred of Westbury, p. 59. 

^ About a quarter-of-a-mile from the site of the Priory, and about one hundred 
yards to the right of the road leading from Edington to Bratton, four springs 
burst from the hill-side. From the largest is supplied a copious stream that 
flows through the premises formerly of the Priory, and thence to join other streams 
tributaiy to the Avon. Over the southernmost spring a stone fountain-cell (still 
standing) was built, in the strong and finished style of William of Edyndon. 
The roof is of stone supported by two pointed arches. The conduit-drain, which 
had an arched roof, was destroyed some years ago, and the leaden pipes stolen 
and sold. 

* Leland's Itin. 

260 Edingdon Monastery. 

He was the owner also of Penley's, now Penleaze, near Westbury, 
where Hoke-wood was given to the monastery. 

1363. 37 Ed. III. Some tenements at Conington and Shortes- 
DEN, in Co. , were granted by patent. 

Lands in Escote (Eastcott, in the parish of Urchfont) were, 
purchased by Bishop Edingdon from Henry Rolweston, together 
with the right of presentation to the chapel there. Out of this 
estate, Edingdon Priory paid £3 Is. '6d. a year to Wilton Abbey 
(Val. EccL). There was formerly a chapel at Escote, to which Sir 
Thomas de Ashton had presented down to the year i32/i. Edington 
Monastery presented from about 1358, in which year (though the 
date is not given in the Wilts Institutions) one Thomas de Aylesbury, 
probably a relative of John of Aylesbury, first Rector of the Bon- 
hommes, was nominated. The Bonhommes presented 1405, 14i0 
1426, 1428, 1449. The chapel stood near the high road from 
Easterton to Urchfont : some remains of it are now attached to Mr. 
Drax's farm-house. The Edington Priory estate at Escote was 
purchased at the Dissolution by land-jobbers, Tutt and Hame 
(Hoare^s Warminster, p. 85). 

1363. South Newenton (Newton Valence), Hants. Impro- 
priation of the Church was granted to Edingdon Monastery by 

1363. An Inq. p. m. of this year mentions as property of 
Edingdon Priory, "The Hundred op Wherwellsdown " : and 
services at the Court of Ashton Manor and Boxgree (?) (The manor 
itself of Ashton never belonged either to the Bishop or his Monas- 
tery, but always to the Abbess of Romsey. 

Tynhide (now Tinhead) . The Abbess of Romsey had lands here, 
distinguished afterwards as " Tynhead Romsey's : but there were 
also some lands called Ten Hides, which had belonged to Sir Robert 
Selyman and had been sold by his widow, Maud, to the founder's 
brother. Sir John de Edingdon, Sen. He gave the reversion at his 
death to the founder, for the Rector and Brethren of his Monastery, 
allowing Matilda Selyman, the widow, to hold it during Sir John's 
life. On his death this year (1363) it fell in. It was this portion 
of Tinhead that was afterwards known as " Tinhead Rector's " : not 

By the Rev. Canon J. E. JaeJcson, F.S.A. 261 

because it was glebe of a parochial Rector : but because it belonged 
to the Rector and brethren of the Monastery : and to distinguish it 
fi-om the Abbess of Romsey^s Tinhead, above-mentioned. A house 
and seventeen acres of land in Tynhide was held by the Priory, of 
the Crown in chief by service of a hatchet ; and was called " Hache- 
davey's/' The brethren paid to the Abbess, as lady of the manor, 
£1 '6s. per annum for their " Tynhide Rector's." As both Romsey 
Tynhide and Edington Tynhide were, at the Dissolution, granted 
to one and the same person, Sir Thomas Seymour, and have since 
generally formed one estate, the distinction between " Tynhide 
Romsey's " and " Tynhide Rectoi-'s " is lost. 

Some part of Tynhide belonged in later times to JefFery Whitaker, 
of a Westbury family, originally of Lincolnshire (Hoare''s Westbury, 
42). Tynhide Court, a fine old grange with grand ecclesiastical 
barn, is now destroyed. It was some time the residence of the 
Carpenter family (see Wilts Vis., 1623). 

136B. HiGHwoRTH. From Edingdon Cartulary (p. 147) it ap- 
pears that Laurence de Coleshill grants (for the Monastery) to John 
le Northerne, Vicar of Buckland, in the same county, and Robert 
Gundewyne, a brother of Edington Priory, certain lands and tene- 
ments in Highworth. These in temp. Edw. II., had belonged to 
Matthew Picot ; in 1338 to one Adam the Fisherman (" Pecheur "), 
of La Bataillej then to Richard of Hanningdon, and then to the 
said Laurence de Coleshill. The deed is dated London, and is wit- 
nessed by Sir Thomas de Hungerford, and others. The name of 
" Pechcur " indicates that this may have been at a place called 
Freshdene (now Fresdon) which in the minister's accounts of Eding- 
ton property is described as consisting of a " Firma barcarum,'" a 

Some lands at Esthrop, near Highworth, were given to the Priory 
by Benedicta Mandeville (see " Bratton,'' below) . The Abbess of 
Godstow paid two shillings a year to Edingdon Monastery for some 
land at Esthrop (Val. Eccl., II., 194). At Sevenhampton the 
name of " Friar's Mills " probably refers to the house of Edingdon 
(I P.M.). 

Coleshill, Co. Berks. This was the largest estate belonging to 

26i Edingdon Monastery. 

Edingdon Monastery. It anciently belonged to a family of the 
same name, to whom Claricia, Abbess of Wynton, had granted the 
manor in fee farm at a rent of £10 a year for ever.' In 1350 
Thomas Coleshill sold it to Bishop Edingdon. The Bishop's feoffees, 
Nicholas Carewent, Rector of Crondale, Hants ; John Bleobury, 
Rector of Witney, Oxon ; Walter of Sevenbampton, Rector of 
Alresford, Hants; John Corfe, Rector of CoUingbourne Abbats, 
Wilts; Walter Hey wood, Thomas Hungerford, and Michael Skylling, 
knights, assigned it over to Edingdon Monastery in 1366. Out of 
it was paid to the Hundred of Shriveuham the price of six bushels 
of corn at eightpence a bushel, by the name of " King's corn " : and 
two shillings a year to the Mandatory, or Prior, of St. John, of 
Queenhampton (Quennington), Co. Glouc, chief lord of Burward's- 
cot (Buseot). It was granted at the Dissolution to Sir Thomas 
Seymour, Lord Sudeley. 

Edingdon Monastery had also the rectory and patronage of Coles- 

They also had the Hundred op Shrivenham, and lands at 
Larkeby, Caldecot, and Shellingkord, Co. Berks. 

1364. Bratton. This was held of Devizes Castle, of the King 
in chief, being certain lands late William de Mandeville's, who died 
in 1333. The donor appears to have been Benedicta, widow of Sir 
John Mandeville, heir of Joan, the wife of Nicholas de Bosco att 
Hooke (Hook- wood). 

1365. 39 E. III. Hungerford's Obit founded. Sir Thomas 
Hungerford, then of Heytesbury, afterwards of Farley Castle, 
Bishop Ediugdon's seneschal, and one his executors, by deed dated 

* Edingdon Register, p. 164. 

- Coleshill manor (through au heiress of Pleydell) is now the Earl of Radnor's. 
The present house at Coleshill was built in 1650 by Inigo Jones for Sir Mark 
Pleydell. A window in the Church of the Nativity, at Angiers, was purchased 
by an Earl of Radnor and placed in Coleshill Church (Walpole's Anecdotes of 
Painting, II., 38). 

In the Archaeological Journal, vol. xiv., 268, are some deeds relating to one 
Nicholas de Tyngewick, Incumbent of Reculver in Kent, for whom, being 
physician to King Edward I. in his last illness, the King applied to the Pope for 
a dispensation to hold also the living of " ColeshuU, in the Diocese of Sarum." 

By the Rev. Canon J. E. Jackson, F.S.J. 263 

15th August, founded an Obit at Edingdon Monastery; to be kept 
for himself and Eleanor (Strug) his first wife : his father, Walter, 
and mother, Elizabeth (St. John) : and Sir Robert, his uncle ; on 
the third day after the Eeast o£ the Nativity of the B.V.M. (which 
would be on the 1 1th September) ; with lessons, requiem, &c. 
Every brother of the house to use a special collect upon the occasion. 

His endowment consisted of his lands at Highworth, Easthrop, 
Westhrop and Hampton Turville, Co. Wilts : part of which late 
belonged to Edith, wife of Elias de Mandeville. The total value of 
the lands at these places is stated in the minister's accounts at the 
Dissolution, as £24 a year. 

By a conveyance dated at Edington the same day, being Monday 
after the Feast of the Assumption, Sir Thomas transferred the lands, 
" except a shop called ' Sherer's shop,' •'•' to Thomas Jordan, chaplain, 
and Robert Grundewyae. Witnessed by Robert De la More and 

1365. Lands in Urchfont, Charlton, and Compton appear to 
have been purchased from Michael Skylling and William Werston 
(or Wroughton) (I. p. M.). 

And in Chalfield and Trowbridge, from Philip Pitzwarren and 
Constance, his wife.^ 

Death of Bishop William of Edingdon, the Founder. 

1366. In this year William Edingdon, Bishop of Winchester 
the founder of this Monastery, died, October 7th, and was buried in 
Winchester Cathedral. Here we may continue and conclude the 
notices we have of him. 

In 1349, on the institution of the Order of the Garter, he had 
been appointed the first Prelate or Chancellor, a dignity which con- 
tinues appurtenant to the See of Winchester. His place was at 
the King's right hand at the Feasts of St. George : and upon each 
of these occasions he received the costly present of a set of robes. 
For his mantle no less than six hundred ermine skins were required ; 

^ From the Hungerford Cartulary. 
* Walker's Chalfield, p. 4. See also Inq., p. M., 40 Ed. III. 

264 Edingdon Monastery. 

for the cape, one hundred and forty. i On the 19th February, 1357 
he was made Chancellor of England, on Archbishop Thoresby^s 
resignation. His signature stands first to the Treaty of Britanny, 
by which the King resigned his pretensions to the throne of France. 
In 1362 Edingdon carried through Parliament the statute by which 
the English language was appointed to be used instead of French 
in courts of law, and of Norman French in schools. On the death 
of Simon Islip, Archbishop of Canterbury, he was elected to the 
Metropolitan See, 10th May, 1366, but refused to accept the dignity, 
giving (so runs the tale) as the reason of his refusal, that " Canter- 
bury was the higher rack, but Winchester the better manger.^' In 
the Bishop's antecedent history, however, there is nothing to justify 
the idea that any motive of that kind would have deterred him from 
taking the one remaining step to the summit of ecclesiastical rank. 
It is more consistent with his character to suppose that either in- 
firmity or years had warned him against undertaking any novel 
burden; and that this was the cause becomes more probable from 
the fact that his death took place a few months after the offer had 
been made. 

Towards the latter part of his life he had commenced the re- 
building of Winchester Cathedral. Milner, in his account of that 
building, says, " It is incontestable, from his will, made and signed 
in the year of his decease, that he had actually begun and undertaken 
to finish the re-building of the great nave of the Church, though 
he only lived to execute a small part of it. This consisted of the 
two first windows from the great west window with the corresponding 
buttresses and one pinnacle on the north side; as likewise the first 
window towards the west with the buttress and pinnacle on the 
south side. The stalls of the choir are also said to be his work, and 
his also was the mortuary chapel which bears his name. Within 
the tenth arch at the west end, adjoining to the steps leading to- 
wards the choir [on the south side] , is an ancient chantry, by no 

» See Anstis, Order of the Garter. In 1363 (37 Ed. III.) against the Feast of 
St. George he was allowed for a dress, a cloth of scarlet, a mantel of four hundred 
and fifty-four ermine skins, a "fiirrura," or pelisse, of two hundred and forty- 
four do., another of two hundred and seventy do., and a "capuciiim" requiring 
one hundred and fifty-four do. (Wardrobe Rolls). 

By the Rev. Canon J. E. Jachon, F.S.A. 265 

means to be compared with that o£ Wykeham, hut in the same style 
of architecture. This contains the monument and the figure of his 
predecessor, William of Edingdon, a prelate in his virtues and 
talents only inferior to Wykeham himself/-" For a long time this 
chantry cliapel had been consigned to dust and oblivion, but from 
the disgrace attached to such neglect the authorities are now free. 

In " Britton's Winchester Cathedral '' there is an engraving of 
his effigy, and of his chantry.' The effigy lies on an altar-tomb 
" within a stone open screen. The statue is fine in proportion, and 
has been carefully finished. Its mitre and episcopal costume are 
ornamented with much taste and elegance. The head rests on two 
pillows, supported by two angels having censers. The figure ap- 
pears to have been painted. Round the ledge is a perfect inscription 
with gilt letters on a blue enamelled ground. There is no appear- 
ance of a crosier." 

The epitaph, in jingling leonine verse, and in old English char- 
acter, runs thus : — 

" Edyndon natus — Wilhelmns hie est turaulatus : 
Prsesul praegratus — ; in Wintonia cathedratus. 
Qui pertransitis — ,ejus memorare velitis. 
Providus et mitis — ausit cum mille peritis : 
Pervigil Anglorum — fuit adjutor populorum ; 
Duleis egenorum — pater et protector eorum. 
M. C tribus junctnm — post L. X. V. sit I. punctum. 
Octava sanctum — notat Octobris inunctum." 

" Out of this bombast rhyme ^ we collect this good character, 
that he was a vigilant Helper of the People, a Father and Protector 
of the Poor, a Bishop well beloved, and a religious and devout man ■'■' 
(Cox's Magna Brit.) . He is said by a contemporary writer to have 
deserved the title bestowed on him in his epitaph, of father and 
protector of the poor, having given chiefly to them in his lifetime 
nearly all that he had. 

He was Bishop of Winchester twenty-one years. His chantry 

* Plate XXV., Letter A., and page 117. 
^ For the credit of Winchester Latinity, the reader must be reminded that as 
Bishop William of Edyngdon was the predecessor of William of Wykeham, this 
specimen of Latin verse must be considered as Prse-Wykehamite. 

266 "EdingHon 'Monasfery. 

there was maintained by the rents of Oxenbridge farm (Val. Eccl.). 
Prayers for his soul were also appointed at Lesnes Abbey, in Kent, 
by the provisions of an Obit founded there for his own family by 
Sir Thomas Hungerford in 1;377. Also at St. George^s Chapel, 
"Windsor, every 8th of October ; and in Abbotsbury Abbey, for the 
maintenance of which the Bishop had granted to that convent two 
acres of land and the advowson of S win ton Toller (or Tollei Porco- 
rum), a parish in which his friends and patrons, the Cheney family, 
had the estate of Kentcomb.' At Edingdon Priory his death was 
of course duly commemorated. His chief monument at Edingdon 
("si quseris, circumspice ") is, of course, the noble Church itself. 
Smaller memorials there, are or were, a stone on the floor, near the 
south door, bearing the arms of the See of Winchester encircled by 
stars : and on one of the returns of the mouldings of the porch his 
coat of arms, on a cross five cinquefoils, within the garter. 

" Some,^^ says Fuller (quoting Speed's Catalogue of Religious 
Houses in Wiltshire), "condemn Edington for robbing St. Peter 
[to whom, with St. Swithin, Winchester Church was dedicated] to 
pay All Saints collectively, to whom Edington Convent was conse- 
crated, suffering his episcopal palaces to decay and drop down whilst 
he raised up his new foundation." If this was the case, " he dearly 
paid for it after his death by his successor W^illiam Wickham [an 
excellent architect, and therefore well knowing how to proportion his 
charges for I'eparations] who recovered of his executors £1662 lO*., a 
vast sum in that age, though paid in the lighter groats and half- 
groats. Besides this, they were forced to make good the standing 
stock o£ the bishopric, which in his time was impaired : viz. (ac- 
cording to Bishop Lowth) 127 draught horses, 1556 oxen, 4117 
wethers, 3521 ewes and as many lambs." Episcopal farming seems 
to have been conducted on a very large scale in the reign of 
Edward III. 

His Will. 
A copy of the Bishop's will is preserved in the Archiepiscopal 
Library at Lambeth (Langham Register, p. 144). It is in Latin, 

' Hutchins's Dorset, I., 530 (old edit.). 

By the Rev. Canon J. E. JacJcson, F.S.A. 267 

dated "at South Waltham in my 'manerium" there situate," lUh 
September, 1364'; and the see being vacant, it was proved before 
Commissaries " in the Chapel of the Palace or Castle Episcopal of 
Wolves," ^ near "Winchester, 2Uth October following. It neither 
mentions any person as a relative or in any way connected with him, 
nor gives any account of his estate : but after a great number of 
bequests to various Religious houses. Churches, friends, and servants, 
leaves whatever residue there may be to finish the work begun by 
him at Winchester Cathedral, and to help his House or his Chantry 
of Edyngdon, if in need of help. Among the legacies are : " To 
Brother John, Rector of my House of Edynton, to celebrate, and to 
pray for my soul, xx'^ and a cup of silver with a cover. To each 
Religious Brother in the said House to celebrate and to pray for my 
soul C^- To the Carthusians in Selwood' C^ : and to Henton C «^ 
To the Church of Cheriton xx marks for the supply of a vestment 
and x" to the poor. The same to the Church of Middleton near 
Bannebiri .* To Thomas Hungerford my Steward, 50 marks and a 
cup with cover." The executors were Nicholas Kaerwent, Rector 
of Crundale, John de Bleobiri, Rector of Wytteneye, Thomas Hun- 
greford, my seneschal, Walter de Sevenhampton, Rector of Alresford, 
and John de Corfe, Rector of Collyngeborne Abbas. A marginal 
note in a later hand states that the clear sum of money bequeathed 
was £3000. 

1366. 23rd January and February. Soon after the founder's 
death the Priory exchanged its manor of Highway, near Bremhill, 
for the manor of Bremelrigg, in Westbury parish. The following 
is the substance of the Latin documents relating to this transaction, 
printed in Sir R. C. Hoare's Westbury, p. 61. 

A license from the Crown having been given (5th June, 1364, 
38 Ed. III.) to Robert Gundewyne and William atte Chambre (two 
of the brethren) who held the manor of Highway in fee farm under 

' Wolvesey, near Winchester. A view of part of the ruins is given in the 
title-page of Milner's Hist, of Winchester, vol. I. 

^ Witham Friary, near Frome : within the limits of ancient Selwood Forest. 

^ Henton Chartei'house, south of Bath. 

* Middleton Cheney. 

268 Edingdon Ilonasfery. 

the See of Salisbury at a rent of £10 a year/ to grant the said 
manor to Edingdon; another license was given 23rd January, 1367, 
to Sir Philip Fitzwarin and Constance, his wife, to give to Edingdon, 
in exchange for Highway, the manor of Bremelrigg, in Westbury, 
and fifteen acres in Dilton, with the advowson of a chantry of Hey- 
wood (in Westbury Church). The exchange was ratified by a deed 
(in French) a few days afterwards, October 1368. Out of this 
estate the Priory paid to the Prior of Monkton Farley lO-s. 8r/., to 
Sir John Arundel, Kt., 6s., to Lord Stourton, I65., and to the heirs 
of St. Maur, lie/., a year. 

A.D. 1375." Imber. South Imber was part of the estate of 
Romsey Abbey. In 1183 (29 Henry II.) the Abbess had granted 
a portion of it to Richard Rous in perpetuity, at a fixed rent of £10 
a year. In 1375 this (one acre excepted) was conveyed, for the 
Monastery of Edingdon to two brethren, Thomas Elnaedon and John 
Auncell, by Richard Rous. His descendant, William Rous, in 1435 
(14 Hen. VI.) confirmed the gift. At the Dissolution it was 
worth £17 1*. 8(?., out of which Edingdon Monastery paid the £10 
a year to Romsey. Another part of Imber (Great Farm) belonged 
to the Paveleys of Brook Hall — from them it passed to Cheney — 
thence to Willoughby de Broke, who gave a rent of £3 6<$. S^?. 
arising from it to Edingdon. 

.The Abbess of Romsey originally presented to Imber, but after a 
dispute, Rous obtained it.- 

Imber is described in Bacon's Liber Regis as having been a " Pre- 
bend of Edingdon Priory." 

The See of Sarum being this year vacant by the death of Bishop 
Wyvill, the Archbishop of Canterbury appointed John de Norton, 
LL.D., Chancellor of Sarum, to act as commissioner for the in- 
spection of Wilts Monasteries. Lacoek Abbey was exempt by 

^ In the Archseologia, vol. xlvii., p. 147, is an interesting account by Dr. Baron, 
P.A.S.., of Upton Scudamore, of the discovery at Bremridge of thirty-two gold 
nobles in ', fine preservation, and some of considerable rarity. This sum being as 
it happened, the precis sum of annual rent due from the tenant, the learned Dr. 
suggests that it had been safely put away against the next rent day, but by some 
misadventure had never reached the Bursar of Edingdon. 

2 Hist of Heytesbury, p. 160, quoting Edingdon Chartulary. 

By the Eev. Cation J. E. Jackson, F.S.A. 269 

license o£ Pope Boniface. Edingdon Monastery was summoned to 
show by what title it held its impropriate Churches of Coleshill, 
Edingdon, Steeple Lavington, and Buckland. Thomas de Aylesbury, 
Prebendary of Urchfont, appeared as Proctor for Edingdon, 12th 
November : and having given satisfactory explanations was dis- 
charged (Edingdon Cartulary, p. 27 b.). 

1379 — 1380. Besides the lands, late William Mandeville's, at 
Bratton, others at Dilton and Bratton, late Walter Daunsey's, 
were conveyed to the Monastery by John Mandeville, Ralph de 
Norton, and Margaret, his wife, sister of William Dauntsey. Out 
of Dilton there was an annual payment of 13*. 4f/. to the Priory of 
Monkton Farley, near Bath. 

Mode of Electing a New Rector. 

13S2. The following extract from one of the deeds in the Car- 
tulary describes the course pursued in the election of a new Rector. 
It also shows the number of the brethren in the house at this time. 
"The Cor- rector and convent, eighteen in number, present with 
sorrow to the Bishop of Sarum that John of Aylesbury, late Rector, 
had gone the way of all flesh on the 25th March last. After de- 
liberation the majority, consisting of Brothers William Hampton, 
Adam Schenlegh, Nicolas Clerk, Robert Oflftngton, William Brok- 
weye, John Westbury, John Ambi'esbury, John Tenhyde, John 
Stowe, Robert Tame, John Brehulle (Brill : these two last Bucking- 
hamshire names, perhaps from the other house at Ashridge), John 
Winchester, Thomas Tame, Peter Edyndon, and William Hamme, 
have nominated three brethren, John Buckland, Thomas Odyham, 
and Henry Lavington : and request the Diocesan to chuse one of the 
three. Dated in the Chapter House of Edyndon, 1st April, 1382." 
Odyham was chosen and immediately instituted : being at the same 
time required to deliver in a statement of the Churches impropriated 
to the Monastery. 

1390. CoTERiDGE (now Cuttridge, near Westbury) . Here cer- 
tain lands, formerly granted in fee farm by the Abbess of Romsey 
to Walter de Quercu {i.e., Cheney) and afterwards sold by Joha 

VOL. XX. — NO. LX. T 

270 Edingdon Monastery. 

Cheney to the founder's brother, Sir John Edingdon, now belonged 
to the House of Bonhommes. 

An original Latin document (at Longleat) records a solemn pro- 
ceeding of this date, relating probably to the manumission of a 
"native,''or "neif":— 
"Brother Thomas [Odiham] Eector of Eclyngdon and the Convent there, 
authorize John Gowayn their steward to summon a Jury in their manor of 
Coteridge, and enquire upon oath whether John Sefare, son of John Sefare, of 
Bradleigh, was or was not a " Native " belonging to the convent, and of servile 
condition. The return to be registered. Dated at Edyngdon Chapter House, 
Thursday after the Feast of St. Maurice the Abbot. 14 Rich. II." 

1393. 17 Rich. II. Keevil. Impropriation of the Rectory of 
" Kyveleigh." It is this of which Leland says : " One Blubyri, a 
prebendary of Sarebyri and executor ofthe Willeof Hedington" 
[Bishop William Edingdon] " caused a great benefice of the patron- 
age of Sceaftesbyri Monastery to be impropriate to Hedington" 
\i.e., the Monastery] } 

The Church of Keevil had been given by Ernold de Hesding to 
the Abbey of St. Edward, at Shaftesbury. The documents relating 
to the transfer to Edingdon are preserved in the Cartulary. The 
grant by the Abbess, Joan Formage, was witnessed by John, Lord 
Lovel, Thomas Hungreford, and Ralph Cheyne, Knights, John 
Gawayne, Thomas Bonham, John Auncell, Thomas Bulkington, and 
others. The attorney to deliver possession was John Mareys, the 
Abbess of Shaftesbury's bailiflP for her Hundred of Bradford. An 
annual rent of four marks was reserved to Shaftesbury Abbey. 

That the transfer of ecclesiastical property in those days was not 
an easy or inexpensive matter is evident not only from the various 
petitions to the Crown, licenses, inquisitions, &c., that were necessary : 
but from the actual bill of costs which appears to have been so enor- 
mous that the particulars in this case were thought deserving of 
being recorded (" in terrorem " ?) in the Edingdon Cartulary. They 
are as follows, taken from a 

Public Instrument, dated 1395. 
Paid to the Abbess and Convent of Shaftesbury, for the Advowson of 

Keevil 133 6 8^^ 
Expenses in London, settling the annual pension of > 182 18 7 

4 marks 49 11 11 J 

Leland, in Wilts Mag., and Hutch. Dorset, II., 513. 

By the Rev. Canon J. E. Jackson, F.S.A. 271 

In costs of an Inq. ad. q. Damnum [«.c. to ascertain whether the'\ 

Crown would sustain any injury] 37/2. To the Chancellor £80 (,•, o w „ 
To the Queen of England £8. John Chittern, £19 13 4. f^^"* ' ^ 
Divers expenses 56/8 J 

To John Waltham, Bp. of Sarum, for License of Appropriation ") 

£66 13 4. Gifts to Robert Gawayn his sei-vant, £13 6 8. ^ 86 4 2 
Fees to various officials, £6 4 2 J 

To the Chapter of Sarum £66 13 4. To the Archdeacon £6 13 4. ") -- ^ ^ 
To Master W. Bradele, official 33/4 j /O u u 

To the Chancellor of the Bishop 60/- Expenses at Keevil 52/7 5 12 7 

Expenses at Keevil, " pro Vicaria dotanda," &c 3 13 2 

Thomas Lavington [a brother in Edingdon Priory] expenses in") 

London £18 11 1^. Fees " servientibus " Selby and Pictes > 20 2 4^ 
31/3 3 

Gifts to Master Richard Pictes, Canon of Sai-um, for supplicating 7 o o /^ 
the endowment of the vicarage £7 2 0. His clerk 20/. ) 

Paid the Court of Rome, for confirmation under leaden seal 33 6 8 

Qui facit 791 marks £527 6 8^ 

The Rectory of Keevil, one hundred years afterwards, was worth 
only £22 13,?. M., less outgoings, £4 2,s., net, £18 lis. ^d. a year. 
The actual price of the advowson above was only £133 6s. Sd. The 
rest represents fees and charges, £394, three times the mere purchase- 

The first presentation to Keevil Rectory by the Monastery was in 
1400. At the Dissolution it was given to Winchester College, to 
whom it now belongs. 

John Bleobury is often mentioned in deeds of the Hungerford 
family as a feoffee of their estates, as for instance in the purchase of 
Farley Castle in 1369. He had been a brother of the Priory of 
Edyndon, where an Obit was kept for him as a benefactor (Leland, 
and Val. EccL). An ecclesiastic of this name was buried at 
Shillingford, in Berks, where, under the north window of the 
chancel, is his monument, on it a brass effigy of a priest vested in 
his habit, all within an arch of tabernacle work, curiously wrought. 
On the brass verge of the marble this epitaph : " De terre fut 
feat et forme Johan de Bleobury jadys nome et en terre fu retourne 
Tan de grace bien accompte 1372 en mois de Marz qui bien lesponde 
le vint et vint et septisme jour pour qui Dien de s'alme eit pilie. 
Amen." In a glass window over the monument was the picture of 
John Bleobury in a red gown and purple hood kneeling, and under 
this, " Pro anima J. Blebury, Pater noster." ^ 
* Ashmole's Berks. 

T & 

272 Edingdon Monastery. 

Bulkington; a tything of Keevil. The monastery had here a 
manor, a farm, customary rents and the rectorial tithe. The donor 
or vendor is unknown; but it was probably Thomas Bulkington, 
who is mentioned as having had an obit at Edington, as a benefactor. 
Out of the rents here the monastery paid, to the choristers of Sarum 
9*. Ad. a year : to the Earl of Arundel £1 Is. 6d. : to Sir Walter 
Hungerford, 1*. Zd. : and to the heirs of John Buller, 5*. (Val.Eccl.). 

Bulkington is not named in the Index of Edingdon Register, but 
is in the Val. Eccl. Perhaps in the former it is included under 
Keevil. From 21 Rich. II. to 33 Hen. VI. the Fitzalans, Earls of 
Arundel, had a manor here paying 20*. a year to Devizes Castle. 
The Stourton family were also connected with it, in Henry V. and 
Edw. IV. In 5 Hen. V. Richard Vere, Earl of Oxford : and in 
1534, Thomas Barkesdale, were freeholders. In 6 E. III. Henry 
Thomas held at Bulkington twenty acres for a certain chaplain of 
some chapel not named (Inq. p. M.). 

1405. 7 Hen. IV. Staple or Market Lavington, Lee, Brat- 
ton, Westhorpe, and Fifhead. Tenements at these places were 
given by John Elys, clerk (Inq. a. q. D. p. 355). 

1409. 11 Hen. IV. Sombourne, Hants. When this Church was 
appropriated to the Priory of Mottesfont, Hants, it was charged with 
a pension of two marks of silver per annum to the House of Edingdon. 
The cartulary of Edingdon contains a very long dispute about this, 
which ended in a writ to the sheriff, W. Cheney, to compel J. 
Brekenyle, Prior of Mottesfont and Rector of King's Somborne, to 
pay Thomas Culmer, Rector of Edingdon, twenty-four marks, arrears 
of the annual payment. 

1423. 2 Hen. VI. Westbury and Bratton. Thirteen tene- 
ments, obtained from John Frank and others (see H. of Westbury, 
67). In do., p. 84, is an abstract of many deeds in Edingdon 
register relating to this. 

1427. 5 Hen. VI. West Bratton and Milbourne. 5th May. 
By license from the Crown John Frank, clerk (probably Rector of 
South Newton) (Wilts Institutions, 1425), Thomas Touke, of Horn- 
ingsham, John Franklin, of Coulston, and John Spendour, of Immer, 
convey to the Monastery about three hundred and fifty acres, &c., in 


By the Bev. Canon J. E. Jackson, F.S.A. 273 

West Bratton and Milbourne. Out of Bratton the Monastery paid 
every year to the Crown by the hands of the Sheriff of Wilts, 
£6 13*. U. To the heirs of St. Maur, £1 75. 9i. To John Arundell, 
Kt., 1*. Id. To the Hundred of Westbury, lO*. 8i. To the Castle 
of Devizes, 20«. To the Sheriff, 20^/. 

14 i3. 14 Hen. VI. Baynton, or Edington Baynton. This 
belong-ed to the old family of Rous of Imber, who at an earlier date 
— 1274 — held two carucates at Baynton under Romsey Abbey 
(Hund. Rolls, I., 277). There is in Madox^'s Formulare, a deed of 
the year 1313, from which it appears that the Rous family had 
always claimed a rig'ht to place in Romsey Abbey two nuns, with a 
*' valectus " to wait upon them : with a right of distraining, for 
their maintenance, upon Brawthorne and Baynton in the manor of 
Edingdon ; on the plea that those places had been given to Rom- 
sey by their ancestors. By this deed John Rous, Kt., having ex- 
amined the Romsey evidences, renounces to dementia, the Abbess 
there, both his right to nominate the said nuns, and also all claims 
upon those places or any others belonging to her in the manor of 

Another Sir John Rous, Kt., the last of the old Imber family, had 
in 1413 settled his manor of Baynton upon his younger son, John, 
who is called in the Edingdon Cartulary, John Rous of Baynton, 
Jun. This John, says Sir R. C. Hoare (Heytesbury, p. 162), is 
chiefly remarkable in the episcopal registers as a promoter of LoU- 
ardisni and heresy, and was accused in 1428 of instigating the 
inhabitants of Edyngdon and Tinhead to enter into bonds not to 
pay offerings to the Church for certain services : for which they 
were frequently summoned to the Bishop's Court, and seem to have 
been very troublesome to the ecclesiastical authorities : but though 
John was pointed at as the chief instigator, no sentence appears to 
have been pronounced against him. In 22 Hen. VI., however, he 
granted his manor and advowson of Baynton to the Rector and 
Convent of Edyngdon, and thus perhaps purchased the peace of the 
Church (Eding. Chart.) . 

His gift, which included also tenements in Tynhide, Steeple 
AsHTON, and West Coulston, was this year confirmed by patent to 

274 Edingdon Monastery. 

feoffees for the Monastery, viz. John Conge, Prepositus of St. 
Edmund's College, Sarum (Wilts Instit., 1443), John Cammell, 
William Alysandre (patron of Winterbourne Cherbourg in 1434, 
1443), and John Touke (I. p. M.) . An annual payment of Yls. Wd. 
was made to the Abbess of Romsey. After the Dissolution, "Ed- 
ington's Baynton," and five acres at Orchestou St. George, vpere 
sold by the Crown to Anselm Lambe (Harl. MS. 607, 25 b. Ar. 59). 
Tithes of Baynton. The original " Prebendary Rector of Ed- 
ingdon Church in Romsey Abbey'' had always had a claim upon 
the tithe of Baynton tything : it being within the parish of Eding- 
don. This seems to have been a bone of contention, for there was 
a chapel at Baynton, the chaplain of which claimed to be called Rector, 
the Rous family being patrons. The Edingdon Cartulary contains 
some deeds relating to these quarrels. One is headed " An acknow- 
ledgment by the Rector of Baynton of having despoiled the Warden 
of Edingdon Chantry of cei'tain tithes : and of the restitution 
thereof.'' On the 17th December, 1351, before the Bishops of Win- 
ton and Sarum, and Master John de Ingham, Vicar of Warminster, 
Thomas the clerk, calling himself Rector of Baynton Chapel within 
the parish of the Prebendal Church of Edingdon, made a confession 
in writing, " In Dei nomine, Amen. I Thomas, &c., have unjustly 
taken great tithes of two acres upon Dunge-Hill, &c." In 1362 a 
composition was made between the Rector and Convent of Edingdon 
and the Patron and Rector of the Chapel of Baynton about the 
tithes of corn and hay and mortuary fees : in which allusion is made 
to a former dispute between Gilbert de Bruere (Prebendary Rector 
of Edingdon) and John de Rous, Kt., the Rector and Patron of 
Baynton Chapel. The last presentation to Baynton Chapel men- 
tioned in the Wilts Institutions was in 1439. Edingdon Chartulary 
supplies another name, William Chippenham, in Edw. IV. The 
chapel itself has disappeared; but a field called Chapel Close, in 
which it probably stood, lies in Edingdon parish, between Tynhide 
and West Coulston, near the old mansion house of the Danvers 
family (afterwards the Longs), and close to the high road. 

In 1857 two leaden coflSns were found in a field on " Blandford's 
Farm," in Edingdon Baynton. 

By the Rev. Canon J. E. JacTcson, F.8.A. 275 

liiQ. Jan. 5th. William of Westbury, Justice of Common 
Pleas, leaves by will 4U*. to EJiugdon Priory (Hist, of Westbury, 18). 

•29th June, 1450. The Murder op William AYScouaH, Bishop 
OF Salisbury, at Edingdon. 

The following account of this event is taken from Fuller's Worthies 
(uader "Lincolnshire"). 

" He was descended of a worshipful and very ancient family now 
living at Kelsey, in this county, the variation of a letter importing 
nothing to the contrary.* I have seen at Sarisbury his arms, with 
allusion to the arms of that house and some episcopal addition. 
Such likeness is with me a better evidence than the sameness, know- 
ing that the clergy in that age delighted to disguise their coats^ 
from their paternal bearing. He was bred Doctor of the Laws, a 
very able man in his profession, became Bishop of Sarum, confessor 
to King Henry the Sixth, and was the first (as T. Gascoigne re- 
lateth)^ of Bishops who discharged that office, as then conceived 
beneath the place. Some will say. If King Henry answered the 
character commonly received of his sanctity, his Confessor had a very 
easy performance. Not so, for always the most conscientious men are 
the most scrupulous in the confession of their sins and the particular 
enumeration of the circumstances thereof. It happened that J. Cade 
with his cursed crew (many of them being the tenants of this 

* The prelate's name is variously written, Ayscough, Ascough, Aiscoth, and 
Asku (the last being the proper way of pronouncing the name however spelt). 
The family was of Yorkshire origin, where it was also called Aske. 

- T. Gascoigne's complaint was that whereas earlier kings were wont to chusa 
for their confessors grave doctors of divinity who had no other cure of souls, or 
if they happened to be appointed to bishopricks were dismissed to look after their 
dioceses : but that in later times the dioceses were neglected by Bishops being 
also confessors to the King, Chancellors or Treasurers. "The mob" [he says] 
" when they set on Asku, Bishop of Sarum, to murder him, thus insulted and up- 
braided him : ' That felloiv always lived loith the King, and loas his confessor 
and did not reside in his Diocese of Sarum luith us, nor Jceep any hospitality x 
therefore he shall not live.' Not content with their revenge on the Bishop, 
they likewise plundered sevei-dl Rectors and Vicars in the same diocese near 
Salisbury and about Hungerford, harassing the inferior clergy at a barbaroua 
rate " [though what the inferior clergy had to do with the King's conscience they 
did not stop to enquire]. See Lewis's Life of Pecock, pp. 30 and 135. 

276 Edingdon Monastery. 

Bishop) fell foul on this Prelate at Edingdon " [Bishop Ayscough 
had no palace at Edingdon^ but had merely fled thither for refuge] . 
"Bishop Godwin could not tell why they should be so incensed 
against him. But I conceive it was because he was learned, pious, 
and rich, three capital crimes in a clergyman. They plundered his 
carriages, taking 10,000 marks (a mine of money in that age) from 
him, and then to secure their riot and felony by murder and high 
treason dragged him, as he was officiating, from the high altar. And 
although they regarded difference of place no more than a wolf is 
concerned whether he killeth a lamb in the fold or field, yet they 
brought him out of the Church to a hill hard by, and there bar- 
barously murdered him, and tore his bloody shirt in pieces, and left 
his stripped body stark naked in the place. 

" Sic concussa cadit popular! Mitba tumultu ; 
Proteget optamus nunc Diadema Detjs. 

[By people's fury Mitre thus cast down ; 
We pray henceforward God preserve the Ceown.] 

"This his massacre happened June 29th, 1450, when he had sate 
almost twelve years in the See of Sarisbury.^' ^ 

Leland (1540) says ^'The body of him was buried in the house of 
Bonhoms at Hediugton, and on the spot where he was killed ther 
is now a chapelle and hermitage."^ Later "Jack Cades" have 
left no trace either of these buildings or of any monument in the 
Church of Edingdon, if there ever was one to his memory. The 
one in Salisbury Cathedral called Bishop Ayscough ^s by Gough is 
of much older date. The villagers used to show, as the scene of the 
murder, a spot where they pretended that the grass grew so rank 
and strong that the cattle refused to eat it. An old survey of A.D. 

* There are very few Bishops of Sarum of whom history has so little to say as 
Bishop Ayscough. See Cassan's Lives. Also Wilts Archmol. Mag., i., 189, 
note : and the " Chronicle of Hen. VI. " (Camden Society), p. 64, which adds : 
" These two Bishops [Adam Moleyns and Ayscough] were wonder covetous men 
and evil beloved among the common people, and holde suspect of many defaults, 
and were assentyng and willing to the death of the Duke of Gloucester, as it teas 

* Leland, Itin., III., 98. Wilts Magazine, I., 189. 

By the Eev. Canon J. E. Jackson, F.S.A. 277 

1570 mentions a ground of five acres at "Bishop's Cross on the 
Hill." An Obit was kept for Bishop Ayscough at St. George's 
Chapel, Windsor. 

1462. According to a MS. in the Bodleian Library, quoted in 
Rees's Cyclopasdia, art. " Church/' a pilgrim deposited the following 
articles at the Priory : — 

A Chapel made to the likeness our Lord's Sepulchre at Jerusalem. 
A variety of vestments with imitations in wood of the Chapel of Calvary : of the 
Church at Bethlehem, the^Mount Olivet, and the Valley of Jehosa^jhat. 

1475. 15 Ed. IV. One John Prescote having purchased some 
lands at Knoyle, from Margaret, Lady Hungerford and Botreaus 
(but probably not having the money ready), agrees that the eviden- 
ces shall be '^ putte in safe keeping in a sure place within the Monas- 
tery of Edington ; there to remain until such time as any nede 
shall require them to be had and seen for the wele of the said lands : 
and when they have been seen, there to be laid up in safe keeping 
again." ^ 

Very few are the incidents that have been met with connected 
with Edingdon Monastery. One William Way, of Eton, an early 
traveller in the East, settled at the House on his return.^ It is 
also mentioned by Fox,' the Martyrologist,^ as the place where 
King Henr}' the Eighth's commissioner examined a poor Wiltshire- 
man, afterwards burnt at the stake, John Maundrell, son of Robert 
Maundrell, a native of Rowde, near Devizes, but occupier of a farm 
at Bulkington, near Keevil. " Then succeeded three men who were 
burnt the same month at one fire in Salisbury, who in the like 
quarrel with the others that went before them' and led the dance, 
spared not their bodies to bring their souls to celestial felicity . . . 
Their names were John Spicer, freemason, William Coberley, tailor, 
and John Maundrell, husbandman, son of Rob'. M. of Rowde — 
dwelt at Bulkington. So it was in the days of King Henry 8, at 

' Hungerford Chartulary. 
* His travels to Jerusalem were printed by the late Beriah Botfield, Esq., for 
the Roxburgh Club : with a preface by the.late Eev George Williams, Kector of 
Ringwood, Hants. 

^ Fox's Martyrs, Brewer's edit., 8vo, viii., 102. 

278 Edingdon Monastery. 

what time Dr. Trigonion^ and Dr. Lee did visit Abbeys, the said 
John Maundrell was brought before Dr. Trigonion at an Abbey- 
called Edington within the county of Wilts, where he was accused 
that he had spoken against the holy water and holy bread, and such 
like ceremonies : and for the same did wear a white sheet bearing 
a candle in his hand about the market in the Town of Devizes. In 
the days of Queen Mary he went into Gloucestershire and about 
Kings wood, but coming back to the Vyes to a friend of his named 
Antony Clee had talk with him of returning to his own house. On 
the Sunday following they went to Keevil Churchy where Maundrell 
Spicer and Coberley seeing the people in the procession to worship 
the idol there, advertised them to leave the same, speaking to one 
Robert Barksdale head-man of the parish, but he took no regard to 
their words. When the Vicar came into the pulpit Maundrell called 
out ' that was the DeviFs pinfold.'' He was put into the stocks, 
and taken to Sarum next day before Bishop Capon, W. Geffrey 
being chancellor of the Diocese. After examination they were 
condemned by the chancellor and burnt 24th March i556, at a 
place between Salisbury and Wilton where two posts were set." ^ 

The Dissolution. 
1534. 26 Hen. VIII. John Ryve was Rector of the Monas- 
tery when it was seized by the Crown, by whom it was retained 
seven years. A valuation was taken. The spiritualities amounted 
to £128 35. ^d. a year, of the money of the day, consisting of seven 
impropriate rectories, viz., Edyngdon, Keevil, Steeple Lavington, 
and North Bradley, in Wilts : Coleshill and Buckland in Berks, 
and Newton Valence in Hampshire. The temporalities, consisting 
of the lands and manors that have been mentioned (together with 
some small things omitted) amounted to £393 8s. 11^. a year. 
Wheat, according to the return, was then 5*. M. a quarter.^ 

1 Meaning probably Dr. Tregonwell, employed by Hen. VIII. on various com- 
missions. See Strype, index. 

^ There used to be a gallows, called in Latin deeds the " Furcse de Bemerton." 
, * In other valuations taken at the Dissolution, a few years only after this, 
wheat is put at very nearly the same price as at Allington, near Chippenham, 5*. 
a quarter in 1537. It was at 55, at Monkton Farley so far back as 1294. 

By the Rev. Canon J. E. Jackson, F.S.A. 279 

The seneschals or stewards of the estates were (in 1534), for 
Wilts, Henry Long, Kt., of Wraxal and Draycote, with a fee of 
60*. : for Berks, Nicholas Willoughby, the same : for Oxfordshire, 
John Briggs, Kt., 20*. a year. The auditors, Walter Seymour and 
John Macks, or Marks, £2 3*. ^d. a year each. 

The Monastery was also charged, by bequests, with the perpetual 
maintenance both of Obits and Chantries, for the following benefac- 
tors : — Richard Penley, Kt., John Rous, Simon Best, Sir William 
Culraer (formerly Rector of the House), Thomas Bulkington, and 
Thomas Gereberd (probably of Odstock), John Waltham, Bishop of 
Sarum (d. 1395), John Bleobury, a brother, and William Godwyn 
(formerly Rector). The principal bequest for this purpose was J. 
Bleobury's £8 a year. Also with Obits only, involving a trifling 
expense, for Nicholas Broke, Nicholas Grey, William Fitzwarren, 
John Amesbury, John Daunsey (a former lord of part of Bratton 
manor) and two persons of the name of John Botham. The 
total amount of outgoings was £100 2«. Br/., and the net revenue 
£321 9*. M., i.e., about £3600 present money. The Monastery 
seems to have farmed largely on its own account ; a large part of 
Edyndon, all Coleshill and part of Tynhide, Baynton and Brattou 
being returned as " in hand.'' 

1538. 30 Hen. VIII. Thomas, Lord Cromwell, K.G., Keeper 
of the Privy Seal, presents Paul Bush to be Rector of the Monas- 
tery.' This would be whilst it was in the King's hands ; between 
the seizure and dissolution. 

Paul Bush was born in 1490. About 1530 he became a student 
at Oxford, and five years after took the degree of B.A., being then. 
Wood says, numbered among the celebrated poets of the University. 
He then became a brother of the Order of Bonhommes, and after 
studying among the friars of St. Austin (now Wadham College) 
was elected Rector (Wood calls him " Provincial ") of his Order at 
Edingdon, and Canon Residentiary of Sarum. Here he remained 
(not many, as Wood says, but) two years : when the King being 
informed of his great knowledge in divinity and physic made him 

» Wilts Institutions, II., p. 207. Rymer's Fcedera, XIV., 638. 

280 Edingdon Monastery. 

his chaplain and advanced him to the newly-erected see of Bristol, 
to which he was consecrated June 25thj 1542, at Hampton. Ou 
this promotion he vacated the Vicarage of North Bradley.' "Pits 
very erroneously says/ he was made Bishop of Bristol by Edw. VI., 
partly with a design to draw him from the ancient religion, and 
partly because they could not find among the reformers any other 
person of sufficient erudition. This author, however, allows that he 
denied the true faith by taking a wife, whom, as an excuse. Pits 
turns into a concubine. In consequence of this connection he was, 
on the accession of Queen Mary, deprived of his dignity, and spent 
the remainder o£ his life in a private station at Bristol, where he 
died in 1558. Pits, and after him a congenial lover of popery, the 
late Mr. Cole, says that he dismissed her of his own accord ; but 
that is improbable, as there could be no necessity for such dismission 
till Queen Mary's accession, which happened in July, 1553, and the 
Bishop's wife died in October following." 

Dr. Paul Bush wrote 1, "An Exhortation to Margaret Burges, 
wife of John Burges, clothier of Kingswood, Co. Wilts,'' London, 
printed in the reign of Edw. VI. ; 2, " Notes on the Psalms," Lon- 
don, 1525; 3, "Treatise in praise of the Crosse"; 4, " Answer to 
certain queries concerning the abuses of the Mass," in Burnet's 
History of the Reformation, Records, No. 25; 5, " Dialogues be- 
tween Christ and the Virgin Mary " ; 6, " Treatise of salves and 
curing Remedies ", 8vo, printed by Redman, no date ; 7, " A little 
Treatise in English, of which the title, is The Extirpation of Igno- 
X'aucy, compyled by Sir Paul Bushe, Preeste and Bonhomme of 
Edyndon ", printed by Pynson without a date. Astle ^ says that 
the first instance in which he had seen round Roman letters (type) 
was in a marginal quotation in pica, at the latter end of the second 
part of Bush's book : but that Pynson had printed a book wholly 
in Roman type in 1518. From this it would seem probable that 
the "Extirpation of Ignorancy" had been printed before 1518, 

* Wiltshu-e Institutions, A". 1543. 

- Chalmers's Biog. Diet. 
^ Origin of Printing, fol., p. 223. 

By the Rev. Canon J. E. Jackson, F.S.A. 281 

when that type was more uncomraou : and hence the conchision that 
Paul Bush was a brother of the Bonhommes at Edington before he 
was twenty-eight years old. 

There used to be, a few years ago, in the palace of the Bishop of 
Gloucester and Bristol — then at Staple ton, near Bristol — a portrait 
of Paul Bush, which had been given to Bishop Monk by the 
Ven, Thomas Thorp, then Archdeacon of Bristol. The dress was a 
coloured silk gown with some badge dependent from the neck : but 
whether this was the official costume of the Rector of Bonhommes 
or not, is uncertain.^ 

In " Dingley's History of Marble,^' vol. I., p. Ixv., there is a 
sketch of Bushes tomb in Bristol Cathedral : of which Britton, in 
his history of that Church, says, " At the east end of the north 
aisle is a low altar-tomb, which supports an emaciated figure of 
Bishop Bush, who died in 1558. The head rests on a mitre and by 
his right side is a crozier. Over each of the pillars ^^ [there are three, 
in front, supporting the flat canopy] "is a shield bearing arms. 
Round the base and cornice of the monument is an inscription." 
This is given by Dingley : "hic jacet dns paulus bushe primus 


" On a grave-stone below the altar-steps, is inscribed, ' Of your 
charity pray for the soul of Eclithe Bushe, otherwise called Ashley, 
who deceased the 8th day of Oct., A.D. 1553.^ His marriage with 
this lady caused Bush to be deprived of his bishoprick.''^ ^ 

1539. 30 Hen. VIII. On the 31st March the monastery was 
formally surrendered by Paul Bush. To the original deed in the 
Augmentation Office an impression of their common seal is appen- 
ded. It is on red wax, and represents the Apostles, Peter, in dexter, 
and Paul, in sinister. Over them the Virgin Mary and Child; and 

* Archdeacon Thoi-p told the present writer that the portrait strongly resembled 
some of the same name then living at Bristol. 

^ Britton's Bristol Cathedral, p. 61. The reader will notice both in the Latin 
and English epitaphs a late instance of the request to " pray for the soul." 


Edingdon Monastery. 

within an arch below an ecclesiastic with a crozier. The legend is 


The surrender was signed by Bush and eleven brethren^ whose 
names and pensions allowed to them were these : — Paul Bush^ £100 
a year, and the houses he reserved from the farmer of Coleshill, 
Berks. All these he resigned on being made Bishop of Bristol. 
John Scott, £10; Dnus John Chaundler, £8; Richard Phyllips, 
£6 13«. 4J.; Thomas Yatte, £6 13*. 4^.; John Noble (novice), £2 ; 
Dnus John Morgan (novice), £2; John Payne (ditto), £2; Thomas 
Button (ditto), £2 ; Thomas Alyne, £6 ; "William Wythers (ditto), 
£2 ; Robert Hende, £6 13*. 4J. There remained in 1553 in charge, 
£3 in fees, £17 Qs. Sd. in annuities, and the above pensions.^ 

The following table exhibits the names of the chief ecclesiastics 
of Edingdon, under their various titles, from A.D, 1286 to 1538 : — 


I. — The Church a Rectory, and Prehend in Romsey Abbey. 




Prebendary Rectors. 

Vicars appointed by 
the Prebendary. 



Abbess of 

John de Bei-wick. Also 
Prebendary of York, Lich- 
field, and London : and 
Dean of Wimborne-Min- 
ster, where he was buried 
(Hutch. Dorset, II. 78. 




John de Romsey. Also 
Vicar of North Bradley. 

1297. Edward de 

William de Rom- 




John de London.* 


Eccl. Prebendar 


Gilbert de Middleton " Fir- 

1317. John de 

marius de Bradford," 1312, Winchcombe 

of Stanton, Oxon. Arch- 

deacon of Northamptonf 

* This word is erroneously printed peioeis in the New Monasticon, vol. vi., 
p. 536. On the original seal the word eectoeis is perfectly legible. 

2 See Willis's Mitred Abbies, II., 255, and Add. MSS. (B. Mus.) 24831, p. 250. 

• In H. Wright's Uist. of Donius Dei at Portsmouth, " Sir Roger de Harum, Warden of Domus 
Dei, is stated to have been presented 9th September, 1303, to the Rectory of Edingdon and to the 
Rectory of Downton, Wilts, 1304, by John de Poutissera {Anglice Sawbridge), Bishop of Winches- 
ter. In the Wilts Institutions a '^Robert de Harwedone " was presented to Downton, Wilts, 1303 — 
but of his being made Rector of Edingdon no evidence has been met with, 
t See Bupri, p, 248, 

By the Rev. Canon J. E. Jackson, F.S.A. 





Prebendary Rectors. 

Vicars appointpd by 
the Prebendary. 




Robert de Stratford 

1334. William de 

1334. WilHamde 





John St. Paul 




Gilbert de Bruera 




John de Edindon. Nephew 
of the Bishop 

1348. John de 
Staunford, ap- 
pointed by the 


II. — The Prebend united with a Chantry of Secular Priests founded 
William of Edingdon, Pishoj} of Winton. 

Custodes or Wardens of the 




College or Chantry. 


Warden of 

The Bishop 

Walter Scarlet : resigned 

Oct. 30 


of Winches- 

for Houghton, in Hants 



Bishop of 

Walter de Sevenhampton 



III. — The same commuted into a Monastery of Augustines, called 




Kectors of the Monastery. 


Rector of Con- 

Bishop of 

John Aylesbury. Died 25th 

12 Apr. 



March, 1382. 




Thomas Odyham 





Thomas Culmer 





Thomas Elme v. T. C* 


Ecc. Conv. deE. 

Eector and 
Convent of 

William Godwyn jj. m. T.E. 


Mon. of Eding. 


William Newton 

— ■ 



William Hulle or Hill. R. 
of Poulshot, 1491, d. 1494 


Ed. Mon. 


John St. John ]p. m. W. H. 


E. Priory 


John Rvye p. m. J. St. J. 


Thos. Lord 
Keeper of 
the Privy 
Seal {i.e., 
the Crown] 

Paul Bush p. m. J. R. Also 
Vicar of North Bradley, 
which he resigned 1543. 
First Bishop of Bristol, 
16th June 1542. Resigned 
that see, 1553. Died 11th 
October, 1558, set. 68. 

• Mentioned in " Parson of Edington's case, 19 Hen. YI," (Gouldsborough's Eeports, 1653, p. 11). 

284 Edingdon Monastery. 

The vultures were ready for the cai'case. In the very year of its 
surrender some of the estates were sold off by the Crown : and 
among the earliest applicants for the lands at Dilton was John 
Bushj probably a relative of the ex-Rector. Westwell and West 
Ilsley were granted to William Berners ; Tormarton (only a small 
property) to Michael Ashfield; and the large estate at Coleshill to 
the Duke of Somerset's brother. Sir Thomas Seymour. 

1540. 32 Hen. VIII. Of the bulk of the estates in the hands 
of the Crown, the usual " Minister's," or Crown bailiff's, account 
was taken. It is printed in abstract, in the New Monastieon, vol. 
VI., p. 536. The original document in the Augmentation Office 
is very minute. The rectorial title of Hawkesley (Hants) which 
does not appear elsewhere was probably comprised under Sutton 
Valence in former accounts. 

1541. 33 Hen. VIII. The site of the Priory and the lands in 
the manor of Edyngdon and Tynhide, together with the rectory, 
were this year granted by the Crown to Sir Thomas Seymour, just 
mentioned as having obtained Coleshill. He had also a grant of 
the Abbess of Romsey's adjoining manor of Steeple Ashton, and of 
the Hundred of Whorwellsdown.' In the following year, 13th April, 

' In some of the Hundreds of Co. Wilts small payments still continue to be 
made to the lord of the Hundred by the occupiers of certain lands, the meaning 
and origin of which nobody understands : and so they fall into disuse or are the 
cause of dispute. If any such petty taxes (which scarcely pay the cost of col- 
lection) should still linger in the Hundred of Whorwellsdown, under the names of 
•'hundred silver," "certain silver," "white money," or the like, it may be useful 
to know what places in it were liable at this period. A survey of the manor, 
among the Longleat documents, says : — " The sayd hundred, in charge of Henry 
Brounker, Esq. [acting for the lord], extendeth into these tythings which pay 
certain silver, as follows, Batelsfield, nil, Kevell 5/-, Tylshead 3/4, Colston 6/6, 
Tynhead 13/-, Edingdon 13/-, Southwick 13/- Bradley 2/6, Semington 6/6, Lyt- 
tleton 6/6, Henton 6/6, West Ashton 13/-. Also there be divers freeholders 
which be suitors at the Three-weeken Court yearly following, viz.. The heirs of 
Lord Broke, by lands in Southwick, the heirs of the Lord Souche and Seymor, 
by lands there, Henry Longe, Kt. by lands in West Ashton late Lord Stourton's, 
Thomas Champnes for lands in Bradley and Southwick, Thomas Wyse, in Tyl- 
shead, Richard Kyrton for hys lands there late Morgan's, Heirs of Loveden's for 
lands in West Ashton, Heirs of Hawkins in Semyngton, Leonard Willoughby in 
Ashton, late Norfolk's ; Heirs of Dawntsey in Low Mead, Thomas Horton in Tyls- 
head, WiUiam Bayly in Ashtou late Tucker's, William Button for late Temys 

By the Rev. Canon J. E. Jackson, P.S.A. 285 

Sir Thomas's first court was held. The original MS. of this, with 
some leaves wanting, but otherwise in good preservation, belongs to 
Mr. Moore, of West Coker. Meric i^p-Rice," of Welsh family, was 
tenant of the manor farm of Edingdon (Edingdon Romsey's) under 
a lease for forty-five years granted Michaelmas, 1531, by Elizabeth 
Ryperose, Abbess of Romsey. Her farmer is called her " husband," 
i.e., " husbandman." 

That the buildings of the Monastery had not been disturbed in 
1549, appears from a survey (at Longleat) made just after the death 
of Sir Thomas Seymour: — 

" The site of the late Rectorye with the Isle of Wyght of Edyngdon with the 
Lord's orchard t wo acres, the convent orchard one acre, and the selerer's [cellar- 
er's] orchard one acre and one close of pasture. 

" Mem. The late Monasterye or Eectorye of Edyngton is scituate under the 
playne and not yet defaced : the Hall, with all houses, buyldings, barnes, stables 
and other houses of offices all covered with tyle : the Frater and the Cloyster 
covered with ledde. 

"There is a small Fay re kept there yearly upon Eeleken Sunday [" Relic 
Sunday," 12 July] the profit whereof goith to the Eeve which ys not woi-th 4''. 
by the yere." 

1549. 3 Ed. VI. Sir Thomas Seymour (created Baron Seymour 
of Sudeley, 16th February, 1547) was beheaded, under warrant of 
his brother, the Protector. Edingdon and the rest of his estates^ 
reverted to the Crown. 

1550. 1 Edw. VI. That part of Edingdon which had been the 

Abbess of Romsey's till the Dissolution, was then sold to a great 

nobleman. Sir William Paulet, Baron St. John and Earl of Wiltshire, 

created this year Marquis of Winchester.^ 

[Rood Ashton], Richard Styleman in Ashton and Lowmede : Heirs of Packer in 
Semington and Ashton, Gyles Gore in Ashton, John Palmer in do., Henry 
Brunker for late Loveday's in do., Antony Passheton for lands in Henton and 
Lyttleton late Gore's. 

"The late Lord Admiral [i-e , Thomas Seymour, Lord Sudeley] was Lord 
Royal of this Hundred by reason whereof he had all manner of waifs, strays, &c. : 
within which Hundred the Sheriff shall not meddle to serve any process, but the 
lord's officer only." 

' Mentioned in the Wilts Visitation of 1623 in the pedigree of Carpenter of 

^ Of this very remarkable man Strype gives the following description : " He is 
celebrated as one of the greatest temporizers in English history. Lord Treasurei-, 
President of the Council and Great Master of the Household to Henry VIII. 

286 Edingdon Monaster!/. 

1551. The house aud lands called " Edingdon Rectors" being: 
in the hands of the Crown under the Act of 1 Edw. VI., concerning 
chantries to be dissolved, were leased to Lady Isabella Bayntun^ 
(born Leigh), the second wife and widow of Sir Edward Bayntun, 
of Bromham, who had died 1544. During the Bayntun occupation. 
Sir James Stumpe (son of the wealthy clothier who had bought 
Malmesbury Abbey) had some interest here, for in his will dated 
1563 2 he mentions " a lease of Edington." His first wife had been 
Bridget, daughter of Sir Edward Bayntun. 

In 1561 the reversion of the last-mentioned part of Edingdon 
(subject to the Bayntun lease) was bought by the Marquis of Win- 
chester of the Crown for the sum of £1005 16s. 2^/., the annual 
sum of £7 65. 8J., issuing out of it, being reserved for the stipend 
of two chaplains serving the Church of Edingdon. 

In the collection of papers at Longleat there is the following 
letter from the first Marquis, relating to an insubordinate tenant : — 

William, first Marquis of Winchester, to Sir John Thynne. 
"After my right hai-tie comendations. You and Sir James Stumpe and other 
your felowes Justices of peace appointing Eobei-t Blackborough* my tenant in 

One of the mourners at his funeral and one of his executors. Went along with 
the Eeformation and bought Church lands largely of the Crown. In the next 
reign Lord Treasurer again. Master of the Wards and Liveries, Lord Lieutenant 
for Southampton, visited by the King at Waltliam (late belonging to the See of 
Winchester) and at Basing. Appointed Seneschal for the trial of the Duke of 
Somerset : with the Duke of Noiihumborlaud ruled the Court, he by his wit and 
counsel, the Duke by his stout courage and proudness of stomach. The Marquis 
of Winchester was a mourner at King Edward's funeral : signed and swore to 
the Succession as limited by the King : was, however, one of Queen Jane's 
counsellors, yet signed the order to the Duke of Northumberland to lay down 
his arms. Was pi-esent at the proclaiming of Queen Mary ; continued Lord 
Treasurer by her, prayed the Queen not to give away the Church lands without 
his consent. Knight of the Garter. Lieut. -General south of Trent. One of 
Queen Mary's Privy Council : mourner at her funeral : present at the proclaiming 
of Queen Elizabeth, and Lord Treasurer again. When asked towai'ds his death, 
how he had contrived to keep his influence through so many religious and political 
changes, he said, ' -Bv/ helng horn of the tvillow and not of the oak.' " His 
life and death were written by Rowland Broughton, 1572. 

1 The lease was to Sir Edward Hastings, Kt., and Lady Isabella Bayntun. 
No marriage between them being recorded, Hastings was, presumably, a trustee. 
- Collectanea Topog. et Geneal. (Nichols), vol. VII., 84. 

' Kobert Blackborough occurs in an old survey as copyholder of a tenemeat called " The Hurst," 
part of "Edingdon Kcctoris." 

By the Eev. Canon J. E. Jachon^ F.S.A. 287 

Edington to serve your orders for the Queen, wherewith Oswald Burrall a ser- 
vant of Sir James Stumpe hath given much evil language to the said Robert, 
and not so content but hath hurte him also : Whereupon you have caused the 
same Oswald to be bound to the peace which is well done but yet not enough for 
so evill a ruled man, but thinke him worthie to be commj-tted to Warde and in- 
dicted as a common barratter and disturber of the queen's peace : and thereupon 
to put in sureties for his good a-bearing against all the queen's liege people ex- 
cept he wolde better obey her Maj''^'^ commandment then I fear he doth : praying 
you to take order with Mr. Stumpe and other your fellowes for reformacion of 
this matter that men serving the queen by your commandment may serve in 
peace and without hurte. Thus fare you well. 

" Written the xviij''^ of August 1562 

" Your lovinge f rende 
" To my loving f rende, S'. John " Winchestee." 

Thynne Knight one of the 

Justices of peace in the Countie 

of Wiltes." 

Heal: within the garter, an eagle volant. 

The first Marquis of Winchester died in 1572. His son John, 
second Marquis, married an heiress of the immediate neighbourhood, 
Elizabeth, daughter o£ Robert Willoughby, Lord Broke, of Brook 
House, Westbury, At Longleat are two letters from this nobleman, 
relating to Edingdon. The first is to request (in some case that 
had arisen afi'ecting his woods there), the assistance of Sir John 
Thynne (the builder of Longleat) who had been in charge, on behalf 
of the Crown, of the Monastery estates after confiscation : — 

No. 1. — Jo/m, second Marquis q/ Winchester, to Sir John Thynne, 
2nd May, 1574. 

" S', by information into the Exchequer certen woodes of myne about Edington 
be brought in question for Her Maj'"' and therein my Pattent verie hardlie 
skanned to my prejudice, and the disadvantage of the most men's pattents iu 
England, yf it should take place : But for the better travaille of the matter, there 
is a commission graunted to to the enformere to enquiere of the right thereof by 
the voyses of the cuntrie. And it is allso graunted unto me to joyne certen 
comyssioners in my behalf to enquiere & examyne wytnesses for my right. 
Whereuppon I am so bould of your frindshipp as to name you, requesting yon 
to take the paynes in my behalf so far to extend your travail as to meet together 
with the reste of the comj'ssioners, at the time and place appointed, whereunto I 
am so hardlie pressed, as yf you faile to shewe me this curtesye yt will redound 
to my great disadvantage which I trust your f rindship will prevent. I have allso 
sent you the interrogatories whereuppon I would have the wytnesses examyned. 

TJ 2 

288 . Edingdon Monastery. 

And even so bade yon right hartelie well to fare. From my liowse at Clielseye 
this xvj'''^ of Maij 1574 

" Your assured friend 

" Wtnchestee " 

Postscript : — 

" The Comyssion is returnable the last retume of the next terme." 
" To my loving frind S' John Thyne knight 
geve theise." 

No. 2. — The same to the sarne. Requesting friendly interference 
to prevent law proceedings about a small piece of ground. 

" I hartelie commend me. Where a servant of yours one Parrey hath through 
information exhibited, made her Maj*'^ a party against Bromwiche a tenant of 
myne in Edington, surmising me to have intruded upon an acre of gi'ound there, 
tenned Rack acre, & the cause prosecuted unto Trial (at this last assizes to have 
been had) with more expedition and less indifference then in equitie appertayneth) 
giveth me to think yourself not pi-ivie thereof, as from whome I presume to have 
been furst advertised of the interest pretended, before the same attempted in 
manner as before [mentioned], especiallie the matter in demaunde being so small, 
and myself not so well acquainted therewith as driven with great charge to 
defend the same. And therefore requesting, if the matter (being no greater) 
may be otherwise determined then by ordinarie proceedings in Law that I may 
use your frindlie furtherance therein. And so bidd you use you hartelie farewell. 
Hooke, this xxiiij"' of September, 1578. 

" Y"^ very loving frinde 


The lease by the Crown to the Bayntuns, in 1550, was for many 
years, and had not yet expired. Lady Isabella dying, was succeeded 
by her step-son, Andrew Bayntun, Esq. (son of the late Sir Edward 
by his first wife, Elizabeth Sulyard). From the following letter^ 
(at Longleat) it appears that towards the end of his lease, he had 
not only committed waste on the premises by well-nigh " plucking 
down " the Monastery House, but had before his death taken upon 
him to assign the lease over to his wife. William, third Marquis/ 
(grandson of the original grantee) disputed Mr. Bayntun's right to 
do so, and applied to the Court of Exchequer for a sequestration of 

1 Harl. MS., 286, p. 213. 
^ This William, third Marquis, was the author of a now scarce book, called 
" The Lord Marques Idlenes, containing Manifold Matters of acce])table Devise, 
or. Sage Sentences, Prudent Precepts, Morall examples, &c." Printed by Edmund 
Bollifant, 1587. 

Bij the Rev. Canon J. E. Jackson, F.S.A. 289 

the estate until a trial could take place. This was granted. Upon 
this, Mrs. Bayntun, the widow, following a not uncommon practice 
of those times, made a private appeal to the Lord Keeper of the 
Great Seal, Sir James Puckering, who thereupon wrote to the 
Marquis. To this the Marquis replies, in the following letter : — 

Williatn, third Marquis of Winchester, to the Keeper of the Great 
Seal, July 20th, 1593. 

" My veryie good Lo. havinge receaved yo' Lo: Ire of the xv"* of the last 
moaethe the xx"" of this instant Julie addressed att the instance of Mres Bainton, 
whoe semeth to have informed yo'. Lo. of my Eeceipte and deteyninge of the 
Eents and profitts of the Mannor of Edington w*". shee pretendeth to apptaine 
unto her. Whearin I finde greatlie to abuse yo''. Lo: and wrong me as one de- 
servinge to possesse nothinge injuriouslie. The cause dependeth in the Exchequer 
Chamber, and is readie for hearinge and a daie given for the same this next 
Tearme and the issues and profitts whearoff shee complaineth are by speciall 
commission out of that Courte sequestered &, there remaine in Deposito, untill 
the hearinge of the said Cawse, so is it not in me to relieve her necessities, 
neyther to helpe mj'self so muche as unto the Rentes due unto me out of the said 
Manor : before the saied Cawse be determined. The reason which moved the 
Courte to graunte the said Sequestration was in respecte of the great waste and 
spoils done by her Husbande, whoe beinge my Tennte of that Mansion howse & 
demaynes, & seeing his Tearme nighe expiered did courablie assigne over the 
Demaynes to the use of his saied wiffe reserving the said howse, & thereupon 
presently plucked downe the said howse, and hath so spoiled the same, as one 
thousande ponndes will not reedifie it againe. Whearin the Courte of Exchequer 
purposinge to give redresse as cawse shall requier, must submitt myself e and the 
cawse to the censure thereof. And even so doe leave yo' good Lo. to the tuytoa 
of the Almightie. Aberstone this xx"" of Julie 1593. 

" W. Lo: to Commaunde 


Addressed : — 
" To the Right honorable 
my veraie good Lo. the Lo. 
Keeper of the Greate Scale of 

Endorsed : — 
" July 20. 1593 
" The Lo. Marques in answer to 
yo"' Lo. for M". Baynton." 

It was, therefore, Andrew Bayntun, who died in 1579 and was 
buried under a large altar-tomb in Chippenham Church, who pulled 
the Priory at Edingdon to pieces. The small portion that remains 

290 Edingdon Monastery. 

of the original house, stripped of its gables and altered by the later 
addition of two square castellated appendages, presents but little 
that is architecturally interesting. There is an engraving of it as 
it was in 1846, in the Gentleman's Magazine of that year, p. 257. 

In 1587 a subsidy roll of Queen Elizabeth gives the name of 
William Jones, of Edingdon, gent.,^ as the principal person in the 
parish. It was he who in 1599 purchased Brook House of Lord 
Mountjoy. A son, Sefton, married a daughter of John Still, Bishop 
of Bath and Wells : a grandson, Sefton, married Hester, daughter 
of Walter White of Grittleton, who left two daughters, co-heiresses, 
Ann, wife of Peter Whatley, and Elizabeth, wife of Henry Long. 

The long lease having expired, about the beginning of the seven- 
teenth century Edingdon became the residence of Sir William 
Paulet, Kt.,^ one of four natural sons of the third Marquis : of whom 
Dugdale says that " they were all born of one mother, Mrs. Lambert 
and provided for by their father with leases for 100 years, of little 
less than £4000 a year, which to this day are called The Bastards' 

Sir William Paulet's second daughter, Elizabeth, was the second 
wife of Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, the Parliamentary general, 
from whom he obtained a divorce in about four years ; on the ac- 
cusation of intrigue with Mr Uvedale. She married for her second 
husband Sir Thomas Higgons.^ 

The next lessee under the Paulets was Sir Edward Lewis of the 
Van, near Caerphilly, Co. Glamorgan. He married Ann (Sackville), 
widow of Sir Edward Seymour, Lord Beauchamp (who died 1619). 

1 An old clmrchwarden's accoiint book, in the parish chest, of A.D. 1588 to 
1615, mentions in 1591, "Mr. Bainton in arrears to the parish £6 13«. 9rf. In 
1593 William Jones signs the account. 

2 Sir "William Powlett signs the Church book in 1603. 

3 Sir Thomas Higgons was a valuable servant of the Crown as Ambassador to 
Vienna : of whom there is a memoir in Chalmers's Biographical Dictionary. He 
pronounced a funeral oration over his wife at her interment at Winchester in 
1656, printed in London : in which her character was vindicated, and the true 
causes of the Earl of Essex's conduct described. See Granger's Biographical 
Dictionary and Peck's Desid. Curiosa, xii., 16. 

By the Rev. Canon J. E. Jackson, F.S.A. 


Sir Edward Lewis was buried at Edingdon in 1630. On the south 
side of the chancel there is a very large monument to his memory ; 
over it a shield of his arms impaling those of Sackville. Lady 
Ann Beaucliarap resided at Edingdon. Her hospitalities are alluded 
to by Fuller, the Church historian (see p. 254 above), and by Aubrey/ 
She was buried at Edingdon. In the Church is this inscription on 
a brass plate : — 

" Here lyeth the body of the Right Hoii^'= Aune Lady Beauchamp who deceased 
the 25"' of Sept' A.D. 1664." 

Richard Lewis, Esq., the son, was of Edingdon, 1670, and probably 
lived there until about 1694, when he purchased the Corsham estate. 
He was buried at Corsham in 1706. 

Lewis or Edingdon. 

[No pedigree in College of Arms.] 
Robert Sackville,=Lady Margaret Howard, 
Earl of Dorset. I sole dau. of Thomas, 
Earl of Norfolk. 

2nd husband, Sir Edward= 
Lewis, of the Van, Co. 
Glam.,Kt.,Gent of Privy 
Chamber to Prince Henry 
and King Charles I. Bur. 
at Edingdon, 10th Oct., 

Rt. Hon. Ann Sackville. = 
Bur. at Edingdon, 25th 
Sept., 1664. 

:1st husband. Sir Edward 
Seymour, Kt., Lord 
Beauchamp, from 1612 
— 19 ; gr. grandson of 
the Protector and elder 
brother of the restored 
Duke of Somerset. Died 

Edward. William. Richard Lewis, Esq.,= 

seven years old at 
his father's death 
(thii-d son) of Eding- 
don, M. P. for West- 
bury, 1660— 85— 88 
90. High Sherife of 
Wilts,1682. D.Oct. 
7th, 1706, c^t. 83. 
Purchased Corsham, 
1694. Bur. at Cor- 
sham in a vault, dis- 
covered 1850, and 
now used by the 
Methuen Family. 

Mary, dau. 

Thomas Lewis,^Anna 
Esq., of Cor- Maria 

sham, eld. s 

& h. (C. deeds). 

James. Bur. 
at Edingdon, 
1680, ajt. 9 


ffit. 1. 




ajt. 1. 

' Aubrey, in N. H. of WUts (MS.) Pt. II., oh. v., says :— "The Lady Aune 

292 Edingdon Monaster?/. 

Other, third Earl of Plymouth, who died 1732, married Elizabeth, 
daughter and heiress of Thomas Lewis, the ultimate heiress of 
Lewis of the Yau, She died 9th November, 1733. 

In 1689 the then owner of Edingdon, Charles Paulet, sixth 
Marquis of Winchester, having been instrumental in settling the 
Crown on the Prince and Princess of Orange, was created Duke of 
Bolton. Edingdon passed through the hands of six dukes suc- 

Charles, the third Duke, earned a bad eminence by barbarous 
treatment of his wife, Anne Vaughan, daughter of John, Earl of 
Carbery, on whose death, in 1751, impatiently waited for, he married 
Lavinia Fenton, sometimes called Lavinia Beswick, an actress often 
painted as Polly Peachum of " The Beggars' Opera." ^ 

During the third Duke's life, his younger brother. Lord Harry 
Paulet, was residing here. He afterwards became fourth Duke. 
Charles, the sixth Duke, brought to an end the connexion of his 
family with this property, which had now lasted two hundred and 

Beaucliamp (at Edington in this county) has a peculiar way of making excellent 
mault, which gives a veiT good rellish to the Beer : scil : She hath a Kilne, to 
dry Mault with Pittcoale : There is a large iron Plate over the fire, wh. being red 
hott, drieth the mault wh. lieth three or four foot above it." When Edingdon 
House was dismantled, the fixtures found their way into neighbouring houses. 
A fire-back with Lady Ann's arms (i.e., Sackville) on it is (or lately was) to be 
seen in the house formerly the Monastery, near the Church : another at East-town 
faiTQ house, and at Tinhead. The Sackville arms, almost obliterated, are also 
over a dooi-way in the garden at Edingdon. 

' A writer in the Quarterly Eeview, 1857, p. 466, speaking of Joseph Warton, 
thus alludes to this subject : — "The low level to which public feeling had fallen 
at the middle of the last centuiy, and the little which was expected from the 
guardians of public morals, may be seen in acts like that of Joseph Warton, who 
travelled with the Duke of Bolton and his mistress upon the continent in 1751 
that he might be at hand to marry them the moment the}' got intelligence of the 
death of the Duchess, then sinking under a mortal disease. For some r<"ason he 
(J. W.) returned to 'England before the poor deserted lady had breathed her last, 
and the impatience of her husband and her successor not permitting them to wait 
till Warton could rejoin them, he lost both the opportunity of perfoiming the 
office, and the preferment which he expected would reward the service. . . . 
Yet four years afterwards he was elected second master of Winchester School, 
and nobody appeared to consider him less fitted to train up lads in the way they 
should go because he had countenanced the Duke of Bolton's roving abroad with 
a mistress while his wife was dying at home." 

By the Rev. Canon J. E. Jackson, F.S.A. k93 

fourteen years. Of which long' connection all that the place retains 
is a tradition or two, passed on from one who was in his day the 
" oldest inhabitant/'' to somebody else who in course of time became 
the same : that the Duke used to employ running footmen, who, 
being trained to their long-winded duties on meat half raw, kept 
a-hcad of bis carriage, with a bell in one hand and pole in the other, 
to assist His Grace out of difficulties by the way. Also that they 
had, between Edingdon and Tynhide, in order to ascend to the plain, 
a private road called " Coach Hollow." An inn at Tynhide, now 
pulled down, used to be called " The Three Daggers," a popular 
name for the Powlett arms, three swords in pile, which are still to be 
seen on the north side of the farm-house part of the monks' dwelling. 

In 1768, during the life of Harry, the sixth Duke, the manor, 
4094 acres, was sold by the trustees of his late brother Charles, fifth 
Duke, to Peter Delme (of Erlestoke), for £72,100, but no convey- 
ance was made. In 1782 Joshua and Drummond Smith purchased 
it out of Chancery: and in 1784 an Act of Parliament was found 
necessary to complete the title. ^ 

Joshua Smith, Esq., was M.P. for Devizes in 1788, 1796, 1803, 
and 1806. He was owner also of Erlestoke. He left four daughters 
no male heirs. Much of the old Monastery was taken down by 
him, and the materials were used in building his house at Erlestoke. 

1820. Mr. Joshua Smith's executor sold Edingdon, and with it 
Erlestoke and Coulston, total eight thousand acres, to the executors 
of Simon Taylor, Esq. : in settlement upon his niece, Mrs. Watson 
Taylor, sole heiress to her uncle on the death o£ her brother. Sir 
Simon R. B. Taylor, Bart., unmarried. The price 250,000 guineas. 
These estates are now the property of Simon Watson Taylor, Esq., 
of Erlestoke. 

^ Charles, the fifth Duke, hy will, 1763, had charged his estate -with payment 
of his debts, and then assigned them to trustees to the use of his brother. Lord 
Harry (sixth Duke) and his heirs male : remainder to Jean Mary (wife of Thomas 
Orde, Esq.), in the will called Jane Mary Powlett Brown and her heirs in tail 
male : then to the testator's right heirs. The testator died 1765. The mother 
of Mrs. Orde had been Mary Banks Brown, the fifth Duke's housekeeper at 
Edingdon. Since the purchase by Joshua and Drummond Smith, Mrs. Orde had 
given biiih to a son, and hence the necessity for an Act of Parliament. 


Edingdon Monaster)/. 

Smith of Edingdon. 
John Smith,=Mary Ransom, 
a merchant of Lambeth. 
in London. 

Joshua Smith,: 
of Edingdoi; 
& Erlestoke. 
M.P. for De- 

;Sarah Sir John Sir Drum- Thomas Elizabeth Mary=Lord 
GU- Smith mond of Ja- =Jelfe. Dun- 

bert. Burgess, Smith.Bt., maica. sa- 

Bart. =^ first, ney. 

Mary Cun- 
liJie : and 
second, Eliz- 
abeth, dau. 
of Vis. Gal- 
way. Ob., 
s.p., 1816. 

Charles= Augusta, 

of Sut- 

third dau 
The baro- 
netcy set- 
tled on her 
issue. See 
Smith, of 
Tring Park, 
Co. Herts. 


of Nor- 

Elizabeth, =William 


of The 

Emma, fourth 
dau. Living 
at Pear Tree 
Green, Co. 
1856. Died 

Watson Tatloe. 

Simon Taj lor 
Esq., of Lys- 
sons Hall, Ja- 
maica Died 
14th April, 
1813, £Et. 73. 

Sir John Taylor.=Elizabeth-Gooden, 

Cr. Bart, and d. 
6th May, 1786. 

d. and h. of Philip 
Houghton, Esq. 

Sir Simon Richard Brissett Taylor. 
D. s. p., 18th May, 1815. Bur. 
at Edingdon. Mon. by Chantrey 
on N. side of chancel. 

Anna Susanna. =George Watson, Esq. 

Eldest of three 
coheiresses. D. 
8th Jan., 1852, 
ffit. 72. 

Assumed his wife's 
surname. Of Erle- 
stoke. M.P. for 
Devizes. D. 1841. 

Simon Watson Taylor,=Lady Hannah Charlotte Hay, 

Esq. Eldest son. 
Now of Erlestoke. 

second dau. of the Marquis 
of Tweeddale. 













^ ' ' 


. r? 


Idin^fon ffhurdt, |iilis. (west 


By the Rev. Canon J. E. Jackson, F.S.A. 295 

The Chuiicu. 

" From a certain Latin book of Edindon Monastery : — 
3 July, A.D. 1352 : was laid the first stone of the Monastery of Eflindon. 
A.D. 1361. The Conventual Church of Edindon was dedicated by Robert 

Weyville, Bishop of Sarum to the honour of St James the Apostle, S. Katharine 

and all Saints." 

It is on the authority of the above extract, made by Leland on 
the spotj that we are able to fix the date of Eding-don Church : for 
though the memorandum copied by him mentions only the laying 
of the first stone of the Monastery (not necessarily the same thing 
as the Church), there can be no doubt that the entire establishment 
is to be understood. " St, James the Apostle," as one of the saints 
to whom the Church was dedicated, may have been an error of 
Leland's in copying. In the foundation charter, printed in the New 
Monasticon (vi., 536), the dedication is to the B. V. Mary, St. 
Katharine and All Saints. 

As Bishop William of Edingdon did not die till 1366, the whole 
was finished in his lifetime. It was, therefore, entirely under his 
superintendence and through his influence that the work was com- 
pleted, and no doubt in great measure at his own expense, with aid 
from such patrons and friends as the Abbess of Romsey and Sir 
Ralph Cheney who had married the co-heiress of the Pavely family 
of Brook House. 

The Church is cruciform in plan, and consists of a clerestoried 
nave of six bays with aisles corresponding, transepts, tower at the 
intersection, large chancel, and south porch of three stories, one of 
which is called the Priesfs room. The use of little rooms in this 
situation was various : sometimes they served, as at Fotheringhay 
Church, Co. Northampton, where also there are two above the porch, 
one for a chorister's vestry, the other for the sacristan or sexton : 
sometimes for a church, library. 

The measurements are : — * Ft. in. 

Nave length 75 

breadth, including aisles 53 8 
height 45 

' From the Rev. A. Fane's paper, Wilts Archaol. Mag., iii., 50. 

296 Edingdon Monastery. 



Transepts length 






Chancel length 





Square o£ tower 



X 20 6 

Mr. J. H. Parker^s general description of the style already alluded 
to fp. 241) is as follows : " It is all of uniform character, and that 
character is neither Decorated nor Perpendicular, but a very re- 
markable mixture of the two styles throughout : the tracery of the 
windows looks at first sight like Decorated, but on looking more 
closely, the introduction of Perpendicular features is very evident ; 
the west doorway has the segmental arch, common in Decorated 
work ; over this is the usual square label of the Pei'pendicular, and 
under the arch is Perpendicular panelling over the heads of the two 
doors ; the same curious mixture is observable in the mouldings, 
and in all the details. This example is the more valuable, from the 
circumstance that it was Bishop Edington who commenced the al- 
teration of Winchester Cathedral into the Perpendicular style.^^ ^ 

An embattled parapet is carried round the roof, including the 
tower. Under the fine west window of eight lights is a central 
doorway divided into two openings. The doors themselves remain, 
but are never opened on account of the dangerous condition of the 
stone-work above. 


The nave has a singular wooden ceiling of debased character with 
plaster panels, a small west gallery, high pews, tablets on the piers, 
whitewashed walls, and other tokens of ante- Restoration barbarism. 
The date of churchwarden work is recorded by initials in some places 
on the wall-plates : the full names being supplied by conjecture 
from old parish account books of the period. In the south aisle, 
above the Cheney monument, "I H [John Hart] 1615. S H 
[Stephen Horle] R R [Robert Rogers]." Also "I H 1674." In 

* Archteol. Instit. Journal, vol. vii., p. 206. See also in same Journal, vol. for 
1850, p. 202, a wood-cut of the west front, and at p. 206 some remarks. 

By the Rev. Cation J. E. Jackson, F.S.A. 297 

the north aisle, "I H 1658. W F [Ford]." The six pointed 
arches on each side of the nave are all alike. The clerestory windows 
were once filled with stained glass. 

This is spacious, and has three lofty windows on each side, with 
a large one at the east end. There is a series of eight canopied 
niches with tabernacled heads : two holding headless figures. Over 
six of the niches, as well as over two reclining figures in the north- 
west and south-west corners, are stone corbels, which may have 
supported a former roof. Over the altar, a late Jacobean wooden 
reredos, which, judging by the central pilaster and keystone above, 
appears to have formed at one time a chimney-piece in some old 
house. The chancel is said to have been formerly ceiled with stone, 
having the arms of Bishop Edingdon on the bosses. The present ceiling 
was substituted by Mr. Joshua Smith, of Erlestoke, about A.D. 1789. 

Interments and Monuments. 
There is a dearth of information about the burials in this Church. 
Leland names that of Sir Richard Penley, a knight who gave West 
Ilsley, in Berks : also. Sir John Rous, of Imber, who gave Baynton, 
and a Willoughby. He had also " hard that one Blubyri, a preben- 
dary of Saresbiri, executor of Bishop William Edington was buried 
there." ^ Gereberd and Thomas Bulkington, benefactors, having 
obits, would probably be also in the number. Perhajjs Bishop 
Ayscough : but of none of these is there now any memorial. 

Before the levelling of the chancel pavement, there used to be, 
on the south side, near the modern door, a large blue stone with 
sockets of a figure and shields at the corners of which only one was 
left, bearing " On a cross five cinquefoils in a semee, or circle of 
mullets [Edingdon]." It was removed to the west end of the 
Church, but is not now visible. There was also on the same floor, 
near a blocked-up door, once opening into the cloister on the north 

^ Bleobury's name does not appear as a Prebendary o£ Savum in Canon W. H. 
Jones's " Fasti," and he was probably buried at Shillingford, Berks, as mentioned 
above, p. 271. 

298 Edingdon Monastery . 

side^ a stone to " John Allarabi-igg-e, clerk^ sometime chaplain to 
the Dowager Lady Beauchamp ■''' ^ Some other large blue stones 
with marks of brasses were likewise removed. On the south side is 
a fine marble and alabaster monument to Sir Edward Lewis, of the 
Van, Co. Glamorgan (see above, p. 290), with effigies of himself 
and his wife, with children kneeling in front. Above is a cherub 
hovering over the recumbent figures with a crown of glory in his 
hand. The lady, by whom it was erected, was by birth a Sackville, 
married first Edward Seymour, Lord Beauchamp, an eldest son and 
heir in the Seymour family (in the third generation from Protector 
Somerset) who, had he not died young in the lifetime of his father 
and grandfather, would have been the second Duke of Somerset, 


Heeee lye the bodtes of the eight woe^.'- 8^ Edwaed 
Lewts late of the Vane in the covntie of Glamaegan 
KN'f one of the Gentlemen of the Peivie Chambee 
TO Peince Henet and aftee to King Chaeles : and 

of the eight HON^'-.e ANNE LaDT BeAVCHAMPE HIS WIFE 

the widowe of Edwaed Loede Beavchampe davghe^ 
OF Eobeet Eable of Doeset, by the Lady Maegaeet 
Howaed, sole dayghtee OF Thomas Duee of Noefolke 
They had issve lyving Fowee sonnes, Edwaed, 
William, Eichaed, and Robeet and one dayghtee 
Anne Lewys, 

He depaeted this life the 10^^ of octobee 1633. In 
memoeie of whome his moyenefyll Lady eeected 
this monyment foe him and hee selfe whoe 


In one line along the slab, under the figures : — 

Since Childeen aee the living coenee-stone, 
Wheee Maeiage bvilt on both sides meetes in one, 
Whilst they sdeviye, oue lives shall have extent, 


The arms on the shield are Lewis impaling Sackville, viz., Dexter, 

Quarterly. L Sable a lion rampant Argent, Lewis. 2. Sable a 

1 From 1641 to 1660 Joliu Allambrigg was Rector of Monkton Farley. In 
16G2 oue of this name resigned Whaddou {Wills Inslitiitions). 

Bij the Rev. Canon J. li. Jackson, F.S.A. 299 

chevron between three fleurs de lys Argent, Colwyn ap Tango. 3. 
Gules three chevronels Argent, Jestin ap Gargent. 4. Sable a 
chevron between three spear-heads Argent tipped Gules, Caradoc 
Vreichfar. Sinister, Quarterly, Or and Gules over all a bend vair 

On the floor an inscription, '''^Lady Anne Beauchamp died 25th 
Sept. 1664/^ Four young children of Richard and Mary Lewis, 
viz., Elizabeth, d. Uth February, 1676; Anne, 21st September, 
1673; Edward, February, 1670. James, 1680, aet. 9. Lady 
Catharine Powlett, wife of Lord Harry Powlett (who was after- 
wards fourth Duke of Bolton) 23rd April, 1744, set. 49. Rev. 
William Roots (Vicar) d. February 18th, 1S30, set. 77. Mary 
Alice, his wife, 3rd June, 1816, set. 59. And three daughters. 

On the north side is a fine monument by Sir F. Chantrey, repre- 
senting the death-bed of Sir Simon Richard Brissett Taylor, 
Bart., d. 18th May, 1815, set. 32, erected by his sister, Martha, 
who d. 26 Oct., 1(S17. Against the north wall " Simon Taylor, 
Esq., of Lyssons Estate, Jamaica, d. 14th April, 1813, set. 73. His 
brother. Sir John Taylor, Bart, 6th May, 1786, set. 41. 

Arms of Watson Taylor. For Taylor (incorrectly given in 
Burke's Extinct Baronets'), Quarterly. 1 and 4. Arg. a saltier 
wavy Sable between a heart in chief and another in base Gules : and 
a cinquefoil Vert in each flank. For Watson 2 and 3 Arg. a tree 
proper, over it a fess Arg. charged with three mullets of five points 
of the field. Crest. Issuing from a ducal coronet Or a hand and 
arm proper holding a cross-crosslet fitchee in bend of the first. Over 
the crest, " In hoc signo vinces." Supporters (granted by warrant, 
1815), two leopards proper plain- collared and chained, the chains 
reflected over the back, Or. 

On an achievement in the chancel are the arms of Joshua Smith, 
Esq., formerly owner of Edingdon. Smith impaling Gilbert. 
Dexter, Quarterly. 1. Arg. a saltire azure between three crescents 
Gules, and a dolphin hauriant in base Sable. 2. Argent, on the sea 
a ship all proper. 3. Azure a wild cat sejant holding up the dexter 

' The arms were dijEBerenced with a canton for the late George Watson Taylor, 

300 EdingdoH Monastery. 

paw. 4. Qx, a crescent Gules. Smith, of Scotland and Stoke 
Park. Sinister. Gules a leg couped at the thigh, in armour, be- 
tween two broken spears proper. Gilbert. 

In a vault in the Church is a brass coffin-plate with this inscrip- 
tion, " The most Illustrious Lady Lavinia Dutchess of Bolton, 
Dowager of the Most High Puissant and Noble Prince Charles 
Powlett, late Duke of Bolton, Marquis of Winchester, Earl of 
Wiltshire, &c. Died 24th January, 1760. Aged 49 years." The 
arras of the lady (impaled with the Duke's), are. Gules three bezants 
a fess in chief Or, Bkswycke, quartering, on a bend engrailed three 

This lady was the " Polly Peachum " of the " Beggar's Opera," 
mentioned above, p. 293. 

The chancel floor is 3 feet higher than that of the transept. 
Under the arch which divides them is an incongruous carved oak 
screen, beautified with the Royal arms, the Commandments and 
Creed, and the date 1 788. A rood-loft above this. The steps leading 
to this, now closed up, are in the corner of the North transept. 

South Transept. 

Against the south wall is a large altar-tomb, with an ^^^"^ of an 
ecclesiastic under a canopy ornamented with tracery, mouldings, 
shields, devices, &c., all coloured. All attempts to identify it satis- 
factorily have hitherto failed. In a note on "Leland's Tour in 
Wilts" {Wilts Arcliaol. Mag., i., 188), the present writer, being at 
that time under the impression that the two letters on a principal 
monogram were T. B., suggested, from reasons there given, that 
they denoted Thomas Bulkington, a benefactor to the house. But 
upon a later and closer inspection the first letter proved to be, not 
T, but /. With I. B., however, we are not much nearer discovery 
than before. That the figure represents some ecclesiastic of im- 
portance connected with the Monastery seems most likely, yet 
neither among the known names of the superiors, nor of the brethren 
occasionally mentioned in documents relating to Edingdon, is there 
a single one whose surname fits exactly the rehus over the cornice of 
the tomb, which is a branch or sprig issuing from a ton. This would 

By the Rev. Canon J. E. Jackson, F.S.A. -iOl 

not inappropriately match with the name of Bayntun {s.c, Bay-in- 
tun) : and there was a leading county family of that name, long 
settled, first at Falstone, in South Wilts, afterwards at Bromham, 
not far from Edingdon, but of their connexion with the Monastery 
no evidence has been met with. Under the canopy against the wall 
there is a blank space which may have been filled with an inscription. 
In the quatrefoils below is the rebus ]\ist mentioned. In the mould- 
ing above the quatrefoil is the same rebus, and another in which 
the branch or sprig seems to spring out of some animal. On the 
tun or barrel at the feet of the Q^gj are, at one end I. B. ; at the 
other a triangle. In small niches on each side are little figures : St. 
Peter with a key in one; St. Paul with a sword in the other. Some 
lettering on the ledge appears to be only the scratching of idlers. 
In the corner behind this tomb is a winding stair leading to the 

The North Transept 
is thought to have been a Lady Chapel. In the west corner is a 
closed-up doorway which once opened upon the cloister. That this 
ran along the north side of the Church is shown by the space of 
blank wall and the height of the windows from the ground, as at 
Malmesbury Abbey. An altar, a piscina, niche, and some coloured 
glass remain. There are memorials to " Mary, daughter of Martin 
and Anamoriah Taylor, i3th September, 1769." " S.P. [Sarah Price] 
1794." " Bridgeat, wife of John Gardiner, gent., of Tinhead, 1689." 

North Aisle. 

Against the wall is a consecration cross, viz., a cross within a 
circle : the four quarters formed by the cross being painted blue and 
red alternately. There are ten of these crosses outside the Church, 
two north, three south, two west, and two on east wall inside.* 

Some of the Longs of Baynton are interred in this aisle.^ Will- 
iam Long, 10th June, 1807, aet. 73. On an achievement the arms 

' For some account of these crosses see Dr. Baron's paper, Wilts Archceol. 
Mag., vol. sx., p. 134. 

- See Tab. IV. of the Pedigrees of Long, privately printed by William Long, 
Esq., of Wrington. 

VOL. XX. — NO. LX. X 

SOii Edingdon Monastery. 

of Long, impaling. Sable a chevron between three fleurs de lys Argent. 
Emma, only child of William and Mary Long, 1796. Mary, widow, 
lith January, 1822. Gules an escarbuncle Or. Onedert. (?) 
Towards the west end is a mural tablet to a family of Taylor, where 
the sculptor has introduced the novelty of a group of children, 
kneeling, in modern yeoman dress. On the floor also, John Gardiner 
1720. The glass in one or two of the clerestory windows has a 
bordure of lions passant. This bordure of lions, enclosing a cross 
flory forms the arms on the borough seal of Westbury, and is a 
token of connexion with the Pavely family. (See Sir R. C. Hoare^s 
Westbury, p. 3.) 

South Aisle. 

On the floor near the entrance is an old stone with the " Cross 
Keys " upon it. Also a very large Purbeck slab with sockets for 
two brasses of man and wife, with shields at the corners, but all the 
brasses have disappeared. 

Under one of the arches dividing this aisle from the nave is a 
pretty little oratory or mortuary chapel : consisting of an altar-tomb, 
beneath a canopy of light stone-work with a side door, niches, tracery, 
cornice and shields. On the Purbeck- stone surface of the tomb, 
sockets for two figures, man and wife, but brasses and inscription 
all lost. This tomb has been generally considered to be that of Sir 
Balph Cheney, who died c. 1401, having married Joan, one of the 
co-heiresses of Sir John Pavely, of Brook House : but the following 
arms, carved on the frieze of the canopy and panels of the tomb, if 
intended to apply to such a match, are rather perplexing : — 

On the canopy, side facing nave. 
Cheney. Cheney. Cheney. 

A fess lozengy each quartering a cross 

charged with an moline.^ 


^ The cross moline may possibly be for Pavely, to whom more than one variety 
of cross is given in the armouries. But there is some difficulty in adapting the 
heraldry on the stone-work to the match between Sir Ralph Cheney and Joan, 
heiress of Pavely. In another shield, on the opposite side of the monument. 

By tie Hev. Canon J. E. Jachon, F.S.A. 803 

On the tomb, same side. 
A KuDDER.' Cheney. Parti per pale four es- 

(Badge of Pavely.) callops, two and two.^ 

On the canopy, side facing aisle. 
Cheney. Pavely. Pavely. 

impaling a cross moline. A cross florj. 

On the tomb, same side. 
A Rudder. Cheney. Parti per pale four es- 

callops, two and two* 
Over the doorway, the rudder. 
In the north-west corner is the font, octagonal, the basin of 
Purbeck marble, the base of free-stone. 

In the same corner is an oven -like projection concealing a passage 
through the wall which once led into the cloister. 
The bells are six in number : none older than 1640. 

1. »J< Anno Domini 1640 I A L. 

2. ^ Anno Domini I A L. 1654. 

3. Eichard Price, Churchwarden 1781. Willm. Bilbie, Chew- 

stoke, Somersetshire, Founder. 

4. James Wells, Aldbourn, Wilts, fecit, 1802. Jas. Newman 

and E. M. Ellis, Churchwardens. 

5. ^ Anno Domini 1647. C G : W.P : C.W. I A L. 

6. I to the Church the living call 

And to the grave do summon all. A A R. 1723. 

the cross moline is impaled with Cheney, denoting a wife, not usually an heiress : 
but in this shield the cross is quartered with Cheney ; which, again, is a form 
usually denoting the son of an heiress. It is true that (as exempHfied in the 
Garter Plate and seal of Neville, Earl of Fauconbridge) the arms of an heiress 
were sometimes quartered with the husband's, instead of being set on an escutcheon 
of pretence : still, why on this monument the cross appears difEerently on two 
shields, impaled on the one, and quartered on the other, is not quite clear. 

' Camden says that Robert Willoughby (who, on account of his descent from 
the Pavelys by the family of Cheney — both of Brook House — took the title of 
Willoughby de Broke) bore a rudder, as Admiral of the Fleet. But the rudder 
was seen on the windows of Broke House, by Leland, before Willoughby had 
succeeded the older families. See a note in "Wiltshire Collections, Aubrey and 
Jackson," p. 400. 

' This shield has not been identified. Of the coats of arms known to be con- 
nected with the Pavely family that of Erleigh comes nearest, viz., three escallops, 
two and one. 

X 2 

304 Edingdon Monastery. 

The chancel, outside, has undergone a scraping, which gives it 
a newer appearance than the rest of the Church. Eight of the 
pinnacles are gone. The present four are modern. 

In the Churchyaed, on the left of the south porch is a very- 
ancient altar-tomh called the " Dole-stone/' on which certain loaves 
are distributed. On the right is the base of a churchyard cross. 
On the east side of the cemetery is a fine old yew tree, the girth at 
3 feet from the ground about 21ft. 3in. On the churchyard wall 
is an old tomb with panelled sides, but no inscription. 

The tracery of the Tower window is worked in the pattern of a 
cross moline. The west window of the south aisle has tracery of 
the same pattern, but the cross is in saltire. 

Remains op the Monastery. 

Of these there is little left. As above mentioned, the cloister 
ran along the north side of the Church. Part of the monks^ dwell- 
ing is now a farm house with gabled front, flanked by two embattled 
square towers of later addition. Of this there is a wood-cut in the 
Gentleman^s Magazine of 1846: but the central gables there repre- 
sented have been taken away. There is nothing remarkable in the 
interior. One room, lined with oak, is called " The Chaplain's," 
but bears neither date nor ornament. Of the Monastery when 
entire no plan is known to have been preserved. Its destruction by 
Mr. Bayntun and Mr. Joshua Smith has been already mentioned. 
There was, within living memory, a wall 7 feet high and 2 feet 
thick which led from the house to the Church, into which it was 
built : and was strengthened by some singular semicircular buttresses 
with conical caps. 

The fish-ponds, which were turned into withy-beds when Mr. 
Joshua Smith purchased the property, were restored to their original 
use in 1856, by the present owner. 

Fountain- Cell. 

There are four springs of water near the site of the monastery : 
and over the southernmost a stone building or fountain-cell, erected 
by the monks, is in fair preservation. It is 8 feet high by 4 feet 

By the Rev. Canon J. E. Jackson, F.S.A. 


4 inches wide : the side-walls 7 feet 10 inches high, under a slanting 
stone roof which is supported in the centre by two pointed arches. 
Edingdon springs are much visited in summer, partly for water- 
cresses, partly for the amusement of trying what truth there is in a 
common saying about two within the monastery garden, viz., that 
one yields hard and another soft water. 


In the time of the Rectory Prebend and afterwards of the Monas- 
tery the Church was served by a Vicar appointed by the Prebendary 
and by the Rector of the house. The names of some of the Vicars 
down to 1348 have been given above at page 282. After the Dis- 
solution, the impropriator of the tithes or his lessee found a clerk 
to do the duties, who used to be called Perpetual Curate. To the 
Dukes of Bolton he also acted as chaplain, had £30 a year, a horse 
and servant found, and table at the house. The preferment was 
called, or miscalled, a donative. The title of Vicar has been restored. 

The following names occur in old churchwardens' account books 
from 1575, and from the parish register, which commences 1st 
August, 1678 :— 



Perpetual Curate, now Vicar. 


1754, July 22nd 
1766, May 8th 
1768, Jan. 28th 
1779, March 8th 
1781, Nov. 15th 


1786, October 
1826, 4th Sept. 
1880, 17th May 


r Joshua Smith and") 
-< Drummond Smith, >- 
(, Esqs. J 

S. Watson Taylor, Esq. 

Thomas Aisley " minis - 
John Newman 
David Thomas 
William Thomas 
Robert Haynes 
William Thomas [again] 
Richard Sanderson 
John Bailey ") probably 
DanielLloyd) J— , 

Thomas Marks, p.m. R. 

William Roots 
Henry Cave-Browne- 

306 A Stroll through Bradford-on-Avon. 

In " Buckler's Anglo-Norman Antiquities " are views of the 
interior of Edingdon Church, two monuments : also at page 1"22 
the monument and effigy of Bishop William Edingdon at Winches- 
ter. In the " Building News " of July l^th, 1872, are double-page 
drawings of the exterior by the late Mr. F. C. Deshon. 

J. E. J. 

[The Committee desire gratefully to acknowledge their sense of Canon Jackson's 
liberality in presenting the photographs which illustrate his paper on Edingdon.] 

cattail t|toug| §t:abforir^ait^^&0tt/ 

By Canon W. H. Jones, M.A., F.S.A., Vicar. 

^HERE are two things which must strike every stranger^ that 
ig|^ has " eyes to see, or ears to hear,'' on his first visit to this 
singularly interesting town, especially when he listens to the tales 
of old folks about it — the first is its evident antiquity, — the second, 
the ecclesiastical imprint that is to be discerned everywhere. 

I, — As to its antiquity there can be no doubt. It is certainly 
among the oldest of Wiltshire towns. The only others mentioned 
in really ancient times are, as far as I know, Amesbury, Corsham, 
Calne, Chippenham, Cricklade, Malmesbury, Ramsbury, Old Sarum, 
and Wilton. As early as A.D. 652, we read of an important battle 
having been fought at " Brad ford-by-the- Avon" by Cenwalch, King 
of the W^est Saxons, which, followed up as it was by another con- 
test six years later " against the Welsh at the Pens in which he 
put them to flight as far as the Parret," led to important results as 

' This paper consists of short notices of objects of interest in the town of 
Bradford-on-Avon which were given by the Vicar to the Members of the Wilts 
Archoeological Society, as they " strolled " with him round it, on the occasion of 
their visit, in August, 1881. 

By the Bev. Canon W. E. Jones, F.S.A. 


regards the large accession of territory in these parts of England 
gained by the conquerors, and indirectly to the re-establishment of 
Christianity here. For Cenwalch, who had abjured Christianity and 
at the same time repudiated his wife, and had been in the year 642 
driven temporarily from his kingdom, no sooner regained it by the 
battles at Bradford and at the Pens, than he returned from his 
apostacy, and became not long afterwards the founder of a Church at 
Winchester. And it is of no little interest to us to know, that 
Aldhelm, whose name should be so well known and reverenced here 
as the founder of our Saxon Church, that cradle of primitive Christi- 
anity, was nephew of King Cenwalch. 

II.— As to its ecclesiastical character ; — this seems impressed upon 
us by the quaint and church -like look of so many of its buildings. 
Each of the old limits of the town was at one time guarded as 
though by an ancient chapel— those of St. Laurence, St. Olave, St. 
Mary at Tory, St. Margaret, by the bridge, St. Catharine, near the 
old almshouses— five ecclesiastical barbicans, two of them still re- 
maining to us in good preservation, and the sites of all the rest being 
well known. Nor is this ecclesiastical character surprising when 
we recollect its history. Here, as early as A.D. 705 S. Aldhelm 
founded his little Church, and what is called his " monastery," by 
which is meant a Church and dwelling-house with three or four 
missionaries, as we might say, attached to it. No doubt for 
many years after this, Bradford-on-Avon, though otherwise as 
regards its "monastery" and Church an independent foundation, 
and certainly not supported by any means derived from Malmesbury , 
owed allegiance to that religious house and to its Abbots from time 
to time. But in the year A.D. lOOi we find the whole manor of 
Bradford, together with its monastery — then called coenobium — bes- 
towed by King iEthelred on the Abbess of Shaftesbury, the specific 
object of this gift being to " provide the nuns of Shaftesbury a safe 
refuo-e (the exact words are impenetrabile confiigium) from the attacks 
of the Danes, and a hiding-place for the relics of the blessed King 
Edward, then recently martyred, and the rest of the saints. And 
for more i\\a.nfive hundred years, the manor of Bradford was in the 
hands of the Abbesses of Shaftesbury for the time being. This may 

. 308 A Stroll through Bradford-on-Avon. 

well account for the ecclesiastical character of the whole place. 
But we will stroll round the Town, and speak in turn of each of 
the objects of interest. 

1 . We will start from the most interesting of all our treasures, 
the Saxon Church of St. Laurence, which stands close by the north- 
east end of the present parish Church. Both Churches no doubt origi- 
nally stood in the same churchyard, the extent of which was at one 
time much greater than at present. The story of the discovery and 
gradual re-purchase and re-habilitation of this " little church " — 
ecclesiola, it is called by William of Malmesbury — has often been 
told, and therefore I need not here tell the tale again. Suffice it to 
say that it consists of a Nave, a Chancel, and a Porch on the 
north side ; that originally there was a similar annexe on the south 
side, so that the building was cruciform ; that the Nave is about 
twenty-five feet long by thirteen broad j the chancel thirteen feet long 
by ten broad ; and the porch may roundly be described as about ten 
feet square. The height of the building is very remarkable, in the 
nave being rather slightly, and in the chancel considerably, greater 
than the length, in either case. There are also two interesting stone 
figures of angels above the chancel arch, which, if not quite coeval 
with the building itself, can hardly in any case be later than the 
tenth century, since in the Benedictional of St. iEthelwold which is 
of the date 970 — 975, there are figures of angels which correspond 
very closely with them. In any case there is now a general agree- 
ment among all who are qualified to form an opinion, that we have 
in this most interesting "little church,''' a building which was 
founded by S. Aldhelm (who died in 709), and which is a solitary 
perfect example of a Church of so early a date. 

2. We now come to the Parish Church. This is dedicated to 
the Holy Trinity. It consists of a Chancel, Nave, North Aisle, Tower, 
and a mortuary Chapel, erected by one of the Hall family, on the 
south side — the last being now used as an organ chamber. The north 
aisle was built at intervals of some fifty years apart, the western 
portion, extending to the eastern side of the fourth window, being the 
earlier work, and having been a chantry chapel dedicated to St. 
Nicholas — the reredos in the centre of which stood over a crucifix 

By the Kev. Canon W. H. Jones, F.S.A. 309 

still remaining as a structural portion of the wall — the eastern por- 
tion having been a chantry chapel o£ the Blessed Virgin, founded by 
one of the Horton family, whose brass, recording the last fact, is still 
preserved. As is the ease with all ancient Churches, there have 
been alterations and additions made from time to time. Fragments 
of an earlier Church have been found, and are to be seen still 
treasured up in the porch of the Saxon Church. The present 
structure no doubt originally consisted simply of a chancel about 
two-thirds of its present length, and a nave, and there was a row 
of Norman windows both above and below, the latter being more 
accurately described as elere-story windows. Two of the larger 
Norman windows in the chancel have lately been re-opened. To- 
wards the end of the thirteenth century the chancel would seem to 
have been lengthened, and the two recessed tombs inserted, one on 
the north and the other on the south side. Next followed the aisles, 
originally, as has been said, two, but now joined in one. In the 
beginning of the sixteenth century followed the tower ; and then 
the mortuary chapel of which mention has been made. 

The Church contains memorials of the families of Hall — the 
maternal ancestors of Earl Manvers — of Methuen, Tidcomb, Stewart, 
Thresher, Shrapnell, Clutterbuck, Tugwell, Cam — the maternal an- 
cestor of the late Lord Broughton — and Bethel — a family ennobled 
in the late Lord Chancellor Westbury. 

3. Leaving the Church, and passing up the steps on the western 
side of the tower, we stand before a house of some interest. It 
belonged once to Edward Orpin,' the parish clerk of Bradford, and 
was probably built by some of his family. He was the "Parish 
Clerk " whom Gainsborough, the artist — a frequent visitor to this 
neighbourhood — painted. The portrait was given by him to Mr. 
Wiltshire, and became the property of his descendant, who lived 

* Edwaed Orpin, the parish clerk, died in June, 1781. The name " Orpen," 
or " Orpin," as the clerk himself always spelt it, occurs frequently in our registers 
during the previous century-and-a-half, but after his time we lose traces of it 
altogether, and he seems to have been one of the last — if not the last — of his 
family. The stone lying just within the rails, opposite the house, is said to cover 
his remains. 

810 A Stroll Ihrour/h Brad/ord-un-Avon. 

at Shockerwick. On the sale of his pictures after his decease the 
one we are describing- was purchased for the nation, at a cost of 
some £800, and is now to be seen among- the paintings by Eng-lish 
artists in the national collection. 

4, We pass on now till we come to the western entrance to the 
churchyard, where on the north side of a modern building, dignified 
by the name of Abbey House, are the remains of what Leland 
speaks of as "Horton's House." The Horton family were well-to-do 
wool merchants, and, as we have already seen, benefactors of the 
Church. The mansion which one of them built was afterwards in part 
used for shops for the weaving- of cloth. And as the Flemish work- 
men, introduced first of all into the town for the purpose of such 
manufactures, were quartered, or at all events plied their craft here, 
the yard was called till a wevy recent period the " Dutch Barton." 
There is a deed in existence by which, in 1659, Paul Methuen cove- 
nanted with the parish officers, that a certain spinner, by name 
Richard (otherwise) Derricke Johnson, whom, together with his wife 
Hectrie, and several small children, he for his own proper gain and 
benefit did fetch or bring out of Amsterdam, in Holland, should 
never be chargeable to the parish. There is a similar deed in the 
parish chest, dated 1674, endorsed, "Mr. William Brewer his bond 
of £100 to save harmless the Parish of Bradford against certain 
Dutchmen," whom he had brought over from Holland, or "Powland," 
for the purpose of promoting, as they did effectually, the manufac- 
turing trade in cloth in Bradford. 

5. Walking on down Church Street, and passing by a little 
knoll called " Druce^s Hill " — so termed from one Anthony Druce, 
a Quaker, who built a house there in which he lived — we come to 
a large and interesting building, mentioned by Leland in 1543 and 
called by him the " Chuech House." This, which is of the date 
of the fifteenth century, was built by one of the Horton family, and 
was the public place of assembly where people met for the purpose 
of assessing themselves and their neighbours for the expenses of 
Church repairs, the relief of the poor, &c. On the principle of 
"business first and pleasure afterwards," as soon as they had at- 
tended to the wants of others, they had a little care for their own. 

By the Rev. Canon fF. H. Jones, F.S.A. 311 

and indulged in festivities known as Church-Ales, Whitsun-Ales, 
and the like. It was purchased a few years ago by the trustees of 
the Saxon Church, and given in exchange for the portion of that 
building which had been used for the purposes of a free school. The 
Free School was afterwards transferred to the Church-House, and is 
still held there. 

6. We now arrive at the Town Hall, a handsome building, 
erected about thirty years ago on the site of some old gabled and 
interesting houses, the removal of which took away one of the most 
picturesque groups of buildings in the town. Opposite to the Town 
Hall are what are called respectively Horse Street and theSHAJtBLES. 
The former derives its name from an old inn called the " Scribbling 
Horse" (a corruption of "Scribbling Zf^r«e") the last name denoting 
{he frame on which the cloth when first made was stretched in order 
that it might be scribbled {i.e., cleared by the teasel from all its 
inequalities), an operation formerly done by the hand, but now by 
machinery. The latter, now confined to a narrow paved passage 
between shops, was termed the " Shambles " because of the butchers' 
stalls which were there, or it may be in the Market Place immedi- 
ately adjoining, in the lower portion of the Town Hall, of which we 
shall make more particular mention presently, 

7. We pass through the Shambles; on our way we must notice 
on the right the old barge-boards on the houses, and the fifteenth 
century doorway of what is an inn now called the Royal Oak. We 
pass a narrow lane on the left called Coppice Lane, an indication in 
its name of the close proximity of the wood to the town at one 
time, and enter Silver Street, called at different times Fox Street 
and Gregory Street, presumably from the names of some old in- 
habitants there, and stop for a moment before a small di-aper's shop, 
now kept by Mr. Jennings. This house has some little interest 
from the fact that here John Wesley, when he came at different 
times to visit his community here, had his lodgings. One tradition- 
ary tale is told concerning him. One morning, when he came down, 
as was his wont, at an early hour, he congratulated his host on 
owning a "truly English bed.'' " Why, Mr. Wesley ?" was the 
enquiry. " Because/' was the answer, "it has no notion oi giving out" 

312 A Stroll through Bradford-on-dvon. 

8. Pursuing- our ouward course, we pass first of all Whitehead's 
Lane — so called from one Manasseh Whitehead, a cojiyholder there 
— and come to a narrow passage between houses, now called Cut- 
Throat Lane, a corruption I imagine for the less alarming " CuT- 
Thkough " Lane — a fair description enough of it — and so we arrive 
at the corner of White Hill, the former portion of which is possibly 
a corruption of a word signifying " wood," as in Wit-ley near Melk- 
sham, and here we reach the site of one of the old chapels of which 
I have spoken, namely that of St. Olave. All traces of the chapel 
are now removed, but in documents of the last century we have the 
street desci'ibed as " vicjis Sancti Olavi," otherwise "Tooley Street." 
Just as Tooley Street, in Southwark, is so called from the Church 
of St. Olave {e.g., St. Olaf, contracted into 'T Olaf, and so into 
Tooley), so it was the case here. The street has now by a kind of 
attraction assumed the name of the tithing to which it leads, namely 
Woolley Street; originally, however, Woolley was " Ulf-lege," and 
so called from an owner of the name of Ulf, who is mentioned in 
Domesday Book. 

9. We now arrive at Kingston House, the most beautiful 
specimen of domestic architecture in the town. It partakes much 
of the character of Longleat, and was built probably between 1 590 
and 1620. It was commenced probably by John Hall, who was 
married to Dorothy Rogers, and who died in 1597, and completed 
by his son, bearing the same Christian name, who married Elizabeth 
Brunne, of Athelhampton and who died in 1631. This house may 
be described as of the transition style, between the old Tudor or Per- 
pendicular and the new or Palladian. Its enrichments are of German 
invention, and the excess of window light is characteristic of houses 
of this date and style. It is of such that Lord Bacon said, " they 
are so full of glass that one cannot tell where to become to be out 
of the way of the sun or of the cold." The principal front is to 
the south ; it is divided into two storeys with attics in the gables, 
and has large windows with thick stone muUions. The whole 
building may be divided into three portions, the central one coming 
forward square, and the two side ones with semicircular bows. In 
the centre is a large sculptured doorway to a porch^ and the 


By the Bev. Canon W. H. Jones, F.S.A. 313 

summit of the window-bays is adorned with open parapets. 

The last of the Hall family left all his property to Rachel Baynton, 
of Chaldfield, who was married to Evelyn Pierrepont, son of the 
Marquis of Dorchester^ afterwards first Duke of Kingston. Their 
only son, who became second and last Duke of Kingston, succeeded 
in due course. It is from that noble family that this house came 
to be called Kingston House. On the death of the second Duke 
without issue, subject to a life interest to his Duchess, the property 
descended to his sister, the wife of a son of Sir Philip Meadows, 
the ancestor of the Manvers family. It remained the property of 
the last-named family till 1806, when it was sold to Messrs. Divett, 
who turned it into a storehouse for wool, and allowed it to go to 
sad decay. In 1848, happily for all who would fain preserve ancient 
buildings, especially those of interest and beauty, it was sold to the 
late Stephen Moulton, Esq ., and it was to his generous enterprise, 
and exquisite taste, that a building equal to any in the county as a 
specimen of domestic architecture is seen by us in its original form 
and beauty. 

10. We pass through the grounds of Kingston House and come 
into a lane — now called Kingston Road, but formerly, as it would 
appear, Frogmere Street — till we arrive at the Old Market Place. 
It was at this spot that one Trapnell — a name familiar enough to 
us in connection with Chaldfield — was burnt publicly for so-called 
heresy, in denying the King's supremacy, in the year 153:J. Against 
the wall of what is now the Royal Oak stood the Old Market 
House ; the lines of the roof-gable may still be traced. I have 
been favored by one whose early youth was spent in Bradford with 
a description of this old building. He says, " The Old Mai'ket 
House was originally of what might be termed three storeys. The 
basement or cellar was on a level with the street opposite the shop 
now occupied by Mr. Budget Jones, the entrance joining the Royal 
Oak, and was used some sixty years ago as a crockery store, The 
second storey was an open colonnade looking up Coppice Lane, and 
was full of butchers' stalls — whence the name of ' The Shambles ' 
occupied by the country butchers. The entrance was on the level 
of the Shambles, and the storey itself consisted of three plain round 

314 A Stroll through Bradford-on-Avon. 

columns^ one at each ang-le, between them being wooden palisading^ 
and a central column ; to this last, the ne'er-do-wells who were sen- 
tenced for some offence or other to have a whipping were bound, 
when suffering the wholesome penalty for their misdeeds. The third 
or upper storey consisted at one time of a room in which the courts 
were held and the business of the manor transacted. But in my 
time (1820) it was in ruin, and the staircase leading to it was gone. 
I remember, however, that it had three quaint projecting windows 
of a square-headed form, with thick deeply-moulded oak frames, 
which were filled with small diamond panes of glass, and looked into 
the Old Market Place. I remember the upper part falling down, 
whilst the lower was still for some years afterwards used by the 

I may as well add a few words as to the ultimate fate of the Old 
Market House. For some years no repairs were done to it, and it 
gradually became more and more dilapidated. Again and again 
presentments had been made concerning it, as a place not only 
" unfit but unsafe to transact the Lord's business in." Once the 
borough jury were bold enough to present the steward for not at- 
tending to their presentments in this particular. But all was in 
vain ; no attempt was made to sustain the tottering fabric, and one 
night, it is alleged, the building fell. Whether its fall was the 
result of accident or design — tales are afloat which favour the latter 
supposition — men cared not too curiously to enquire. Till a recent 
period, the man was living who carted away the materials of the 
Old Town Hall, which he had previously purchased for the sum of 
twenty shillings ! 

11. We now turn to the left and shortly find ourselves at the 
foot of the Town Bridge, with its interesting Chapel on the eastern 
side of it. The bridge itself, as an examination of it soon shews, 
was at one time not only narrower in width, but shorter in length. 
If you look underneath the arches from a lower level this fact is 
soon apparent. In truth, the original centre of it is pretty well half 
way between the chapel and the commencement of the bridge from 
the Market Place. Originally it was used only for pack-horses and 
foot-passengers, or at the most very light vehicles, the heavier 

By the Rev. Canon W. E. Jones, F.S.A. 315 

waggons and other conveyance being taken over the ford, which was 
at this point broad and shallow. The bridge was lengthened to- 
wards the southern side, but the force of the current is still against 
what were originally the central arches, between which is a strong 
and not inelegant " cut-water." The construction of the old Chapel 
is also worth examining, at all events as regards its lower portion — 
for the upper portion would seem to have been a construction of 
later date — with its graduated corbelling and the elegantly-designed 
shaft on which it is erected. What its object was originally is 
more or less matter of conjecture. Standing as it did at the foot 
of the bridge on the south side, some have thought that it was 
simply a toll house, one of the places at which were collected dues 
which were demanded from all who came into the town to sell their 
various wares. Others have assigned to it a higher object, and 
Aubrey says of it — "Here" [at Bradford] "is a strong and handsome 
bridge, in the midst of which a little chapel as at Bath for masse." 
So that possibly, as the Hospital of St. Margaret was close by, in 
fact at the bridge-foot, it may have once contained the image of 
the patron saint, and so have been a place for receiving at once the 
devotions and alms of passers-by. Before the building of the present 
Town Hall it was used as a temporary lock-up for offenders against 
the laws. The vane at the top of this interesting chapel is " a fish," 
and it used to be a common saying among Bradford folk, as they saw 
some culprit being " run in " to this strange lock-up, that " he wer' 
a gwoing auver the water, but under the vish." 

1^. All traces of the Hospital of St. Margaret, which was 
standing in Leland's time, for he speaks of it as " of the Kinges of 
England's foundation," have disappeared. Its memorial is preserved 
in the street which is still called St. Margaret Street, and in Mor- 
gan's Hill, close by — pronounced by the old folk of Bradford Mar- 
gan's Hill — and as lately as 1724 called St. Margaret's Hill. It 
must have been close to the bridge, and probably included amongst 
other property that on which stands the house now owned and oc- 
cupied by Mr. George Spencer, a house that derives some little 
interest from the fact that there once lived in it Dr. Bethel, and his 
distinguished son who became Lord Chancellor of England, and 

316 A Stroll through Bradford- on- Avon. 

was ennobled as Baron Westbury. Nor must we forget, as we pass 
other houses close by, that one on the left-hand belonged once to 
the family of Shrapnell, one of whom was the inventor of the once 
famous " Shrapnell ShelP^; and that in another, on the right-hand, 
a well-known and deservedly esteemed Noncomformist minister, the 
Rev. W. Jay, of Bath, found a retreat for his declining years. We 
advance onwards a hundred yards or so, and we come to the Old 
Menu's Almshouse, founded A.D. 1700 by John Hall, Esq., for four 
poor men. Over the Almshouse is a shield with the " battle axe '■* 
carved on it, the crest of the Hall family, with an inscription under 
it, " Deo et PaujDcribus." The administration of this charity is now 
in the hands of Earl Manvers, the lineal descendant of the founder. 

13. From the old men's Almshouses we come appropriately 
enough to those for old women. These are situated close by the 
canal They are of Pre-Reformation date, a small payment from 
the lord of the manor, due from time immemorial, forming part of 
the endowment. There is still to be seen a small relic of the 
Chapel of St. Catharine, to whom the " hospital " — using this term 
in its original sense — was dedicated. Even till a recent period 
Catherine-tide, or as the old folks call it Kattern-tide, was duly re- 
membered, and many a one in Bradford reckoned their ages from it. 
Thus an old woman once said to me, " 1^11 be vower-score come 
Kattern-tide.''^ Till quite lately the really old-foshioned among us 
used to send presents of small cakes, called " Kattern-Cakes^" to 
their friends, in memory of this festival. 

The Almshouse, in which, until three years ago, there were but 
three women maintained, came to be in a sadly ruinous state. A 
legacy bequeathed for the purpose by the late Mr. Bubb enabled 
the trustees to build three entirely new houses some twelve years 
ago. Increase in the income of the charity, and a better system of 
management, permitted of the erection of & fourth Almshouse some 
three years ago, and the addition of another poor almswoman to the 
reeij)ients of the benefits of the charity. 

14. But leaving the Almshouse of St. Catharine, and turning 
down a lane on the left hand, and passing the " Pound," in which 
stray cattle were once placed till their owner might claim them, 

By the Rev. Canon IF. H. Jones, F.S.A. 317 

leaving on the right a field called Culver-Close, because there at one 
time was the dove-cot or pigeon-house (from the Anglo-Saxon cidfre 
=dove, or pigeon), we come to what is called Barton Farm, the 
homestead of the lady of the manor, or of the chief farmer, who 
held it under her, and was called the Firmarius. Of the house 
itself, as regards its ancient portions, hardly anything is left. A 
small portion which seems parcel of a gateway, and a small apart- 
ment annexed to it, is nearly all ; and the date of this would hardly 
be earlier than the fifteenth century. But the glory of Barton 
Farm is its magnificent Barn, which is like a long nave with double 
transepts, being 170 feet in length, and 20 feet in breadth — indeed, 
including the transepts no less than 60 feet broad. The object of 
so large a building was to house the crops from the farm itself, and 
also the tithes which in early days were paid in kind, as well as to 
provide shelter during winter and inclement weather for the flocks 
and herds. It is generally called an Early English Barn, and the 
older and more pointed arches of the transeptal entrances, into 
which the more recent and depressed ones have been inserted, can 
still be distinctly seen. The construction of its massive roof is not 
only skillful — it was built in a time when men grudged as it would 
seem neither labour nor materials — but ingenious. The roof-timbers 
are all so framed from the ground as to be as far as possible inde- 
pendent of the walls, and so to minimise the lateral thrust which 
their great weight would otherwise exert on the building, to the 
great detriment of the walls. On the surface of the stones in the 
interior can still be traced the various " marks " of the masons who 
were employed in the original construction of the building. By 
making a collection of them — for each master-mason had his dis- 
tinctive mark, which he was obliged to leave on the surface of each 
stone which he had worked, instead of as now on the side that is 
embedded in the wall — it would not be difiicult to make a rough 
calculation as to the number of masons employed in the building. 
The date of the barn may be put down at about c. 1300 — 1350. 
It is strange that we know not at all who built it. Aubrey, when 
he came to visit us, now two hundred years ago, thought that he saw 
as one of the finials a " battle axe," the crest of the Hall family, 
VOL. XX. — NO. LX. y 

318 A Stroll through Bradforcl-on-Avon. 

and seems to intimate his belief that one o£ them built it. But 
John Aubrey was certainly deceived^ as he well might have been, 
for he does not speak as though he had inspected the building, but as 
only having seen it from a distance. There is no flnial at all like a 
"battle axe," nor is it known that any of the Hall family, at any 
rate at so early a period, had anything to do with the manor. 

At the same time there was a man of note, who, at the very 
period when, as we conjecture, the barn was first built, may have 
been its bold designer. This was Gilbert de Middleton, who held the 
Manor of Bradford under the Abbess of Shaftesbury at that precise 
period, and was virtually Rector — for as such he appointed Richard 
Kelveston to the Vicarage of Bradford in 1312 — and who could at 
all events well afford to indulge his building tastes. For he held 
prebends in the Cathedrals of St. Paul's, Chichester, Hereford, 
Wells, and Sarum, besides being (in 1316), Archdeacon of North- 
ampton, and Prebendal Rector of Edingdon. He was moreover, 
we may conjecture, not unknown, or at least not without interest at 
Court, for in 1321, we are told, "the King'' (Edward II.) "granted 
him that he should uot be disturbed in any of his benefices," 
Though it is of course wholly conjecture, yet I sometimes think that 
this same Gilbert de Middleton may have had a hand in building 
the barn. If not assisted, like others similarly situated, by the 
landlady in chief, the venerable Abbess of Shaftesbury, he may have 
had a very henefic'ial lease granted to him of the Manor, by way of 
recouping him in part for the necessarily large outlay. 

15. But leaving the Barton Barn, and crossing the pretty little 
ancient bridge, with its five arches and the piers each with its 
elegant cut-water so arranged as to break as far as possible the force 
of the stream in time of floods, we come to what is called Barton 
Orchard, and so to a large house on the right-hand which is termed 
Chantry House, a name also given to the field immediately adjoining 
it. The site on which the present house stands, as well as the field 
referred to, were at one time the endowments of the "Chantries" 
which were founded in the parish Church ; and pcssibly also on the 
same site there once stood a smaller dwelling, in which the Chantry 
Priests lived. The present house has been from time to time added 

By the Rev. Canon W. H. Jones, F.S.A. 319 

to and altered^ and looks as though its oldest parts may date from the 
fifteenth, or at any rate the sixteenth century. It belonged, some 
two hundred years ago, to the Thresher family, from whom it was 
purchased, about 17-11, by Mr. Samuel Cam, a leading clothier and 
active magistrate of the town. One of Mr. Cam's daughters mar- 
ried Sir Benjamin Hobhouse, and their eldest son, "John Cam''— 
afterwards raised to the peerage under the title of Baron Broughton 
de Gifford — inherited Chantry House. On his decease it descended 
to his nephew. Sir Charles Parry Hobhouse, Bart., and by him was 
sold a few years ago to its present possessor, the Rev. J. C. Thring. 

16. We now visit the spot whence issues the water-supply, 
which for so many centuries, has sufficed for the needs of the 
town. This is called Lady- Well, perhaps because it belonged to 
the Lady Abbess at Shaftesbury, or perhaps (and as we would fain 
believe more probable) from the dedication of the little chapel at 
the very top of the hill (the more so as the water all comes from 
the hills behind it) , as though it were the well of " Our Lady," that 
is, of the " Blessed Virgin." Noted for its purity for centuries, the 
sanitary diggings, and the engineering proclivities of modern times, 
have contrived — though only temporarily we will hope — to damage 
its fame, and even the supply provided for themselves by the poor 
folk of Bradford at their own cost and trouble is pronounced impure. 
We will hope, however, now in a very short time to have a pure 
supply of water to our town, though an archaeologist may be forgiven 
for expressing a passing wish that it had been found possible to 
preserve a supply, about which there was at all events more than a 
temporary interest, otherwise than by the rough-and-ready expedient 
of closing it altogether. 

17. We now climb a steep hill called Well- Path, and at the 
top of it we find ourselves by the side of what is called Tory Chapel, 
and also, by Leland, termed the Hermitage. The word Tory is no 
doubt little else but the old word, common to Celtic and Teutonic 
dialects (W. iwr and A. S. tor), which signifies a high eminence; iu 
fact our word totver is its modern equivalent; and the situation 
verifies the name, for it is the very highest part of the town itself. 
By " Hermitage" is not meant one of those primitive hermitages. 

320 A Stroll through BraiJord-on-Avon. 

the simple purpose of which was to allow some recluse to live the 
life of a devotee, but one of those useful single houses which were 
stationed in various places to afford a traveller food and shelter. 
There was a " chapel ■''' here, which the wayfarer might use for his 
devotions, a small hall in which he might have a simple meal, and 
a spare room in which he might find a night's shelter. It was, in fact, 
one of those " hospitals " — using the word in its primitive sense 
— not unfrequent in these parts — (there was one at Chapel Plaister, 
and another at St. Audoen's, Wraxall) — in which the pilgrim bent 
on a religious errand, such as a visit to some holy place or shrine, 
might at all events find food and shelter on his journey. The 
^'recluse " or " hermit" lived here, and received such guests from time 
to time. It was an effort on the part of our forefathers in the middle 
ages, to carry out the precept once given to God's ancient people, 
" Love ye therefore the stranger ; for ye were strangers in the land 
of Egypt." (Dent., xi., 19.) 

18. We pass along Tory, a name given to the terrace, so to 
speak, that runs along the very top-rank of our town, and at the 
end of it we see on the right a building, deprived of some of 
its interest by having been made so bran-new and bereft of all its 
luxuriant ivy tresses, which ought to have a passing notice. It 
was one of the earliest non-conforming places of worship, and was 
called the Grove Meeting House. It was built about A D. 1 698, 
shortly after the passing of the Act of Uniformity, and the first 
minister was one of the ejected clergy, who previously had been at 

19. Ascending the hill still, we go through what is called the 
CONIGRE, a common name enough, and signifying a "rabbit-warren," 
and then turning to the right we arrive at last at Christ Church, 
built now some 35 years ago in a style of rigid simplicity, but now, 
by the addition of a chancel — almost the last work of the late gifted 
architect. Sir Gilbert Scott — and the use of mural decorations, and 
introduction of stained glass, a Church that is well worth a visit. 
But we are strolling beyond the bounds of our town, and will content 
ourselves with saying that the Church in question is a wonderful 
example of the way in which genius and taste can transform an 

By the Rev. Canon W. H. Jones, F.S.d. 321 

unattractive building- into one, which even the most critical can 
hardly fail to admire, for the grand effect of its chancel, and the 
chastened beauty of its mural painting. 

20. We descend the hill — down what is called Mason's Lane 
— and at perhaps its steepest part, we stand before a large dwelling- 
house, which, till quite a recent period was called " Methuen's/' 
but on which, some thirty years ago, was bestowed the fancy 
name of " The Priory," though no religious house ever existed there. 
It is a house that has portions of it of the date, it may be, of Henry 
VI., and the hall is especially worth seeing. There are still within 
it some memorials of the Methuen family, to whom it belonged for 
more than a century. It was built originally most probably by one 
of the " Rogers " family, the first of whom, Thomas Rogers, des- 
scribed as " serviens ad legem," i.e., " Serjeant at Law," lived about 
1478. The Rogers family settled afterwards at Cannington, in 
Somerset. From Hugh Rogers, of Cannington, this house was 
purchased by Paul Methuen, in 1657. Some hundred years after- 
wards, in 1763, it became the property of the Tugwell family. 
From them it was purchased, in 1811, by John Saunders, and it is 
now the property, as well as the residence, of Thomas Bush Saunders, 
Esq., the oldest of our county magistrates, 

21. We come once more, after leaving this house, through 
Pippet Street, to the front of the Town Hall— a point which we have 
already visited on our stroll round Bradford. As to the meaning of 
"Pippet Street" we have long been puzzled, A suggestion was 
made, at the time of our ramble, that after all it might be simply a 
corruption of the word " Pie-powder," which is from the ¥venchpied- 
poudreux (literally dusty-feet, whence its name in Latin, Curia pedis 
pulverizati) a name given to a Court once held in/airs, to administer 
ready justice to buyers and sellers, and to redress at once disorders 
committed in them. Old spellings of the name, Pejmt and Fepud, 
are by no means against such a theory as to its derivation. More- 
over the one "fair" of the town, at Trinity-tide, has from time 
immemorial been held here; and no doubt in ancient times, as 
in our own, prompt administration of justice, and summary recti- 
fication of wrongs, must ever have been esteemed a boon. 


C^vact^' from tlje '^§tmh of tlje Milt$|Jit 


Communicated by R. W. Meeeiman, Geik of the Peace. 


Tal/le of Extracts and Notes. 


Minute Books and Great 


Count)' Rates. 



Highways and Bridges. 


Court Towns and acting 


Dwellings of the Poor. 









Tippling-houses and Tav- 


Matters Imperial. 



Transactions of a single 


Unlawful Games. 



Trespass in Pursuit of 


References to Justices 


out of Sessions. 


Restraints on handicrafts. 


Criminal Jurisdiction. 




Practice and Procedure. 


Relief of the Poor. 


Minor Transactions. — 





Gaols and Houses of Cor- 



I. — Minute Books and Great Rolls. 

Not in many counties are there still extant records of proceedings 
at quarter sessions in regular continuity from the end of the six- 
teenth century to the present day. The rarity of such a possession 
is no matter for surprise. While the archives of a city or college 

' These extracts are transcribed for publication under the express sanction of 

The Earl of Radnor, Gustos Rotulorum of the county. They do not pretend to 

deal adequately with the subject which they imperfectly illustrate : and have no 

higlier aim tliau to afford examples of the sort of material which a reader might 

. expect to find to his hand in the records of the Wiltshire Quarter Sessions. 

Extracts from (he Records. 323 

found sure asylum in civic chest or cloistered strong-room, the 
muniments of a county were subject to change of domicile on every 
api^ointment of a new clerk of the peace. In days, too, when piles 
of old papers would have been regarded with little interest, the 
retiring functionary, or the representatives of one deceased, might 
possibly have considered that the exigencies of the occasion had 
been amply satisfied when the incoming officer had received all 
documents of immediate practical importance, and it is not difficult 
to imagine that gradual ruin would overtake the remainder. 

Whether by mere accident or (as one prefers to believe) by the 
considerate prudence of successive clerks of the peace, it is happily 
the fact that the transactions of the Wiltshire Quarter Sessions are 
still to be read in a fairly continuous series of documents, having 
their commencement in the sixteenth year of the reign of Queen 

These records divide themselves into two chief classes — the minute 
books, and the great rolls. 

The minute books, through a part of their currency, are sub- 
divided into separate series of " Orders " and " Entries,'' between 
which the rough distinction may be taken that the entries address 
themselves to criminal and the orders to non-criminal business. 

The great rolls (of which, in the Elizabethan minutes, mention 
occurs under the homely title of the " Sessions Bundles ") consist 
of files of the several proceedings, the abridged notices of which 
fill the minute books. The great rolls (one of which was made up 
for each sessions) form the more interesting series of the two; for 
the reason that while the minute book may content itself with a 
somewhat curt entry of any given magisterial act, the great roll 
will probably contain the full text of the order, with the autograph 
of the acting magistrate, and the depositions or information upon 
which it proceeded. It must be confessed that a narrative of tran- 
sactions relating to an agricultural, inland, and sparsely populated 
shire, such as our own, cannot pretend to emulate in interest the 
more eventful histoi'ies of counties having a sea-board, surrounding 
some military centre or place of learning, or situate in the neigh- 
bourhood of the seat of government. 

824 Extracts from the Records of the 

If in comparison with the records of Devonshire ^ and Essex, or 
of such municipalities as those of Oxford and Liverpool, the rather 
monotonous entries of Wiltshire sessions business seem trivial and 
commonplace, an apology for their transcription may be found in 
the recollection that in the pages of this Magazine a local audience 
is addressed, who may be not indisposed to endure with good humour 
a rehearsal of local occurrences and local allusions, devoid of in- 
terest to the general reader. 

Unfortunately the series of great rolls cannot be said to have a 
satisfactory starting-point till the early years of the reign of King 
James the First, so that, as to the quarter sessions of Elizabethan 
times, it is from the minute books alone that the inquirer can dis- 
cover for himself which were the places of assembly — who the at- 
tending magistrates — and what the business transacted. 

II. — CouET Towns and Acting Justices. 
The four towns which are at present dignified as the quarterly 
seats of justice, enjoyed a like distinction during, certainly, the last 
thirty years of Elizabeth's reign, Salisbury was generally visited 
at the Christmas, Hilary, or Epiphany Sessions, Warminster at 
Easter, Devizes at Trinity or Midsummer, and Marlborough at 
Michaelmas ; but this order of rotation was by no means invariable, 
nor was there, in this matter, an exclusive monoply. Calne, Chip- 
penham, Hindon, and Trowbridge, were each of them upon occasion 
selected as the sessions town, and such departures from the usual 
rovitine seem to have occurred most frequently between the years 
1575 and 1587, during which interval not a single sessions is entered 
as having been held at Marlborough. Of the magistrates whose 
names are inscribed as constituting the court a list is appended to 
these extracts. During thirty years between eighty and ninety 
names are so recorded, some of which recur, sessions after sessions, 
with laudable regularity : the list includes the Earls of Pembroke, 
and Hertford, two Bishops of Salisbury (John Piers and Henry 
Cotton), Lords Audley and Stourton, and Chief Justice Popham. 

^ It -will be apparent that in the present notes the writer has been greatly in- 
debted to Mr. Hamilton's work on the Devonshire records. 

Wiltshire Quarter Sessions. 325 

In the appendix^ too, is exhibited a list of some place-names 
mentioned in the minutes between the year 157i and the end of 
the reign. 

III. — Badgers. 

If the scope of an enquiry into the nature of the transactions 
which occupied the attention of Her Majesty's justices in quarter 
sessions assembled were limited to the first score or so of pages of 
the earliest extant minute book, the single word " Badgers " would 
suffice for an answer. 

These dealers in victuals have not lacked recognition in the pages 
of this Magazine — they have been described by Mr. Carrington/ 
Canon Jackson,^ and Mr. Ravenhill/ the last-named o£ whom has 
transcribed at length a petition from the inhabitants of Bath for 
the grant to two persons therein named of licences to act as badgers. 

Although the offences of " forestalling regrating, and ingrossing ■" 
do not present themselves to the general reader as attractive subjects 
for study and discussion, yet it may be useful to recall the definition 
of a badger, given in old law dictionaries. " Badger,''^ says the 
English version of Les Termes de la Ley, " is used with us for one 
that is licensed to buy corn or other victuals in one place and carry 
them to another — and such a one is exempted in the statute made 
in the fifth and sixth of Edward VI., c. 14, from the punishment of 
an Ingrosser within the statute." 

Under this Act of King Edward VI. it was within the com- 
petence of any three justices of the peace to licence a badger — • 
but to all appearance this latitude was considered too large, for by 
the Act, 5 Elizabeth, cap. 13, the power of licensing was restricted 
to the court of quarter sessions alone. 

No applicant was eligible for a licence unless he were thirty years 
of age, a householder, and married : the penalty for trading without 
a licence was five pounds, a limit which seems practically to have 
set the measure of the bail (entered indifferently as \l and cs) which 

1 Vol. vii., pp. 13, 14 

2 Vol. xiv., p. 215. 
^ Vol. xviii., pp. 156-7. 

326 Extracts from the Becorrh of the 

the justices almost invariably required for compliance with the terms 
of the statute. 

Not only were corn and gi'ain within the prohibition of the Act, 
but no drover of cattle or buyer or transporter of butter or cheese 
could legally follow his calling without a licence^ which ran for one 
year only. 

Under such conditions it is not surprizing to find that licensees 
were not always able to postpone the renewal of their licenses till 
the season came round when the court would be sitting at the town 
most accessible to them. John Tytcombe, of Compton Basset, 
Thomas Dawson, of Kemble, Richai'd Kussell, of Rowde, John 
Bristow, of Slaughterford, and Robert Butt, of Yattisbury, repaired 
to Salisbury to enter into their recognizances. To Warminster 
came applicants from Amesbury, Ashton Keynes, Boxe, Cannings, 
and Wedhampton j while Devizes is visited by persons similarly in- 
tent from Corsley, Durrington, Mayden Bradley, and Wanborough. 
These were exceptions ; for the most part the intending licensees 
resorted to the town least distant from them, and among such per- 
sons was Thomas Browne, of East Lavington, who at Devizes, in, 
April, 1587, is specially mentioned as licensed to trade " cum duobus 

A loose slip of paper, dated "xiij January 1574," (singular for 
its quotation of the year A.D., and in the use of Arabic numerals) 
contains the only instance, in the minute books, of the allotment of 
several territories to the diflerent dealers named in it as " allowed 
by the justices.''' The allowances were, for the Hundred of Alder- 
bury, one badger ; Amesbury, two ; Bradford " and the towne," 
three ; Calne, two j Chippenham, thi'ee ; Damerham, one ; Dun- 
worth, one ; Potterne, two ; the liberties — of Rowde, two ; and West- 
bury, two ; and the parishes — of Broadchalk, two ; and Lavington, 
no number stated. 

At the Trinity Sessions, 18th Elizabeth : — 

" It is ordered at this Court that no foren'' or out dweller shall have any com 
in Warm'' m'kett or eny other m'kett within Wiltes before xj of the clock in 
the forenoon of sayd m'kett day And that no forin' or enj' other seller shall be 
sufEeryd to ley in their corn in eny mans house but shall sell their com in the 

Wiltshire Quarter Sessions. 3 '^7 

m'-kett or els bere it home again And that tlie poorer sort of the Towne and 
County shall first be suffcryd to buy before badgers and other strangers And 
that no Badger shall house any corn in the Town of Warm" or in eny other 
m'kett towne on the m'kett day within the coiinty And tliat the Justices of peace 
within eny division or the Township of eny Mrkett Towne do appoint ij to vewe 
whether the prmisses be observyd on the mkett day yea or no." 

In later years the enormities of regrating butter and cheese, and 
of buying corn in the fields were visited with appropriate penalties. 

That the clerk of the peace regarded the licensing of badgers as 
no mere matter of form is clear from the memoranda which he 
entered for his own information and instruction. 

He writes in October, 1576 : — 

" Md. that I take order of the Badgers that they do name the places where the 
Badgers do use to badge before they resieve their lycens." 

And again at the same date : — 

" Md. to make pees [process] against all the Badgers that doe badge without 

Such faithful compliance with current legislation may not have 
been wholly disinterested : the Act gave the clerk of the peace a 
fee of one shilling for each licence, eightpeuce for each recognizance, 
and fourpence for registering. 


This praiseworthy vigilance concerning the more substantial 
articles of a Wiltshireman's diet was accompanied by an equal care- 
fulness in the control and regulation, under the licensing law of the 
day, of breweries, malt-houses, ale-houses, and victualling-houses. 
A few extracts will best illustrate this branch of magisterial action. 

Epiphany, 18th Elizabeth :— 

" Md qd ad banc Sess pacis concess : et concordat : fuit p' p'fatos Justiciar 
adtunc et ibm existentes modo sequente videlt That where the said Justices did 
well alio we that Anne Maple of Downton in the said County widowe shoulde 
contynewe her kepeing of her Inne in Downton aforesaid for that the said Court 
was enformed that shee was meete therfore in respect of her well useing thereof 
And therfore it was comanded to all the rest that toke upon them to kepe eny 
Inne in Downton aforesaid That they and ev'y of them shoulde leve of and 
receave no more horses nor horsemen nor other persons thereafter uppon payne 
to be grevouslye amerced if they did contrary to this order And that none do 
reseive eny to lodge unles they be assigned by the Offycers of the Towne." 

328 Extracts from the Records of the 

Trinity, 18th Elizabeth :— 

[Translation.] " Tippling-house. — Bail for Nicliolas Harris of Westbury 
Lighe, viz., Robert Cogswell, of the .same place, yeoman, and Thomas Saunders, 
of Westbury-under-the-plain {Westhury suhtiis le playne), clothier : each of the 
sureties in 6G*. %d., and the principal in £5, under condition of keeping good rule 
in his house according, &c." 

Trinity, 19th Elizabeth :— 

" Md that pees be made against Mathew Webb of Kingswall Shewmaker for 
that he kepith an Alehouse whoute lycens hy the credible reporte of Mr. Spenser 
forman of the Grand Jury." 

Easter, 21st Elizabeth :— 

" It is ordered that Robert Spenser of Horningsham shal be disharged for 
keping any farther Alehouse unles he can bring some of his neighbors to speake 
for him, wch be of honest fame, to S' John Thynne." 

At the Trinity Sessions, 25th Elizabeth, occurs an entry that : — 

" It is ordered bv all the whole courte at the assize holden at Sar. xxij° die 
August! anno xsv*° E. Regine that Will'" Askew shalbe from hence deposed and 
put downe for \_i.e from] keping any alehouse or Tipling from henceforth." 

A similar sentence from the court of quarter sessions ovei'took 

Robert Randell, Fisherton, not long afterwards, and William Sparks 

was suspended " until such time as he bring a certificate from the 

Aldermen of Malmesbury of his good behaviour." These dignitaries 

were clearly the recognized guarantors of respectability within their 

municipality, for at a later date : — 

" It is ordered that no Justice shall graunt any licence for selling ale in the 
towne of Malmesbury unles the pties be comended under the hands of the Alder- 
men Burgesses and Termors of the said towne or the most part of them." 

In the last year of the sixteenth century the condition of the 
common victualling-house licence is stated to have been that the 
keeper should "performe all such articles as are set downe in a 
booke latlie sett forth by the Councell.'" What these articles were 
maybe gathered from a perusal of the transactions of the Michaelmas 
Sessions in that same year, among which are entered eight clauses 
expressly referred to at subsequent sessions as those which had been 
issued by Eoyal mandate. 

Wiltshire Quarter Sesnions. 329 

The purport of these clauses is as follows : — 

" 1. First that noe Innkeeper or Typler that may convenientlie be served from 
anie brewer do brewe in their houses but that they take from the brewers such 
drincke onlie and at such reasonable sise as shalbe fytt for travelers and passen- 
gers and as the Justices of the peace of that place or lymitt shall assigne or set 
downe as f^'tt for that purpose." 

2. Against the admission of " cardes dice or tables " into any tippling-house. 

" 3. Itm that no Victuler &c shall dresse or suffer to be dressed or eaten within 
his house ani fleshe upon anie forbydden dayes saving in case of necessitie of 
sicknes &c. &c. 

" 4. Itm that they suffer none to eate and typle or victual in their houses but 
such as wayfaring men that shall take the same to refresh themselves in their 
passage or iorny or such as shalbe appoynted to lodge or take dyett in their 
houses but to deliver oute of their houses that quantitie of drink wch their neigh- 
bours of the poorer sorte shall have need of to be druncke in their houses whoe 
fetche or send for the same, and not elswhere. 

5. No drunkenness to be permitted, " nor anie tipling at all on the Sabaoth 
dayes or hoUydayes in tyme of devyne service," nor after 8 p.m. 

6. None to be entertained for longer than one day and one night " but such 
as he [the victualler] will answer for." 

7. Against buying goods of any wayfaring man. 

" 8. Itm that ev''y Inkeeper and Typler allowed shall buy his drinke wthout 
brewing, of anie of the brewer allowed to brewe drinke (if anie be) all of one 
sorte And if eyther Typlers or Innkeepers refuse soe to doe ev''y of the Typlers 
soe refusing to be forthwith dismissed to Typle any longer, and to be bound 
over &c." 

At the Epiphany Sessions, 19th Elizabeth, two innkeepers — one 
of Hindon the other of Fisherton Anger — gave bail with sureties 
conditioned, among other things, for the due observance of the third 
of the foregoing articles. 

The City of Salisbury seems to have been foremost in application 
for licenses to " aquavitemen/' while Devizes stands almost alone as 
the place at which the inns are, in the minutes, named by their signs. 

At the same Michaelmas Sessions held at Devizes as that at which 
the above rules were promulgated, nine innkeepers at Devizes gave 
bail, themselves in £10 with two sureties in £5 each — John Sawter, 
in respect of " The Beare," the sign of which is mentioned as " de 
novo apposit : " ; James Willis, for " The Lambe " ; Nicholas Bar- 
ret, for "The Crowne " ; Richard Maundrell, for " The Harte " ; 
John Pearce, for " The Swan " ; Stephen Godfrey, for " The Lyon "; 
and three other persons for houses which are not specially designated. 

330 Extracts from the Records of the 

East Laving ton contributed three publicans; Weeke two (for the 
titles of whose houses the spaces on the page are left blank) ; Up- 
avon two (of whom one was Maurice Oram^ of " The Antelope, de 
novo apposit : ") ; AUcannings one ; and Bromham one. From the 
east of the county came, on a like errand, Thomas Waters, of Frox- 
field ; while from the yet remoter borders of Charnham Street 
journeyed three persons whose names are separately entered and 
noted as " diversorii de antiquo allocati, sed non tenebantur coram 
eisdem justic : sicut alteri." 

Like security was taken from seven common brewers, of whom 
Upavon sent one and Devizes the rest. Three of them are described 
as " yeomen,^' two as " gentlemen,^' one as a widow, and the seventh 
passes undescribed. They undertook to " brewe and sell noe other 
but good and wholesome ale and beare well sodden and well brewed 
of wholesome grayne as it ought to be.'" A regular tariff is pre- 
scribed for them, but unfortunately the measures of quantity only 
are specified, while the spaces for the prices were never filled in. 

A distinction between victualling and alehouse- keeping is marked 
in the following order : — 

" It is ordered that John Eeele only shall keep an Alehouse in Great Bedwyn, 
and that William Pierson shalbe permitted to kcpe Vitlinge imtill Easter nest 
without setting up any Alestake* but if he kepe any disorder then to be utterly 
dismissed. All other to be removed." 

V. — Unlawful Games. 
The due conduct of a tippling-house included a discountenancing 
of unlawful games, a term which, so far as the generality of the 
population was concerned, included, temp. Eliz., a variety of amuse- 
ments which would now-a-days be regarded as not only harmless 
but commendable. The statute then in force on this subject had 
been passed in the thirty-third year of the reign of King Henry 
the Eighth, and was styled " The Bill for maintaining Artillery and 
the debarring of unlawful games.'' The connection between the 
two ideas, not at first very obvious, is explained by a perusal of the 
Act. The bowyers, fletchers, stringers, and arrow-head makers had 

* Alestake: the post or pole, the sign of an alehouse, 

Willshire Quarter Sessions. 331 

made complaint to the King that notwithstanding " divers good 
and lawful statutes " made against unlawful games, yet that " many 
subtil inventive and crafty persons intending to defraud the same 
estatute, sithens the making thereof have found and daily find many 
and sundry new and crafty games and plays as Lngetting-in-the 
Fields, Slide-thrift, otherwise called Shove-groat .... by 
reason whereof Archery is sore decayed." Paying a tribute to the 
past prowess o£ the English archers, these " daily orators " proceed 
to deplore that " yet nevertheless archery and shooting in Long 
Bows was little used but daily did minish decay and abate more and 
more .... and also by means and occasions of custumable 
usage of Tennis play. Bowls, Cloysh, and other unlawful games . . 
. great impoverishment hath ensued [i.e., folk could not find 
money to pay for long bows of yew^] and many heinous Murders 
Robberies and Felonies were committed and done." 

Whatever may have been the wisdom or folly of the reasoning 
thus put forward by the " bow-and-arrow interest," the Act did its 
best to encourage archery, and to stamp out idle gambling. It 
obliged every man to " have in his house for every man-child being 
of the age of seven years and above, till he shall come to the age of 
seventeen years, a bow and two shafts." ^ This clause is followed 
by a variety of others, all favorable to bowyers, fletchers, and arrow- 
head men, which clauses are in their turn succeeded by stringent 
prohibitions of the reprehensible amusements specified above. No 
artificer or craftsman, &c. (ten synonyms are added), was permitted 
to play at the tables, tennis, dice, cards, bowls, clash, coyting, le- 
gating, or other unlawful game, out of Christmas, under pain of 
XX5. to be forfeit for every time ; and even at Christmas, indulgence 

' Such an obligation must have formed a doubtful contribution to the comfoi-t 
of the man-child's household. It recals the lament (from the pathetic pen of 
Mr. Slimmer of the New Castle Morning Argus) for Willie done to death by 
his purple monkey climbing on a yellow stick : — 

" Oh ! no more he'll shoot his sister with his little wooden gnn." 

With his little bow and two shafts the Willie of the sixteenth century made 
himself felt, no doubt, as an appreciable nuisance ; the more so if (as possibly 
happened) he now and then laid precocious hands on the four arrows statutorily 
kept in store for his elder brethi'en's practice at the butts. 

333 Extracts from the Records of the 

in these i^astimes was permissible only " in their masters' houses or 
in their masters' presence " — while, as for bowls, no manner of person 
was at any time to disgrace himself by such wanton wickedness " in 
open places out of his garden or orchard upon the pain for every 
time .... to forfeit vi«. N\\\d,." 

So commissioned and so empowered, a conscientious magistrate 
must frequently have found himself face to face with the stern ne- 
cessity of relegating to a righteous doom the irreclaimable quoit- 
player and backsliding bowler. Such an one may Alfred Hawkins 
have been, of Norton Bavant, who, at Trinity, 22nd Elizabeth, on 
a charge of unlawful gaming (the full enormity of which is not 
disclosed), stood in contempt of an indictment, which, howerer, ap- 
pears to have been removed by Royal writ to the court above. 

At Michaelmas in the following year : — 

" Willm Wood of Fleetstreet of the Citie of London hat maker, Eobert Car- 
penter of Oxfordsheer [admirable exactitude] carpenter & Edmond Carpenter of 
Oxfordsheere hath confessed that they have used certaine games called Trole- 
madame [Autoljcus comes to mind] and ryffling of disshes & plattes in the 
countie of Wiltes being unlawfuU and cossjning games And therupon the said 
pties are comitted to the Shreife untill they have founde suerties for their good 
behaveour & to appear at the next quai-f sessions." 

Seend and Hilperton must have been incurably addicted to bowl- 
ing, for at the Trinity Sessions, 29th Elizabeth : — 

" William Wilkins and John Somner of Seen on a presentment for unlawful 
games &c were fined ii*. and \\\d. to dischardge all Seen ^' Silp''ton men for 
bowling, v] of them by Mr. Brouncker pd to me 2s. therfore." 

At the same sessions three other oflPenders were fined 2s. &d. each, 
and in a later year a misguided reveller who forgot himself to the 
extent of unlawfully tippling before he unlawfully bowled, was con- 
demned to forfeit xijf/. for each of these forbidden pleasures. 

Ralph Haggard fared better. He appc^ared in person at the 
Easter Sessions, 44th Elizabeth, and in answer to a presentment 
against him made at the preceding Warminster Sessions by James 
Minterne (an active prosecutor, who is expressly stated to be suing 
under the Act of Henry the Eighth) successfully pleaded a general 

Wiltshire Quarter Sessions, 333 

VI. — Trespass in Pursuit of Game. Licence to Shoot. 

Worse than such pastimes as slide-thrift, shove-groat, or logating- 
in-the-fields, was lawless incursion into chase, park, or warren, to 
the certain disturbance of the deer {exagitatio damarum) and the 
probable slaughter of rabbits [necatio amiculorum). 

Trespass, not necessarily a part of the gamester's misdoing, was 
inevitable with the poacher, and is laid as a separate charge in many 
of the cases which came up for trial under the Game Laws. 

The entries of these eases vary in particularity. 

Sometimes the charge is stated simply as a pursuit of game 
fvenatioj, or breaking into a park (parous fractusj . 

Sometimes the landowner's name occurs, as when John Warner, 
of Netherhampton, William Hookett, of Wilton, and George Poul- 
ter, of Winterborne Dauntsey gave bail on a charge of hunting in 
the " warren of the Earl of Pembroke " ; or John Ritchman "oflPered 
voluntary upon his discharge that he will go to Sir Henry Knivet 
and be bound in forty pounds not to disturb his game from hence- 
forth." The warren of John Mervin, too, is mentioned as having 
been forcibly entered by Roger Watkin, of Horningsham, whose 
enterprise was rewarded by fines of £10 for the trespass and £10 for 
killing coneys. 

But in the majority of instances the invaded territory is specified 
by its own name. 

The forest of Braydon received a sporting visit from Richard 
Rutter, of Chelworth, Cricklade. 

For hunting coneys at Hilthorp, Henry Barkshire, of Ramsbury, 
was fined five shillings. 

At the Epiphany Sessions, 18th Elizabeth, William Forty, of 
"Mylenoll" (in £^0), Thomas Heal, of "Weke," and Robert 
Brown, of " Rokeley'' (in £10 each), gave bail for the appearance 
of the first-named at the next sessions, and immediately afterwards 
the same Robert Brown aud John Liddiard, of Rockley, became 
surety for Robert Liddiard, of " Prsult" under a similar obligation. 

So far only the official entry. But by a marginal note the clerk 
of the peace takes the reader into his confidence. '^ Md.,^' he re- 
marks, in reference to the first recognizances, " This Will Forti waa 
vol, XX. — NO. LX. z 

334 Extracts from the Records of the 

Indyghted for hunting in Alborne chase by my L . of Pembroke " : 
opposite the second set of recognizances he adds^ " This is lykewise 
a hunt." 

At MichaelmaSj 41st Elizabeth, at Marlborough, Thomas Pearce 
was fined V6s, ^d., not only for hunting in Alborne Chase, but for 
killing coneys there. Yet such an inveterate poacher was he that 
at the next sessions he was " up " again for a like offence at the 
same place, save that on this second charge the evidence seems to 
have extended to " exagitation " only, and not to " necation." He 
produced as sureties Ambrose Adlam, of West Harnham, and John 
Eyles of New Sarum, But why this succour from a far country? 
Can it be that the North Wilts coney addressed itself seductively to 
the palate of the southern city, and was in brisk demand there ? 
Such a supposition is at variance with inherent probabilities : the 
woods of Clarendon and Grovely were at hand, and there was no 
lack of enterprising commissaries. John Mann, of Pitton (with a 
fine of 40*.), collected supplies at Clarendon, and Richard Mundy 
—though acquitted on the main charge of coney-killing at Grovely — 
did not escape without a penalty of 205. for disturbing the deer there. 

Wardour Park was explored by Thomas Brett, of Tisbury, and 
no doubt all three coverts by many moi'e who have not attained the 
distinction of a place in the sessions kalendar. 

The Queen^s warren at Watcombe, in the parish of Auston (Al- 
vediston), and Her Majesty^s warren and liberty at Mere, fared no 
better than the preserves of her subjects. Trespass in one, and 
hare-hunting in the other, are recorded with corresponding fines, 
which, however, fall far short of the exemplary penalties inflicted 
in some other instances. 

Of the irregular sportsmen who directed their attention to fishing, 
it may suffice to mention that certain of the inhabitants of Fisherton 
Anger found it impossible to resist the attractions of the Earl of 
Pembroke's waters ; and to chronicle the fortunes of Thomas Riddle, 
and John Harrison, of " Ambrosbury,'' and William Wolfe, of 
" Mildeston,'' who entered into their own recognizances in £10 each 
that they would not for the future fish in any water, save with lawful 
netS; and not otherwise. 

Wiltshire Quarter Sessions. 335 

Even to carry a sporting-piece was, for the unprivileged, an in- 
dictable misdemeanour. At the Michaelmas Sessions, 26th Elizabeth, 
Simon White was arraigned for the pursuit of game and for keeping 
a crossbow fpro cusiodia aratbalisice) . At Michaelmas, 44th Elizabeth, 
John Archard, of Malmesbury (acquitted), and Thomas Woodgate, 
of Tockenham (who traversed), were each indicted for shooting in a 
hand gun (such was the technical phrase) charged with powder and 
hail-shot (pro sagittatione in tormerdo onerato pulvere et glandinibm 

What sort of thing a licence to shoot may have been may be ex- 
emplified by the following specimea. 

Easter, 44th Elizabeth : — 

" To all Xren people to whome theise puts doe app'teyne greetinge. Whereas 
I Sir Robert Dormer Knight as well by especiall comaundem' from her ma*'* as 
by reason force and vertue of the tenure of certen landes tents and hereditaments 
to me descended and come by from and after the decease of S^ William Doi-mer 
Knighte, my late father_deceased am now intituled to have use exercise & enjoye 
in by and throughe all ^s & places within this realm of England as weU by my 
sufficient deputie or deputies by me in that behalfe to be appointed The offi_ce of 
Marshall Master Overseer & Keeper ot her ma«" hawks w'* all suche libties 
privUedges & jurisdicras as to the same apperteyneth as by divers Ires patents 
made to the said S"' William Dormer Knight my late father & unto me the saide 
S' William Dormer Knight and others by & from her ma>- & her most noble 
progenitors more at large appeareth Nowe knowe yee that I the saide S' Robert 
Dormer by veriue & authoritie thereof to me given and for the necessary pvision 
keepinge & feedinge of suche Hawkes as Jasper More of Haitesbury in the 
Countie of Wiltes Esq or his servauntes have in his or there custodye of her ma*'" 
have licensed and authorised and by these puts do licence and authorise for so 
much as in me is, the said Jasper More or his servant or servants the bearer 
hereof to shoote in Crosbowe Handgune or other piece w'" anye kinde of shott at 
Crowes Rookes Choughs Stockdoves Ringdoves or any other kmde of birde or 
fowle birds or foules meet and fitt for foode for such Hawks as he or any of his 
servants shall have in his or there [custody] of her ma«". Provided allwaies 
that the said Jasper More or any other by vertue hereof shall not shoote nere 
any River or Plashes used for hawking at any fowle or at any foule or other 
marke upon any Churche or Dovecote nor w'4n three miles of the Courte where- 
soever the same shaU happen to be Provided also this my pnte graunt & Ucence 
shall noe longer have continuance or be of force then onely duiinge my will & 
pleasure In witness whereof I the saide S' Robert Dormer Knight have hereimto 
set my hande and seale the xx'" dale of November in the foure and fortieth yere 
of the raigne of our Sov'aigne ladye Elizabeth by the Grace of God of England 
France & Ireland Quene Defender of the faithe &c 1601." 

z 3 

S36 Extracts from the Records of the 

VII. — Restraints on Handicrafts. 

But not to a man's hours of idleness alone did the legislature 
take heed ; it directed and controlled him in the workshop and the 
millj in a spirit differing greatly from that o£ modern factory laws. 
For the practice of almost every sort of handicraft some form of 
licence^ or certificatej or allowance, or at least bail, was needed — and 
among the applicants for such licences, or defendants called to ac- 
count for the want of them, are to be found bakers, wheelwrights, 
dyers and weavers. It was upon these last and upon the clothiers 
that the law pressed most heavily, even while its laudable aim 
was the suppression of "scamped" workmanship. 

Shoddy — ubiquitous, and unabashed, in the later nineteenth cen- 
tury — encountered from the legislature of the sixteenth nothing 
but uncompromising hostility. 

Edward the Sixth's Acts ^ of Parliament gave it no quarter. They 
denounced " the slight and subtile making of clothes and colours," 

' The preambles of Edward's Acts breathe a spirit of such primitive simplicity ; 
principles not always regarded in modern commerce are there advanced with an 
air so serious, and in phrases so fresh and original, that their transcription more 
at large may perhaps be forgiven : — 

" Forasmuch as by the slight and subtile making of clothes and colours within divers parts of 
this Realm, now of late practised and used, not only great infamies and slanders have grown to the 
same Realm, but also the King' Majesty's faithful and true subjects have sustained great loss in the 
use and wearing of the said clothes so slightly and subtilly made." 


" Where heretofore divers and many goodly statutes have been made for the true making of cloth 
within this Realm, which nevertheless forasmuche as clothiers, some for lack of knowledge and ex- 
perience, and some of extreme covetousness, do daily more and more study rather to make many 
than to make good clothes, having more respect to their private commodity and gain, than the ad- 
vancement of truth and continuance of the commodity in estimation, according to the worthiness 
thereof, have and do daily, instead of truth, practise falsehood, and instead of substantial 
making of cloth, do practise sleight and slender making, some by mingling of yarns of divers 
spinnings in one cloth, some by mingling fell-wool and lambs-wool, or either of them, with 
fleece-wool, some by putting too little stuff, some by taking them out of the mill before they 
be full thicked, some by over stretching them upon the tenter, and then stopping with flocks 
such bracks as shall be made by means thereof ; finally, by using so many subtle sleights and un. 
truths, as when the clothes so made be put in the water to try them they rise out of the same 
neither in length nor breadth as they ought to do, and in some place narrower than some, beside such 
cockeling, bandoning, and divers other great and notable faults, as almost cannot be thought to be, 
true. . . . And yet nevertheless, neither fearing the laws in that case provided, nor regarding 
the estimation of theii- country, do not only procure the Aulnager to set the King's seal to such false 
untrue and faulty cloth, but do themselves weave into the same the likeness and similitude of the 
King's Highness most noble and imperial ciown, and also the first letter of his name which should 
be testimonies of truth, and not a defence of untruth, to the great slander of.the King our Sovereign 
Lord, and the shame of this land, and to the utter destruction of so great and notable commodity, 
as the like is not in any foreign nation." 

Wilts/lire Quarter Sessions. 337 

and forbade the dyeing of any wool which had not been perfectly 
woaded, boiled and maddered .... according to the ancient 
" workmanship in time past used/' Minute restrictions and pro- 
hibitions were laid upon the clothiers, the due enforcement of which 
was secured by the annual appointment of overseers in every town 
or village in which cloth was manufactured. The detective energies 
of these officers, and the critical faculties of the acting magistrate, 
were simultaneously stimulated by an ingenious expedient. It was 
provided that any piece of contraband cloth should be divided into 
three parts : of these one was allotted to the King, a second to the 
person presenting it, i.e., the informer, the remaining third part to 
the person to whom it was presented, i.e., the magistrate by whom 
it was condemned. 

The manufacturers were evidently harassed and impeded by the 
severity of these requiiements, and it probably fell out, as in the 
preceding reign, that : — 

" Upon these taxations 
The clothiers all, not able to maintain 
The many to them 'longing, have put off 
The spinsters, carders, fullers, weavers, who 
Unfit for other life, compelled by hunger 
And lack of other means . . are all in uproar." 

At all events an Act of Philip and Mary recites that "divers 
clothiers found themselves aggrieved alledging that it is unpossible 
for them to observe the same Act [o£ E. 6] in all points and have 
. . . prayed some mitigation thereof," which mitigation Parlia- 
ment proceeded in some measure to administer. 

Apart from this aspect of the matter, the Act of Philip and Mary 
is interesting as containing an inventory of the only colours per- 
missible in any cloths " put to sale within the realm of England." 
These were, " scarlet, red, crimson, morrey, violet, pewke, brown-blue 
[a remarkable shade], black, green, yellow, blue, orange, tawney, 
russet, marble gray, sad new colour [a distinctly precious tint] , 
azure, watehet, sheeps colour, lion colour, motley, iron gray, fryer's 
gray, crane colour, purple, and old medley colour." 

Elizabeth carried on the legislation ; but her hand was heavier 

838 llxtracts from the Records of the 

than her brother^s : he rewarded those who convicted^ she fined those 
who convicted not. By the "Act against the deceitful stretching 
and tentering of northern cloth/^ any justice negligent concerning 
the due execution of the statute was liable to a penalty of £5. 

Two other Acts of the same reign were those in which Wiltshire- 
men were chiefly concerned. The red and white cloths manufactured 
in the shires of Wilts, Gloucester, and Somerset, had already, in 
Edward's reign, been the subject of special enactment. Of these 
materials the pieces wei*e to measure, while wet, in length between 
twenty-six and twenty-eight yards, and in breadth not less than 
seven quarters of a yard between the lists. The prescribed weight 
of such pieces being, of white cloths, sixty-four pounds ; of coloured 
pieces, sixty pounds. 

These quantities were reduced by Elizabeth. The length remained 
at twenty-eight yards, but the width was drawn in to six-quai'ters- 
and-a-half, 'and the weight, for "broads," to sixty-three pounds, 
while " narrows " were to stand at sixty-one pounds ; and the 
penalties for transgression of these conditions were re-settled. 

Such were the laws which the magistrates of the day found to 
their hand; but their experience seems to have been, that, eschewing 
all other colours, the Wiltshire manufacturer satisfied himself with 
the steady production of his white cloth, broad or narrow listed 
as the case might be. These at all events were the only colours 
which found their way " into court," and it was not until the passing 
of the latest Act of Elizabeth, passed after the century had turned, 
that the overseers seem to have initiated any systematic prosecutions 
under its clauses. 

At the Trinity Sessions in 1602 a score of offenders are presented 
—some of them on a handful of separate charges. Fourteen of 
these cases came on for trial at the next sessions : the accused in 
every instance pleaded guilty, and were sentenced to the payment 
of fines or the forfeiture of the defective cloth. Four shillings per 
pound on the deficiency in weight was the measure of the fine where 
such deficiency constituted the offence ; and forfeiture of the cloth 
ensued where illegality of measure was the ground of complaint — 
the forfeiture being commuted for a money payment of the value of 

Wiltshire Quarter Sessions. 839 

the cloth as appraised by the court. With two exceptions only the 
fines were paid — in one of these the delinquent is noted as being in 
arrear, without further observation. A less fortunate offender from 
Westbury (whose piece was deficient by 5 lbs.) was amerced in the 
sum of 525. Out of this sum \%s. (viz, 3 lbs. at 4*.) went to the 
overseers ; for the remaining 21bs. the fine was 40*., half of which 
went to the overseers and half to the poor of Westbury. The de- 
fendant is noted as not paying the fine, and the entry closes with 
the ominous words, " pro quibus committitur." 

At the last sessions in Elizabeth's reign, the number of these 
cases (either original or adjourned) fell scarcely short of one hundred. 

Other offences under the Acts relating to woollen cloths also came 
before the court. William Cooke, of Quemerford, was indicted for 
using a tenter with seven lower bars (jiro occupatione teniure cum 
vij inferiorihis trabibus). Nicholas Parkyn, of Westbury, was 
charged with refusing to allow an inspection by the overseers. John 
Ussher, of the same place, " pro extensione, Anglice stretchinge " a 
piece of cloth made for sale ; while among neighbouring places, 
Westbury Leigh, Brook and Chapmanslade, Steeple Ashton, Hinton 
and Pollesholt, all at one time or another contributed their quota to 
such minor oflFences (presented nevertheless by the grand inquest) as 
keeping a loom or practising the craft of a weaver not having been 
thereunto duly apprenticed. 

VIII. — Apprenticeship. 

This last offence was not confined to the cloth trade ; it related 
to all manual occupations. In the fifth year of Elizabeth's reign 
was passed the statute of labourers, &c.j which dealt exhaustively 
with the employment of labour. Any man under thirty years of 
age, unless already employed in some manner prescribed by the Act, 
and even above that age if he were unmarried, was liable to be 
marched off" to service in a very summary fashion, and the juvenile 
pauper, numbering at last sufficient years for manual occupation, 
was handed over with eager alacrity to the first person who would 
accept his services. 

" Md." writes the clerk of the peace at the Trinity Sessions, 1579, 

340 ExtracU from the Records of the 

in his own atrocious handwriting ^ — contrasting most unfavorably 
with the comparatively neat penmanship of his clerk : — 

" Md. that by the commaundemte of John Eyres Esquier I was willed at this 
Sessions to enroll that John Willms being now eight yeres of age and lefte by 
some unknowen beggar within the p'ish of Braddford was appointed by the 
p'ishioners to serve Robt Brouncker of Broughton GifEord Wever to serve him 
according to the statute untyll he come to thage q/"xxij yeres." 

At the Michaelmas Sessions, 1591 : — 

" It is ordered that If Xrof er North be abled by law to be an apprentice that 
then he shall serve the woman so long as she shall exercise the mistery of 
weavinge or cause him to be instructed in the same bona fide during the yeares." 

And at the preceding Easter Sessions the order for maintenance 
of a boy is to run only until he shall be fit to be an apprentice 
(quousque fuerit habilis essendi apprenticius) . 

One year was the shortest term for which a contract for labour 
could be entered into, and the minimum was occasionally adopted. 

At the Epiphany Sessions, 22nd Eliz., John Westbrooke, of 
Alderbury, undertook to receive Thomas Grymsted into his service 
and produce him at the Feast of Epiphany, in the year 1580. 

Two similar undertakings were entered into at the Trinity Sessions, 
32nd Eliz., when each of the intending employers gave bail in £5, 
conditioned for the production of the servant at the end of the year. 

Nor were such safeguards mere formal superfluities. 

Among the employers of the period one at least formed an austere 
estimate of a master's duty towards his apprentice. 

At the Michaelmas Sessions, 1589: — 

Order is lykewise taken by all the Justices that whereas one John Hewse 
being the apprentice of one Morrys Henley of Wootton Bassett in the countie of 
Wiltes Shomaker dyd upon dy vers abuses and threatenings whereby the said John 
Hewse stode in dyspeyi"e of his life depted from his said mayster and where upon 
complaynt and profe thereof made before certeyne of the same Justyces the said 
Morrys Henley refused to become bounde that the said John Hewse should re- 
mayne with hym in secuiytie and safetie of his lyfe that the said John Hewse 
shalbe at lyberty to serve els where at his will and pleasure at aU tymes hereafter 
wthout any contradycion denyall or ympedynt of the said Morrys Henly unles 

' A specimen — being one of the numberless entries of bail to appear at the 
next sessions, and meanwhile to keep the peace — is given in the accompanying 


Wiltshire Quarter Sessions. 341 

tte said Morriss willbecome bounde by recognyasaunce before some justyce of 
peace of the same sheire that the said John Hewse durying the tyme of his said 
apprentyshippe shalhe remayne and contynewe in safety of his lyfe foi" any thing 
used to be done or comytted to the contrary by the said Morrys Henley his 

At the Trinit)^ Sessions, 1592 : — 

" It is ordered that Arthur Husband shall deliv' John Crawley to his father 
before nine of the clocks of this next daye or to be comitted to gayle." 
" Fiat [the entry concludes] capias versus eundem Husband." 

By the end of the century the magisterial interest in apprentice 
law would seem to have subsided (a condition of mind to which the 
readers of these pages have, it is to be feared, by this time been 
also reduced), for at the Michaelmas Sessions of 1600 : — 

" It is ordered that noe Informacons shalbe exhibited into this Courte against 
anie pson for using or exercising anie misterie or manuell occupacon wherin he 
hath not ben Apprentice unles the same be first made knowne to some Justice o£ 
the Peace neare the place where the pson dwelleth against whome such informacon 
is or shalbe exhibited and that the same Justice doe consent therunto And that 
all informacons hertofore exhibited into this Courte against badgers of woolleQ 
yarne shall cease and be noe further prsecuted until further order be taken." 

The hundred juries may have considered that the hint was not for 
them — as indeed perhaps it was not. Certainly the jury of the 
Hundred of Westbury were moved at the Easter Sessions, 44th 
Eliz., to present : — 

Elizabeth Vooke, of Dilton for keeping a servant, anglice a jour- 
neyman who has not served as an apprentice. 

William Axford, of Bratton, for taking an apprentice to the art 
of weaving, to which art he had not himself been apprenticed. 

William Collier and John Swetland, each of Bratton, for keeping 
apprentices who were sons of labourers in husbandry. 

Among the persons indicted at an earlier sessions was Alice 
Clifford, for exercising an art " in qua non fuit educata/' 
(To be Contimied.J 

[The Committee desires to acknowledge the liberality of Mr. E. W. Merriman 
iu presenting the plate which accompanies his paper.] 


!^0cri]ptioit of it §aiToto itceiitlg ©j^cnclr m 
©&aioit pilL 

By C. PoNTiNG, Esq. 

I^NOTHER of these ancient tumuli having disappeared, and 

rm*^ an opportunity having been afforded me of seeing it opened, 
I venture to place on record some account of it. I could have wished 
this duty had fallen into abler and more expex'ienced hands, and I 
regret that my effort to obtain the presence of our worthy Secretary 
to witness the opening was defeated by the incessant downpour of 
rain during the day on which it was necessary it should be done : 
otherwise that gentleman had, in spite of his ill health at the time, 
undertaken to be there. 

The barrow was the second from the south along the range of 
hills between West Kennett and Abury, on the estate of the trustees 
of the late Mr. Tanner. The land around and over it being arable, 
the barrow had become much flattened, and the cairn of sarsens 
which it contained almost denuded of the covering of soil, by probably 
centuries of cultivation. I may here remark that an interesting 
contrast is shown, illustrative of the levelling effects of this process, 
in the well-preserved barrows on the adjacent down land, northwards 
of the arable, and which are planted over. The stones of the cairn 
being found to interfere with the use of the plough, workmen were, 
in February last, put to remove what they at first thought to be a 
few stray sarsens. 

I was made acquainted with this by one o£ the stone-cutters 
bringing me a small earthen vessel, which he had found amongst 
what he described as a " heap of stones." This vessel is of British 
manufacture, rude and imperfectly burnt, 3j inches in diameter, and 
the same in height, and is apparently a food-cup. AVith it a skeleton 
evidently a secondary interment in the cairn of the barrow — was 

Description of a Barrow recenlly Opened on Overton Kill. 343 

found, but this was destroyed by the workmen in removing the 
stones. On visiting the place I found that this heap of stones was 
the cairn of the barrow, and that it had been opened almost to the 
natural level of the ground, so that I was too late to measure its 
original height. The cairn was formed of sarsen stones roughly 
piled up, and was about 24 feet in diameter. At a distance of 
about 6 feet from the base of this was the very unusual peculiarity 
of an outer circle, composed of very large specimens of similar stones 
in a double row; this circle was continuous. The whole was covered 
in the usual manner with soil, but of a somewhat more clayey 
nature than that surrounding the barrow. Owing to its flattened 
state, however, it was impossible to ascertain the extreme diameter 
of the barrow. 

The cist containing the primary interment was in the centre of 
the cairn, excavated out of the chalk 2| feet below the level of the 
natural surface of the ground. It was in the form of an irregular 
circle — the average interior diameter being about 3| feet — partially 
walled with sarsen boulders, the hard chalk having been left in 
places without a lining of stones ; and it was covered, at the ground- 
level with one large and two smaller flat sarsens. The cist was 
filled with soil, and the removal of it without destroying the shape 
and position of the skeleton was a work of some difficulty, and 
although the skeleton was very perfect, the smaller bones were so 
much decayed that it was impossible to remove them whole. The 
body had been placed in the cist lying on its back, with the head 
to the north in the direction of Abury, but the legs had been turned 
over, and the lower part of the spine so twisted as to give it the ap- 
pearance of lying on the left side. The knees were drawn up to 
within fourteen inches of the chin ; the left hand placed against 
the head, and the right across the abdomen. On the east side, and 
in front of the knees, where the cist was slightly elongated, were 
portions of the skull, jaw and other bones of an animal of about the 
size of a rabbit, and also a large number of very minute but distinct 
bones under \ of an inch in length. These last were in clusters of 
some hundreds to each.^ The soil in the cist contained a singular 

1 A sample of these minute bones, most of them reduced to fragments, and 

344 Description of a Barrow recently Opened on Overton Hill. 

piece of wood in the form of a knife, and also many shaped flints, 
but no pottery or ashes, although wood ashes were found on the 
ground under the lowest stones of the cairn. 

Amongst the stones forming the cairn were also bones of some 
large animal — probably a horse — and portions of stags' antlers. 
These, together with the skull, earthen vessel, and the other things 
found in the barrow, have been deposited in the Museum, and the 
Secretary has obtained the professional report upon the skull which 
is given below. 

The sarsens of which the cairn and outer circle were constructed 
were of an entirely different kind to those found on the adjoining 
downs, and the workmen who cut them considered them exactly 
similar to those existing in large numbers by the Kennett, east of 
Overton. As many of the stones were of immense size and several 
tons in weight, the work of getting them to the top of this hill — 
supposing them to have been taken from the Kennet valley — must 
have been one of no slight mao'uitude. 

Skull from Barrow on Overton Hill, 
kindly described by Mr. Robertson, of the Museum, Oxford : — 

" Skull possibly of a stout female, past the middle period of life, 
with complete dentition, the teeth much worn with hard food or 
grit. Some of the upper teeth have been lost since the skull was 
removed from the barrow. The nasals and part of the nasal surface 
of the maxillary, the zygomaic process of the right tembual bones 
have been lost. Also the right condyle of the lower jaw. The 
incisor teeth are small. The molars, particularly in the upper jaw, 
much worn, but — as usual in barrow skulls — do not present any 
traces of decay. 

" The mastoid processes are small, the palate short and deep, the 

all of them much broken, was submitted to the anatomical inspection of Mr. 
Robertson, at Oxford ; and that gentleman at once and unhesitatingly pronounced 
them to be bones of frogs. This authoritative decision appeared at first somewhat 
staggering, as it seemed impossible to account for so large a collection of the bones 
of that batrachian on the top of a dry down at a considerable distance from water : 
but as a matter of fact, during the opening of the adjoining barrow last autumn, 
live frogs were obseiTed in some numbers in that immediate locality. [Ed.] 

The Opening of a Barrow on Overton Eill. 345 

subraciliary ridges prominent, and most of the cranial sutures are 
still visible. The chin is not prominent. The left parietal is shorter 
than the right^ with a considerable depression on the posterior sur- 
face near the lamboid suture. This depression has caused a con- 
siderable prominence of the supraoccipital region. The space 
between the parietal and supraoccipital on the right side is filled up 
by a number of small wormian bones. 
" Height about 5 feet 4 inches. 
" Measurements taken with Flower's craniometer : — 
Circumference^ 2,2 inches, or 56 metres. 
Length 7.6 „ 19.3 „ 

Breadth 5.9 „ 15 „ 

Height 5.9 „ 15 

Cubic capacity, 111 cubic inches." 

t §pm^ of K §atrofo on ^Uxton PUL 

^N the 15th and 16th of September, 1882, Mr. Henry 
Cunnington having made arrangements for opening the 
barrow H. vi. b. (Rev. A. C. Smith's map), on Overton Down (West 
Kennet), invited me to join him; and as the Rev. W. C. Lukis 
was then paying an archaeological visit to the Rev. A. C. Smith, 
these gentlemen favoured us with their presence on both days. 

The account of the opening of the barrow H. vi. a. (in the same 
map), by Mr. Pouting, which is described above, natuially raised 
the expectation that this barrow, H. vi. b., situated so close to it, 
and of the same size and shape, would prove to be of the same 
period, and of the same general character. Such, however, was not 
the case: on the contrary, they afford an interesting example of 
the wide differences which existed in the modes of burial adopted 
by the ancient inhabitants, even in adjoining sites. 

346 The Opening of a Barroio on Overton Hill. 

This barrow is circularj with an elevation, now, of 4 feet 4 
inches above the natural level, but it has been much reduced in 
height by the plough, &c. It is at present upwards of 90 feet in 

It consists almost entirely of heavy clayey earth, apparently 
derived from the surface-soil around. We commenced on the south 
edge of the barrow with a trench reaching to the chalk substratum, 
and worked towards the centre, thence enlarging the opening east 
and west. Towards the east, and about 18 inches from the present 
surface, we found a circular cavity, of about a foot in diameter, 
formed in the soil, and carefully smoothed inside j in this were 
the bones of an adult, completely burnt and mixed with the wood 
ashes. They apparently belonged to a person about thirty years 
of age. There were no beads or other personal relics found with 
the ashes. A long thin line of ashes extended over a distance 
of 6 or 8 feet in the soil above this interment, but quite distinct 
from it. 

At a depth of from 4 to 5 feet, traces of the ancient soil were 
plainly shown by the fibrous remains of the former turf. This was 
very generally covered with a layer of wood ashes, and on this level, 
to the north-west of the centre, another interment of burnt bones 
was discovered. These were placed in a cist similar to the last, but 
less carefully formed. They apparently belonged to an adult person 
of about the same age as in the other instance, but they had been 
very irregularly burnt — some portions of the skull retaining much 
animal matter. They were also mixed with a large quantity of 
wood ashes. 

In one spot near this interment as many as twenty or more flint 
flakes were found, and amongst these a very well made flint scraper. 
This, and one or two other rude implements had apparently been 
made on the spot. Here, too, Mr. Lukis picked up a specimen of 
a saw-edged flint implement. It is rudely formed, but is distinctly 
and regularly serrated. Unfortunately it was somewhat damaged 
by the spade.^ 

^ We believe this to be the first S2)ecimen of distinctly serrated flint implement 

Extracts from the Reghter in Christian Mal/ord Church. 347 

Scattered throughout the general mass of the barrow were nu- 
merous bones— chiefly broken and splintered — of the usual domestic 
animals, ox, deer, sheep, and hog. There were also fragments, of 
an ancient British drinking cup, of an urn of about the same period, 
and of a small bone needle or pin. 

The barrow is of early date, and if the two incremated burials 
are the only interments, its history is simple, indeed — but there is 
some doubt whether the skill of four archaeologists, and the efforts 
of five stout labourers were not after all baulked in the attempt to 
find the original interment. The occurence of concentric layers of 
chalk-rubble near the centre, is in favour of the supposition that 
there had been another — a primary — burial. 


11, Gauden Road, SJF, 

€)etracts from i\i |3cjststci- m Cfjvistiiiit 
flalfoA CIjiu-clj. 

■fiHE following curious extracts from the register books of 
Christian Malford Church, were made, by kind permission 
^The Rector, at the time of the Society's visit, in August, 1882 :— 

" Memorandum y' on y' 27* of January 168f Thomas Persons (alias Seagar) 
Henrv Prise, William Bovy, y° "Widdow Ryley, Bridgeat Bernard & her two sons 
George Bernard & John Bernard were y° denouns'd excomunieate by an order 
from y' Reverend M'. Robert Woodward, Archdeacon of y' Ai-chdeaconry of 
North AVilts for not repairing to their PsTT Church by me _ 

"James Cooke, Cur" 

recorded as found in Wiltshire ; though " flint saws " are common elsewhere, 
particularly in Yorkshire, where as many as fifteen fine examples have lately 
been discovered in one barrow. 

348 Extracts from the Register in Christian Malford Church. 
" I' they were denounced excomunicatt again y' 8"^ of Novemb : 1685 " 

" July 10, 1725 _ 

" Mem : That Jno. Bernard was absolv^ from A sentence of This Escomunica- 
tion by me 

"John Itchenee Eector." 

Also, in another place : — 

" Memorandum y' on y^ 16"^ of August 1687 I granted a certificat for Susanna 
y^ daughter of William and Phrizweth * Scott to he toucht for y' Kings EviU, 
John Selman and William Scott being Churchwardens 

" Witness my hand 

"James Cooke Curatt." 

• This is not the only instance of the use of this strange name in this parish, for again in the 
same register book we meet with; — 
" Mary the wife of Rich : Giles Bur. 10 Junij 1704 
"Phriswith the wife of Wm Soot Bur. Sep 16 1704 " 

[Ifote by Canon Jones, This is most probably intended for " Frideswide." People in olden days 
often tooS the names of great folk, e.g., Frideswide. daughter of Sir John Hungerford, of Down 
Ampney (no great way offj, was first wife to Sir Henry Longe, of Wraxall [c. 1640—60).] 


H. F, BULL, Printer and Publisher, 4, Saint John Street, Devizes. 


^rcIji5olo||ical aui ^atetal 

NOVEMBER, 1882. 

Patron : 
The Most Honoueable the Maequis of Lansdowne 

president : 
LoED Edmond Fitzmaueice, M.P. 
Vice-Presidents : 

The Most Hon. the Marquis of Bath 

William Cunnington, Esq. 

Sir Gabriel Goldney, Bart., M.P. 

The Eight Hon. Lord Heytesbury 

Sir Henry A. Hoare, Bart. 

The Rev. Canon Jackson 

The Rev. Canon Jones 

Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P. 

Sir John Neeld, Bart. 

The Right Hon. Earl Nelson 

Charles Penruddocke, Esq. 

C. H. Talbot, Esq. 

Trustees : 

Sir Edmund Antrobus, Bart. 

The Most Hon. the Marquis of Bath 

The Right Hon. E. P. Bouverie 

William Cunnington, Esq. 

G. T. J. Sotheron Estcourt, Esq., M.P. 

G. P. Fuller, Esq. 

Sir Gabriel Goldney, Bart., M.P. 

The Most Hon. The Marquis of 

Sir John Lubbock, Bart., M.P. 
Sir John Neeld, Bart. 
The Right Hon. Eari Nelson 
Charles Penruddocke, Esq. 
J. W. G. Spicer, Esq. 

Committee , 

T. B. Anstie, Esq., Devizes 

The Rev. E. L. Barnwell, Mellcsham 

The Rev. W. P. S. Bingham, Berwick 

jBassett, Swindon 
Henry Brown, Esq., BlacJclands 

Park, Calne 
Robert Clark, Esq., Devizes 
A. B. Fisher, Esq., Potterne 

The Rev. E. H. Goddard, Hilmarton 
W. Hillier, Esq., Tinhead, Westburjf 
The Rev. C. W. Hony, Bishops Can- 
Joseph Jackson, Esq., Devizes 
Alexander Meek, Esq., Devizes 
The Rev. A. B. Thynne, Seend 

Honorary General Secretaries : 
The Rev. A. C. Smith, Tatesbury Rectory, Calne 
H. E. Medlicott, Esq., Sandfield, Potterne. 

Honorary General Curators : 
The Rev. H. A. Olivier, Poulshot Bectory 
Henry Cunnington, Esq., Devizes 

Honorary Local Secretaries 

G. Alexander, Esq., Highworth 
H. E. Astley, Esq., Mungerford 
W. Forrester, Esq., Malmeshury 
N. J. Highmore, Esq., M.D., Brad- 

H. Kinneir, Esq., Stoindon 
The Kev. G. S. Master, West Bean, 

Alex Mackay, Esq., Trowbridge 

W. P. Morgan, Esq., Warminster 
J. E. Nightingale, Esq., Wilton 
The Rev. W. C. Plenderleath, Cher- 

hill, Calne 
The Rev. T. A. Preston, Marl- 
J. Parley Rutter, Esq., Mere 
J. R. Shopland, Esq., Purton 
H. J. P. Swayne, Esq., Wilton 

Treasurer : 
P. A. S. Locke, Esq. 

Financial Secretary : 
Mr. William Nott, 15, Sigh Street, Devizes 


[tlts^tn ir4K0losial anir fatural fistars ^omtg, 

For interchange of Publications, ifc. 

Society of Antiquaries of London. 
Eoyal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 

Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 

Royal Historical and Archseological Association of Ireland. 

Kent Archaeological Society. 

Somersetshire Archaeological Society. 

Oxford Architectural and Historical Society. 

Belfast Naturalists' Pield Club. 

Essex Archaeological Society. 

Professor L. Jewitt. 

Bath Antiquarian and Natural History Pield Club. 

Dr. P. V. Hayden, United States Geologist. 

Bristol Naturalists' Society. 

Watford Natural History Society. 

Powysland Club. 

Bristol Natural History Society. 

Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society. 

Epping Porest and County of Essex Naturalists' Pield Club. 

Berks Archaeological and Architectural Society. 

:mi^t of ^]^ember0. 


Bruce, Lord Charles, M.P., Wilton 

House, Eaton Square, London, S.W. 

Clarke, Henry M., 25, Mount St., 

Grosvenor Square, London, W. 
Clutterbuck, Rev. Canon Henry,M.A., 

Buckland Dinham, Frome 
Duke, Rev. Edward, Lake House, 
Salisbury [Bath 

Ellis, Rev. J. H., Stourton Rectory, 
Fitzmaurice, Lord E., M.P., Bowood 
Grove, Sir Thomas Eraser, Bart., 
Feme, Salisbury [head 

Hoare, Sir Henry A., Bart., Stour- 
Holford, R. S., Weston Birt, Tetbury 
Jackson, Rev. Canon, Leigh Dela- 

mere, Chippenham 
Lansdowne, the Most Hon. the 

Marquis of, Bowood, Calne 
Lowndes, E. C, Castle Combe, Chip- 
Lubbock, Sir J. W., Bart., M.P., 15, 
. Lombard Street, London, E.C. 


Lushington, Godfrey, 16, Great Queen 

Street, Westminster, London, S.W. 
Morrison, George, Hampworth Lodge, 

Mullings, John, Cirencester 
Neeld, Sir John, Bart., Grittleton, 

Penruddocke, C, Compton Park, 

Prior, Dr. R. C. A., 48, York Terrace, 

Regent's Park, London, N.W. 
Selfe, H., Marten, Great Bedwyn 
Shaftesbury, the Rt. Hon. the Earl 

of, St. Giles's, Cranbourne 
Walmesley, Richard, Lucknam, 

Wellesley, Lady Charles, Conholt 

Park, Andover 
Wyndham, the Hon. Percy, M.P., 

44, Belgrave Squaxe, London, S.W. 

Annual Subscrihers. 

Adderley Library, Librarian of, Marl- 
borough College 

Adye, Charles S., Bradford-on-Avon 

Ailesbury, the Most Hon. the Mar- 
quis of, Savernake, Marlborough 

Alexander, G., Westrop House, 

Anketill,, Rev. H. K. F., Seagry 
Vicarage, Chippenham 

Anstice, Rev. J. B., the Vicarage, 

Anstie, T. B., Devizes 

Archer, Col. D., Fairford House, 

Arundell of Wardour, the Rt. Hon. 
Lord, Wardour Castle, Tisbury, 
Salisbury [Club, London 

Amey, Sir G. A., Hanover Square 

Astley, H. E., Hungerford 

Awdry, Rev. E. C, Kington St. 
Michael, Chippenham 

Awdry, Justly W., Melksham 

Awdry, West, Monkton, Chippenham 

Awdry, Rev. W. H., Ludgershall, 

Baker, T. H., Mere, Bath 
Banks, Mrs. G. Linnseus, 82, Green- 
wood Road, Dalston, London, E. 
Barnwell, Rev. E. L., Melksham 
Barrett, S. B. C, Pewsey 
Baron, Rev. J., D.D., F.S.A., The 
Rectoi-y, Upton Scudamore, War- 
Barrey, H. G., Devizes 
Bateson, Sir T., Bart., M.P., 12, 

Grosvenor Place, London, S.W. 
Bath, the Most Hon. the Mai-quis of, 

Longleat, Warminster 
Batten, John, Aldou, Yeovil 
Bell, Rev. G. C, Marlborough College 
Bennett, Rev. Canon F., Maddington, 

Bennett, F.J..M.D.,Wilton, Salisbury 
Bennett, W. S., Castlefield, Calne 
Bethell, S., The Green, Calne 
Bingham, Rev. W. P. S., Berwick 

Bassett, Swindon 
Blackmore, Dr. H. P., Salisbury 
Blake, F. A., 39, Market Place 


Bleeck, C. A., Warminster 
Bouverie, Eev. the Hon. B. P., M.A., 

Bouverie, the Et. Hon. E.P., Market 

Bowes, J. I., M.B., Wilts County 

Asylum, Devizes 
Bradburne, F. A., Lybum, Lyndhurst 
Bramble, Jas. R., 2, Bristol Chambers, 

Nicholas St., Bristol 
Brewin, Eobei't, Cirencester 
Brine, J. E., Eowlands, Wimborne 
Britton, Mrs. Helen, 39, Croydon 

Grove, West Croydon, Surrey 
Brown, H., Blacklands Park, Calne 
Brown, Henry, Salisbury 
Brown, James, South View, London 

Eoad, Salisbury 
Browne, Eev. E. Ken worthy, Darley 

Chine, Bourn emonth 
Brown, W., Browfort, Devizes 
Brown, W. E., Highfield, Trowbridge 
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Bryant, George E., Queenwood, Calne 
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Buckley, Alfred, New Hall, Salisbury 
Buckley, Eev. Felix J., Stanton St. 

Quintin, Chippenham 
Buckley, Eev. J., Tormarton Eectory, 

Bull, H. F., Devizes 
Bullock, William H., Pewsey 
Burges, Rev. J. Hart, D.D., The 

Eectory, Devizes 
Butt, Eev. W. A., Vicarage, Westbury 

Caillard, C. P. D., Wingfield, Trow- 

Carey, J., Steeple Ashton, Trowbridge 
Carey, Rev. T., Fifield Bavant, 

Carless, Dr. E. N., Devizes 
Chamberlaine, Rev. W. H., Keevil 
Chandler, Thomas, Devizes 
Chandler, T. H., Rowde, Devizes 
Chandler, W., Aldbourne, Hungerford 
Cholmeley, Eev. C. Humphrey, 

Dinton Eectoiy, Salisbury 
Clark, Eoberti, Devizes 
Clark, Major T., Trowbridge 
Clarke, W. A.. Chippenham 
Cleather, Eev. G. E., The Vicarage, 

Cherrington, Devizes 

Clifford, Hon. and Et. Eev. Bishop, 

Bishop's House, Clifton, Bristol 
Colborne, Miss, Venetian House, 

Colfox, Thomas, Eax, Bridport 
Colston, C. E. H. A., Eoundway Park, 

Colwell, J., Devizes 
Coward, Richard, Roundway, Devizes 
Cowley, the Et. Hon. Eari, K.G., 

Draycot Park, Chippenham 
Crawhall, Eev. S. J., Stratton St. 

Margaret, Swindon 
Crowdy, Rev. Anthony, Bankton, 

Crawley Down, Crawley 
Cunnington, H., Devizes 
Cunnington William, 11, Gauden 

Road, Clapham, London, S.W. 
Cunnington, W., jun., 11, Gauden 

Road, Clapham, London, S.W. 
Curtis, C. W., Everley, Marlborough 

Daniell, Eev. J. J., Langley Burrell, 


Dear, George, Codford St. Peter, Bath 

Dicks, W. B., The Limes, Trowbridge 

Dixon, S. B., Pewsey 

Dodd, Samuel, 27, Kentish Town 
Eoad, London, N.W. 

Dowding, Eev. W., Idmiston, Salis- 

Duckett, Sir George, Bart., Newing- 
ton House, Wallingford 

Eddrup, Rev. Prebendary E. P., 
Bremhill, Calne 

Edgell, Rev. E. B., Bromham, Chip- 

Edmonds, R. S., Swindon 

Edwards, Job, Amesbury 

Errington, Most Rev. Archbishop, 
Prior Park, Bath 

Estcourt, G. T. J. Sotheron, M.P., 
Estcourt, Tetbury 

Estcourt. Eev. W. J. B., Long 
Newnton, Tetbury [botts 

Everett, Rev. E., Manningford Ab- 

Ewart, Miss, 3, Moi-peth Terrace, 
Victoria Street, London, S.W. 

Ewart, Miss M., Broadleas, Devizes 

Eyres, Edwin, Lacock, Chippenham 


Eyre, G. E., The "Warrens, Bram- 

shaw, Lyndliurst 
Eyre, G. E. Briscoe, 59, Lowndes 

Square, London, S.W. 

Fisher, A. B., Coui-t Hill, Potteme 
Fisher, Major C. Hawkins, The 

Castle, Stroud 
Flower, T. B., 9, Beaufort Buildings 

West, Bath 
Forrester, William, Malmesbury 
Fulcher, G. F., M.D., Burbage, 

Fuller, G. P., Neston Park, Corsham 

Gabriel, C. W., Vale Lodge, Weston, 

Goddard, Ambrose L., Swindon 
Goddard, Rev. E. H., Hilmarton, 

Goddard, Rev. F., Hilmarton, Calne 
Goddard, H. Nelson, ClyfEe Pypard 

Manor, Wootton Bassett 
Godwin, J. G., 76, Warwick Street, 

London, S.W. 
Goldney, F. H., Rowden Hill, Chip- 
Goldney, Sir Gabriel, Bart., M.P., 

Beechfield, Chippenham 
Gooch, Sir Daniel, Bart., M.P., 

Clewer Park, Windsor 
Gore, Arthur, Melksham 
Griffith, C. Darby, Padworth House, 

Grindle, Rev. H. A. L., Devizes 
Grose, Samuel, M.D., Melksham 
Grove, Miss Chafyn, Zeals House, 

Guise, Sir W., Bai-t., Elmore Court, 


Haden, Joseph P., Hill View, Trow- 

Hadow, Rev. G. R., Calstone Rectory, 

Halcomb, John, Chievely, Newbury- 

Hall, Capt. Marshall, New University 

Club, St. James Street, London, S.W. 

Hancock, H . G. B. B., Standen, Chute 

Standcn, Andovcr 
Harris, Rev. H., Winterbourne Bas- 
set, Swindon 
Hart, C. F., Devizes 
Haiiiey, Rev. Alfred Octavius, 

Steeple Ashton, Trowbridge 
Hawkins, Rev. C. F., East Grafton, 

Hawkins, F. G., Hordley House, 

Haynes, Richard, 4, Maze Hill, St. 

Hayward, Rev. S. C, Irvinestown, 

Fermanagh, Ireland 
Haywood, T. B., Woodhatch Lodge, 

Heard, Rev. T. J., The Rectory, 

Sherrington, Codford, Bath 
Henley, E. R., Cahie 
Heytesbury, The Right Hon. Lord, 

Highman, Frank, Salisbury 
Highmore, Dr. N. J., Bradford-on- 

Hillier, W., Tinhead, Westbuiy 
Hitchcock, Dr. C, Fiddiugton, 

Market Lavington 
Hitchcock, C. K., M.D., M.A., Kings- 
down House, Box 
Hobhouse, Sir C. P., Bai-t., Monkton 

Farley, Bradford-on-Avon 

Hodgson, Rev. J. D., The Rectoiy, 

Collingbourne Ducis, Marlborough 

Hony, Rev. C. W., Bishops Cannings 

Horsell, W. B. C, The Marsh, 

Wootton Bassett 
Hughes, Rev. J. H., 57, Euston 

Square, London, N.W. 
Hulbert, H. V., Great Cheverell 
Hulse, Sir Edward, Bart., Breamore, 

Humphries, A. R., Fernbank, Wootton 

Hussey, Mrs. H., The Close, Salisbury 
Hutchings, Rev. Canon R. S., M.A., 

Alderbury, Salisbury 
Huyslie, Wentworth, 6, Pelham 
Place, Brompton, London, S.W. 

Inman, Rev. E., Gillingham Rectory 


Jackson, Joseph, Devizes 

James, Hugh, 3, Stansted Villa, 
Englesham Road, Balham. London, 

Jennings, J. S. C, Abbey House, 

Jones, H. P., Poi-tway House, War- 

Jones, Rev. Canon W. H., Bradford- 

Jones, W. S., Malmesbury 

Kemble, Mrs., Cowbridge House, 

Kemm, Thomas, Avebuiy 
Kemm, W. C, Amesbury 
Kenrick, Mrs., Seend Cottage, Seend, 

King, Rev. Bryan, Avebury 
Kingdon, The Right Rev. BLshop, 

Kingsbury, Rev. T. L., Kingston 

Deverill, Warminster 
Kinneir, H., Redville, Swindon 
Kinneir, R., M.D., Sherborne 
Knight, Rev. J., Heytesbury, Bath 

Lambert, Rev. R. U., Christchurch 

Vicarage, Bradford-on-Avon 
Lane, F. R., Honeystreet, Marl- 
Leach, R. V., Devizes Castle 
Lewis, Harold, B.A., Herald Office, 

Liardet, John E., Broomfield House, 

Linton, Rev. G., The Vicarage, Cor- 

Littlewood, Rev. S., 22, The Waldrons, 

Lloyd, Rev. John A., Broad Hinton 

Vicarage. Swindon 
Locke, F. A. S., Rowdeford, Devizes 
Long, W. H., M.P., Rood Ashton, 

Long, Walter J., Preshaw House, 

Bishops Waltham, Hants 
Long, William, West Hay, Wrington, 


Ludlow, C. H., Baj'clifEe, Stoke Bis- 
hop, Bristol 

Lukis, Rev. W. C, Wath Rectory, 

Mackay, Alex., Trowbridge 
Mackay, James, Trowbridge 
Mackay, William, Trowbridge 
Maclean, J. C, M.D., Swindon 
Magrath, Col., Murhill, Bradford-on- 
Malet, Sir A., Bart., K.C.B., 19, 

Queensbury Road, London, S.W. 
Manders, Neville, Marlborough 
Mann, William J., Trowbridge 
Marlborough College Nat. Hist. 

Society, the President of 
Maskelyne, E. Story, Hatt House, 

Box. Wilts 
Maskelyne, N. Story, F.R.S., M.P., 

112, Gloucester Terrace, Hyde 

Park Gardens, London, W. 
Master, Rev. G. S., West Dean, 

Matcham, William E., New House, 

Mayo, John H., India Office, London 
McNiven, Rev. C. M., Pen-ysfield, 

Godstone, Sun-ey 
Meade, Rev. de Courcy, Tockenham 

Rectory, Swindon. 
Meade, Rev. the Hon. S., Wylye, Bath 
Medlicott, H. E., Sandfield, Potteme 
Meek, A., Hillworth House, Devizes 
Meek, A. Grant, The Ark, Devizes 
Men-iman, E. B., Marlborough 
Merriman, R. W., Marlborough 
Merriman, S., Glenthorne, Putney 

Park Avenue, London, S W. 
Merriman, S. B., Philip Lane, Tot- 
tenham, Middlesex 
Methuen, Right Hon. Lord, Corsham 

Miles, Col. C. W., M.P., Burton Hill, 

Miles, J., Wexcombe, Great Bedwyn, 

Mitchell, Arthur C, The Ridge, 

Morrice, Rev. Canon W. D., St. 

Thomas's Vicarage, Salisbury 
Morgan, W. F., Warminster 



Mullings, Richard B., Devizes 
Mussel white, W., High Street, Marl- 

Nelson, Right Hon. Earl, Trafalgar, 

Nelson, Lady, Trafalgar, Salisbury 
Nightingale, J. E., Wilton 
Norman ton, the Right Hon. the Earl 

of, 7, Prince's Garden, Prince's 

Gate, London, S.W. 
Nott, William, Devizes 
Noyes, George, 11, Bassett Road, 

Notting Hill, London, W. 

Olivier, Rev. Canon Dacres, Wilton, 

Olivier, Rev. H. A., Poulshot, 

Ottley, Rev. G. L., Luckington 

Rectory, Chippenham 

Palmer, George LI., Trowbridge 
Parfitt, Rt. Rev. Dr., Midford House, 

Midford, Bath 
Parsons, W. P., Hunt's Mill, Wootton 

Paul, A. H., The Close, Tetbury 
Peacock, Rev. E., Rockfield House, 

near Frome 
Pearman, W. J., Devizes 
Pembroke and Montgomery, the Rt. 

Hon. Earl, Wilton House, Salisbury 
Penruddocke, Rev. J. H., South 

Newton Vicarage, Wilton 
Perry Keene, Col. T., Minety House, 


Philipps, Rev. Cation Sir J. E., Bart., 

Phillips, Jacob, Chippenham 

Pinniger, Henry W., Westbury 

Pinnigcr, T. L., Honeystreet, Marl- 

Piper, J. H., North Wilts Herald, 

Pitt, W. J., Cowbridge, Malmesbury 

Plenderleath, Rev. W. C, Cherhill 
Rectory, Calne 

Ponting, C. E., Lockeridge Cottage, 
Overton, Marlborough 

Poore, Major R., OldJLodge, Newton 
Toney, Salisbury 

Porter, W. E. E., Frankleigh House, 

Powell, Mrs. M. E. Vere Booth, 
Hurdcott House, Salisbury 

Preston, Rev. T. A., Marlborough 

Price, R. E., Broomfield Hall, Bridg- 

Proctor, W., Elmhurst, Higher Erith 
Road, Torquay 

Prower, John Elton, Sissells, Purton 

RadcUffe, C. H., Salisbuiy 
Radcliffe, P. Delme, Newnton 

Vicarage, Marlborough 
Randell, J. A., Devizes 
Ravenhill, W. W., 5, Fig Tree Court, 

Temple, London, E.C. 
Read, C. J., St. Thomas's Square, 

Rendell, W., Devizes 
Richardson, H., Marlborough College 
Richmond, George, R.A., Potterne 
Rigden, R. H., Salisbury 
Robbins, Mills, Bournemouth 
Rodway, E. B., Adcroft House, Trow- 
Rogers, Walter Lacy, Rainscombe, 

Rolls, John Allan, M.P., The Hendre, 

Rumming, Thomas, Red House, 

Rutt«r, J. F., Mere, Bath 
Rutter, John K., Mere, Bath 


Sadler, S. C, Purton Court, Swindon 
Sainsbury, Capt. C. H. S., Batbfoi-d, 

Salisbury, the Right Eev. The Lord 

Bishop of. The Palace, Salisbury 
Saunders, T. Bush, Bradford-on- Avon 
Schomberg, Arthur, Seend, Melksham 
Seymour, A., Knoyle House, Hindon 
Seymour, Eev. C. P., Winchfield 

Rectory, Hants 
Shum. P., Belcombe Brook, Bradford- 

Shum, P. E., 3, Union Street, Bath 
Shopland, James R., Purton.Swindon 
Simpson, George, Devizes 
Skrine, H. D., Claverton Manor, Bath 
Sladen, Rev. E. H. M., The Gore, 

Sloper, Edwin, Taunton 
Sloper, G. E., Devizes 
Sloper, S. W., Devizes 
Smith, Mrs., Old Park, Devizes 
Smith, Rev. A. C, Yatesbury, Calne 
Smith, J. A., Market Place, Devizes 
Soames, Rev. C, Mildenhall, Marl- 
Southby, Dr. A., Bulford, Amesbury 
Spicer, J. W. G., Spye Park, Chip- 
Stancomb, J. Perkins, The Prospect, 
Trowbridge [terne 

Stancomb, W., Bloimt's Court, Pot- 
Staples, T. H., Belmont, Salisbury 
Stevens, Joseph, Dorset Villa, Oxford 
Road, Reading [penham 

Stokes, D. J., Rowden Hill, Chip- 
Stokes, Robert,Crane Lodge,Salisbury 
Stratton, Alfred, Rushall 
Stratton, William, Kingston Deverill, 

Strong, Rev. A., St. Paul's Rectory, 

Sturton, Rev. J., Woodborough Rec- 
tory, Marlborough 
Swayne, H. J. P., The Island, Wilton 

Tadman, E. T., 11, St. James's 
Terrace, Regent's Park, London 

Tait, E. S., 54, Highbury Park, 
London, N. 

Talbot, C. H., Lacock Abbey, Chip- 

Tanner, R. P., Ogboume Maizey, 

Tayler,G. C, M.D., Lovemead House, 

Taylor, S. W., Erlestoke Park, 

Thynne, Rev.A.B., Seend, Melksham 

Toppin, Rev. G. Pilgrim, Broad Town 
Vicarage, Wootton Bassett 

TordifEe, Rev. Stafford, Devizes 

Tucker, Silas, Spencer House, Lark- 
hall Rise, Clapham, London, S. W. 

Tucker, Rev. G. Windsor, Burton Hill, 

Veysey, Rev-. J., Purton, Swindon 

Wadworth, H. A., Devizes 
Wakeman, Herbert J., Warminster 
Walker, Rev. R. Z., Boyton Rectory, 

Bath [Newbury 

Ward, Col. M. P., Greenham, 
Warre, Rev. Canon P., Vicarage, 

Waylen, G. S. A., Devizes 
Waylen, R. P., Devizes 
Wayte, Rev. W., 6, Onslow Square, 

London, S.W. 
Weaver, Heni-y, Devizes 
WeUer, Mrs. T., 22, Tamworth Road, 

Croydon, Surrey 
Were, Rev. E. A., North Bradley 

Vicarage, Trowbridge 
Whinfield, Mrs. M. A., Woodleigh, 

Bradford-on- Avon 
Willis, P. M. The Cedars, Trowbridge 
Wilson, J., M.A., Chippenham 
Winterscale, Major J. P. M., Buck- 

leigh. Westward Ho 
Wyld, Rev. C. N., St. Martin's 

Rectory, Salisbury 
Wyld, Rev. Edwin G., Mere, Wilts 
Wyndham,C. H.,Wans, Chippenham 

Yockney, A., Pockeridge, Corsham 

Zillwood, P. W., Salisbury 

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Witb a Key to the British and Roman Antiquities 
ocenrring there. 


Rector of Yateshury, and Ron. Secretary of the Wiltshire Arehaological 
and Natural History Society. 

THIS work, the materials of which have been accumulating for twenty-five 
years, is the result of innumerable rides and rambles over the Downs of 
North Wilts ; and deals with one of the most important archaeological Districts 
in Europe. It will be published and issued to subsciibers by the Marlborough 
College Natural History Society, and it will consist of two parts :— 

First.— The Great Map— IS inches by 48 inches, on the scale of 6 linear 
inches, or 36 square inches, to the mile ; it comprises 100 square miles round 
Abury, and includes the great plateau of the Downs of North Wilts, extending 
from Oliver's Camp, on Eoundway Hill, on the west, to Mildenhall on the east ; 
and from Broad Hinton on the north, to the Pewsey Vale on the south. The 
district thus mapped measures 13 miles from west to east, and 8 miles from north 
to south. Every square mile, marked ofE with faint lines, lettered with a capital 
letter and numbered, will show the Barrows, Camps, Eoads, Dykes, Enclosures, 
Cromlechs, Circles, and other British and Eoman Stone- and Earth-works of that 
district • every such relic, being lettered with a small letter in its own square, is 
readUy found and easily referred to. The Map will be printed in six colours 
viz., the Antiquities in red, the Roads in brown, the Lanes and Down Tracks in 
green, the Sarsen Stones in yellow, and the Streams and Ponds in blue. 

Second.— The Key to the Great Map,— which is by far the most important 
part of the work and will form a general " Guide to the British and Roman An- 
tiquities of North Wilts,"— will be a volume of large quarto size, and will contam 
the whole of the large Map in fifteen sections, measuring 18 inches by 12, and 
four supplementary sections, each measuring 6 inches by 12. The Letterpress 
will contain some account of each of the Antiquities, with references to and 
extracts from the best authorities, as well as figures of various Urns and other 
objects found in the Barrows, views of the Cromlechs, plans of the Camps, &c. 
An Index Map, on the scale of 1 inch to the mile, coloured, numbered, lettered, 
and divided like the Great Map, will accompany the volume ; and the whole wUl 
be a <-eneral account of the Antiquities of North Wilts, inasmuch as the district 
thus delineated embraces neariy aU the remains of eariiest times which exist in 
the northern portion of the County. 

Subscribers' names and addresses (a list of which will be published with the 
Index) will be received by the Rev. T. A. Peeston, The Green, Marlborough. 
The cost of the Large Map and Key complete will be, to Subscribers. One Guinea. 
Any copies which remain (after all the Subscribers have been served) wiU b« 
offered to the public at an advanced price, viz., for the sheets of the Great Map 
only, 10*. ; for the Key only, 20s. ; or, for the whole, 28*. 




Bath R. E. Peach, Bridge Street. 

Bristol James Fawn & Son., 18, Queen's Road. 

„ C. T. Jbffeeies & Sons, RedclifFe Street. 

Calne A. Heath & Son, Market Place. 

Chippenham R. P. Houlston, High Street. 

Cirencester Ketwoeth & Eveeard, Stamp Office. 

Devizes H. P. Bull, St. John Street. 

Marlborough E, & R. A. Lucy, Post Office. 

Melhsham Cocheane & Maggs, Bank Street. 

Oxford Jas. Paekee & Co., Broad St. 

Salisbury Beown & Co., Canal. 

Warminster B. W. Coates, Market Plac*.